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Rosén, J. S., Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L., Tolfrey, K., Arndt, A. & Bjerkefors, A. (2020). Interrater Reliability of the New Sport-Specific Evidence-Based Classification System for Para Va'a.. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, Article ID apaq.2019-0141.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interrater Reliability of the New Sport-Specific Evidence-Based Classification System for Para Va'a.
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2020 (English)In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, article id apaq.2019-0141Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to examine the interrater reliability of a new evidence-based classification system for Para Va'a. Twelve Para Va'a athletes were classified by three classifier teams each consisting of a medical and a technical classifier. Interrater reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation for the overall class allocation and total scores of trunk, leg, and on-water test batteries and by calculating Fleiss's kappa and percentage of total agreement in the individual tests of each test battery. All classifier teams agreed with the overall class allocation of all athletes, and all three test batteries exhibited excellent interrater reliability. At a test level, agreement between classifiers was almost perfect in 14 tests, substantial in four tests, moderate in four tests, and fair in one test. The results suggest that a Para Va'a athlete can expect to be allocated to the same class regardless of which classifier team conducts the classification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2020
Keywords
Paralympics, impairment, outrigger, paddling, paracanoe
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6083 (URN)10.1123/apaq.2019-0141 (DOI)32143189 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-25
Liljedahl, J. B., Bjerkefors, A., Arndt, A. & Nooijen, C. F. (2020). Para-cycling race performance in different sport classes.. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Para-cycling race performance in different sport classes.
2020 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The para-cycling classification system, consisting of five classes (C1-C5) for bicycling (C5 athletes having least impairments), is mostly based on expert-opinion rather than scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in race performance between para-cycling classes. Methods: From official results of the men's 1 km time trials for classes C1-C5 of seven Union Cycliste Internationale World Championships and Paralympics, median race speed of the five fastest athletes in each class was calculated (n = 175). Para-cycling results were expressed as a percentage of able-bodied performance using race results from the same years (n = 35). To assess differences between consecutive classes, Kruskal-Wallis tests with Mann-Whitney U post hoc tests were performed, correcting for multiple testing (p < 0.013). Results: Para-cyclists in C1 reached 75% (median ± interquartile range = 44.8 ± 4.2 km/h) and in C5 90% (53.5 ± 2.9 km/h) of able-bodied race speed (59.4 ± 0.9 km/h). Median race speed between consecutive classes was significantly different (χ2 = 142.6, p < 0.01), except for C4 (52.1 ± 2.8 km/h) and C5 (U = 447.0, p = 0.05). Conclusion: Current para-cycling classification does not clearly differentiate between classes with least impairments.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe current classification system is not evidence-based and does not clearly differentiate between relevant groups of para-cyclists.An evidence-based para-cycling classification system is essential for a fair and equitable competition.Fair competition will make it more interesting and increase participation.Para-cycling can inspire everyone with and even those without disabilities to be physically active.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
Para-cycling, classification, cycling, paralympic sports, performance
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6095 (URN)10.1080/09638288.2020.1734106 (DOI)000519734900001 ()32174176 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-24 Created: 2020-03-24 Last updated: 2020-04-08
Hegyi, A., Peter, A., Andersson, E., Arndt, A., Finni, T., Tarassova, O. & Cronin, N. J. (2019). Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Biophysics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5919 (URN)
Conference
International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Jacques, T. C., Bini, R. R. & Arndt, A. (2019). BILATERAL TENDON STRAIN DURING A 5-KM RUNNING TIME-TRIAL. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BILATERAL TENDON STRAIN DURING A 5-KM RUNNING TIME-TRIAL
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5922 (URN)
Conference
International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Péter, A., Andersson, E., Hegyi, A., Finni, T., Tarassova, O., Cronin, N., . . . Arndt, A. (2019). Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, Article ID 1283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
EMG, ankle plantar flexor muscles, bipedal locomotion, intramuscular electromyography, surface electromyography
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5900 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2019.01283 (DOI)000497364700001 ()31649557 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-12-05
Peter, A., Arndt, A., Andersson, E., Finni, T., Hegyi, A., Tarassova, O. & Cronin, N. (2019). Effect of footwear on plantar flexor fine-wire electromyography activity in walking.. In: Footwear Science. 2019 Supplement, Vol. 11, p S120-S121: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium (Kananaskis, Canada, 2019). Paper presented at Fourteenth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium, Kananaskis, Canada, July 28-30 2019 (pp. S120-S121). Taylor & Francis, 11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of footwear on plantar flexor fine-wire electromyography activity in walking.
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2019 (English)In: Footwear Science. 2019 Supplement, Vol. 11, p S120-S121: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium (Kananaskis, Canada, 2019), Taylor & Francis, 2019, Vol. 11, p. S120-S121Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
barefoot, electromyography, gait analysis, lower limb, shoe
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5822 (URN)
Conference
Fourteenth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium, Kananaskis, Canada, July 28-30 2019
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Gago, P., Arndt, A., Marques, M. C., Marinho, D. A. & Ekblom, M. (2019). Effects of post activation potentiation on electromechanical delay. Clinical Biomechanics, 70, 115-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of post activation potentiation on electromechanical delay
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2019 (English)In: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 70, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electromechanical delay (EMD) presumably depends upon both contractile and tensile factors. It has recently been used as an indirect measure of muscle tendon stiffness to study adaptations to stretching and training. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether contractile properties induced by a 6 s maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) could affect EMD without altering passive muscle tendon stiffness or stiffness index. Plantar flexor twitches were evoked via electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in eight highly trained male sprinters before and after a 6 s MVIC in passive isometric or passively shortening or lengthening muscles. For each twitch, EMD, twitch contractile properties and SOLM-Wave were measured. Passive muscle tendon stiffness was measured from the slope of the relation between torque and ankle angle during controlled passive dorsal flexion and stiffness index by curve-fitting the torque angle data using a second-order polynomial function. EMD did not differ between isometric, lengthening or shortening movements. EMD was reduced by up to 11.56 ± 5.64% immediately after the MVIC and stayed depressed for up to 60 s after conditioning. Peak twitch torque and rate of torque development were potentiated by up to 119.41 ± 37.15% and 116.06 ± 37.39%, respectively. Rising time was reduced by up to 14.46 ± 7.22%. No significant changes occurred in passive muscle tendon stiffness or stiffness index. Using a conditioning MVIC, it was shown that there was an acute enhancement of contractile muscle properties as well as a significant reduction in EMD with no corresponding changes in stiffness. Therefore, caution should be taken when using and interpreting EMD as a proxy for muscle tendon stiffness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Muscle, Twitch, Potentiation, Electromechanical delay, Stiffness
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5820 (URN)10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2019.08.001 (DOI)31476603 (PubMedID)
Note

