Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Hagströmer, M., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Nilsson, J. & Kallings, L. (2024). Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health. BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health
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2024 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: We have previously reported on the design and efficacy of two cluster-randomized multi-level workplace interventions, attempting to decrease sedentary behavior (SED) or increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among office workers to improve mental health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate intervention effects on mental health outcomes, i.e., mental wellbeing, depression or anxiety symptoms, and stress immediately after the 6-month intervention period.

Methods: Teams of 263 office workers were cluster-randomized to one of two interventions or a waitlist control group. The PA intervention (iPA) focused on increasing MVPA and the SED intervention (iSED) on reducing SED. Both multi-level interventions targeted individual office workers and their social, physical, and organizational work environment, incorporating counseling based on cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Mental health outcomes were assessed using validated questionnaires before and immediately after the intervention. Intervention effects were analyzed using linear mixed effects models.

Results: Participants were mostly female and highly educated, with a mean age of 42 years and had favorable levels of mental health at baseline. Mental wellbeing improved for the iSED group (β = 8, 95% CI 1 to 15, p = 0.030) but not for the iPA group (β = 6, 95% CI -1 to 12, p = 0.072) compared to the control group. No effects were found for depression or anxiety symptoms or stress.

Conclusions: The multi-level interventions improved mental wellbeing among this population of office workers, reaching statistical significance in the iSED group. The size of the effect can be regarded meaningful, considering favorable mental health and high PA level at baseline. Thus, workplace interventions that provide support on multiple levels appear to have potential for improving mental wellbeing, but not reducing ill-health variables, among healthy office workers. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which such improvements can be achieved and to identify the most effective intervention components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Behavior change, Mental health, Mental wellbeing, Office workers, Physical activity, Sedentary behavior, Workplace health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8049 (URN)10.1186/s12889-024-17647-2 (DOI)001139143500010 ()38195449 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160040
Note

At the time of Lisa-Marie Larisch's dissertation, this manuscript was submitted.

Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-02-23
Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Beneficial acute effects of dietary nitrate have been demonstrated on working memory in adults, with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) being a potential mechanism. However, these effects have not been studied in adolescents. Moreover, having breakfast compared to skipping may also exhibit positive effects on working memory. Therefore, this randomized crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and changes in task-related CBF in adolescents.  Methods: This trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13–15 years old). There were three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) regular, and (3) regular breakfast with high nitrate in the form of concentrated beetroot juice. Working memory (1-, 2-, 3-back tests) and task-related CBF (prefrontal cortex oxygenated and deoxygenated-hemoglobin changes estimated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. The data collection for this study is ongoing, thus results for 35 adolescents are presented here and due to blinding of the researcher we are unable to report at this time in which condition these effects occurred, but will be revealed by the time of the conference, as well as for the results on changes in CBF.  Results: Preliminary results from the ongoing study showed that from pretest to posttest there was a statistically significant improvement in reaction time in all three conditions for all three n-back tests, but no intervention effects. Accuracy, however, improved from pretest to posttest in only one condition, for all three nback tests (β [95% confidence interval] from linear mixed-effects models with subject as random effect: 1-back 2.8[1.2-4.3], 2-back 2.6[0.9-4.2], 3-back 3.6[2.2-5.0]), and there was a tendency towards an intervention effect between this breakfast condition and another on the accuracy of the 3-back test (P for time-by-condition interaction 0.07).   Conclusions: The results from this study will increase our understanding into the effects of breakfast and its composition (i.e., nitrate-rich) on acutely improving working memory in adolescents and the potential mechanisms. In turn, the results will inform on whether policies on providing breakfast in schools should be considered to improve students' cognitive performance.

National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7794 (URN)
Conference
The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSkandias Stiftelse Idéer för livet
Note

Partners are: IKEA, Kronprinsessparets stiftelse/Generation Pep, Skanska, Coop, KFS

Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7653 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0285581 (DOI)001050599900048 ()37205681 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180040
Note

This project is supported by The Knowledge Foundation https://www.kks.se/ (20180040; ÖE, GN), and the following companies: COOP Sverige, IKEA, Skandia, Skanska, Generation Pep, and Konsumentföreningen Stockholm.

Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2024-01-26
Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7797 (URN)
Conference
ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSkandias Stiftelse Idéer för livet
Note

Partners är: IKEA, Kronprinsessparets stiftelse/Generation Pep, Skanska, Coop, KFS

Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Fernström, M., Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Pontén, M., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 112(5), 1011-1018
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents
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2023 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1011-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim

In adults, prolonged periods of sitting have been linked to acute negative effects on vascular structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of physical activity (PA) breaks during prolonged sitting on arterial stiffness, cortisol and psychological factors in adolescents.

Methods

Adolescents underwent different short (3-min) breaks starting every 20 min, during 80 min of sitting on three separate days. Breaks were (A) social seated breaks (SOC), (B) low-intensity simple resistance activity PA breaks (SRA) and (C) moderate-intensity step-up PA breaks (STEP). The arterial stiffness measures were augmentation index (AIx), AIx@75 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Cortisol was measured from saliva. Psychological factors were self-reported.

Results

Eleven girls and six boys (average age 13.6 ± 0.7 years) participated, with average baseline heart rates of 72 ± 11 bpm, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 111 ± 7/64 ± 6 mmHg and cortisol 10.9 ± 5.8 nmoL/L. PWV, cortisol and psychological factors did not change after any of the conditions. AIx@75 increased significantly (4.9 ± 8.7–9.2 ± 13.2) after the STEP intervention compared with SOC and SRA (time × condition p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Arterial stiffness increased after prolonged sitting with frequent, short step-up activity breaks. The results indicate potential important intensity-dependent effects of physical activity on vascular regulation in youth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
AIx, PWV, activity breaks, adolescents, arterial stiffness, cortisol
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7487 (URN)10.1111/apa.16702 (DOI)000933114700001 ()36740937 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160040
Note

Additional funding information: COOP Sweden, IKEA, Skandia, Skanska, Generation Pep, and Stockholm Consumer Cooperative Society

Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Wiklund, C. & Wang, R. (2023). Environmental and genetic contributions to device-based measures of physical activity in Swedish 9-year-olds.. In: : . Paper presented at ISBNPA, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, June 14-17, 2023, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and genetic contributions to device-based measures of physical activity in Swedish 9-year-olds.
2023 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8062 (URN)
Conference
ISBNPA, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, June 14-17, 2023, Uppsala, Sweden
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Blackwood, S. J., Horwath, O., Moberg, M., Pontén, M., Apro, W., Ekblom, M., . . . Katz, A. (2023). Insulin resistance after a 3-day fast is associated with an increased capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize lipids.. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 324(5), E390-E401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulin resistance after a 3-day fast is associated with an increased capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize lipids.
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2023 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 324, no 5, p. E390-E401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a debate on whether lipid-mediated insulin resistance derives from an increased or decreased capacity of muscle to oxidize fats. Here we examine the involvement of muscle fiber composition in the metabolic responses to a 3-day fast (starvation, which results in increases in plasma lipids and insulin resistance) in two groups of healthy young subjects: 1, area occupied by type I fibers = 61.0 ± 11.8%; 2, type I area = 36.0 ± 4.9% (P<0.001). Muscle biopsies and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed after an overnight fast and after starvation. Biopsies were analyzed for muscle fiber composition and mitochondrial respiration. Indices of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were determined. Glucose tolerance was similar in both groups after an overnight fast and deteriorated to a similar degree in both groups after starvation. In contrast, whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased markedly after starvation in group 1 (P<0.01), whereas the decrease in group 2 was substantially smaller (P=0.06). Non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate levels in plasma after an overnight fast were similar between groups and increased markedly and comparably in both groups after starvation, demonstrating similar degrees of lipid load. The capacity of permeabilized muscle fibers to oxidize lipids was significantly higher in group 1 vs. 2, whereas there was no significant difference in pyruvate oxidation between groups. The data demonstrate that loss of whole-body insulin sensitivity after short-term starvation is a function of muscle fiber composition and is associated with an elevated rather than a diminished capacity of muscle to oxidize lipids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2023
Keywords
glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, mitochondrial respiration, muscle fiber composition, starvation
National Category
Physiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7521 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00317.2022 (DOI)000974241700002 ()36791323 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-03-03 Created: 2023-03-03 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Ekblom, M., Hillman, C. & Rattray, B. (2023). Physical activity for cognitive health across the lifespan: when, what and how?