At the time of Paulo Gago's dissertation this article was a manuscript.

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Paanalahti, M., Berzina, G., Lundgren-Nilsson, Å., Arndt, A. & Sunnerhagen, K. S. (2019). Examination of the relevance of the ICF cores set for stroke by comparing with the Stroke Impact Scale.. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(5), 508-513
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of the relevance of the ICF cores set for stroke by comparing with the Stroke Impact Scale.
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2019 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 508-513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To examine if the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set for stoke contains problems that are relevant for the persons living with stroke as expressed in the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS).

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 242 persons with previous stroke. The agreement between the perceived problems in the SIS items and problems in the categories of Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke were analyzed using percent of agreement and Kappa statistic.

RESULTS: The analyses between 57 items of the SIS and 31 second-level categories of the ICF were conducted. The problems in domains of "Mobility", "Activities of daily living", "Hand function", "Strength" in the SIS had moderate agreement when compared to ICF categories. The SIS domains of "Emotion" and "Communication", as well as some aspects of the "Memory" had slight or fair agreement with corresponding ICF categories. The results of the study suggest that there is acceptable agreement between persons after stroke and health professionals in the physical aspects, but rather poor agreement in the cognitive and emotional aspects of functioning.

CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals do not fully capture the magnitude of emotional or social problems experienced by persons after stroke when using the ICF Core Set as a framework for evaluation. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF Core Set for Stroke provides comprehensive list of possible health and health related outcomes for persons after stroke. Problems reported in condition-specific patient-reported outcome scales can be important in decision making in rehabilitation. Patients and health professionals tend to agree more on physical than cognitive problems. Examination of the relevance of the ICF cores set for stroke by comparing with the Stroke Impact Scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, Stroke, Stroke Impact Scale, core sets, perceptions
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5229 (URN)10.1080/09638288.2017.1396368 (DOI)000461520600002 ()29502463 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Dickinson, A., Arndt, A. & Rainbow, M. J. (2019). Image Resolution Affects Tracking in vivo Biplanar X-ray Images of the Human Foot During Dynamic Motion. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Image Resolution Affects Tracking in vivo Biplanar X-ray Images of the Human Foot During Dynamic Motion
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5920 (URN)
Conference
International Society of Biomechanics, Calgary, Kanada, 31 July - 4 August 2019
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Dias, C. P., Freire, B., Goulart, N. B., Dias De Castro, C., Lemos, F. D., Becker, J., . . . Vaz, M. A. (2019). Impaired mechanical properties of Achilles tendon in spastic stroke survivors: an observational study.. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 26(4), 261-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired mechanical properties of Achilles tendon in spastic stroke survivors: an observational study.
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2019 (English)In: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, ISSN 1074-9357, E-ISSN 1945-5119, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The spasticity could lead to decreased functional capacity and changes in musculoskeletal tissue.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the Achilles tendon properties between the affected and contralateral limbs of participants with spasticity due to stroke and the healthy subjects.

METHODS: Fifteen individuals with ankle spasticity due to stroke and 15 healthy subjects were recruited. Maximal isometric ankle joint torque was obtained with an isokinetic dynamometer, and an ultrasound was used to determine tendon length, tendon cross-sectional area, and the medial gastrocnemius myotendinous junction displacement. The Achilles tendon strength, displacement, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus were obtained during a maximum voluntary isometric plantarflexion contraction.

RESULTS: There were no differences between Achilles tendon length among participants. Both limbs of participants with stroke showed reduced tendon cross-sectional area (~18%) compared to healthy limb. The affected limb showed decreased tendon strength (686 ± 293.3 N), displacement (10.6 ± 1.7 mm), Young's modulus values (849 ± 235.6 MPa), and lower stiffness (196.6 ± 67.6 N/mm) compared to the contralateral limb (strength, 1357.1 ± 294.8 N; displacement, 15.2 ± 5.5 mm; Young's modulus, 1431.8 ± 301.9 MPa; stiffness, 337.5 ± 98.1 N/mm) and to the healthy limb. The contralateral limb also showed decreased tendon strength (~26.2%) and stiffness (~21.5%) compared to the healthy group.

CONCLUSION: There is a decrement in Achilles tendon morphological and mechanical properties of the affected limb in individuals with spasticity due to stroke. The contralateral limb had a thinner tendon more compliant likely to physical activity reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Muscle spasticity, elasticity imaging technique, muscle strength, paresis, tendons
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5664 (URN)10.1080/10749357.2019.1591688 (DOI)000461938700001 ()30890042 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-03-22 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1210-6449

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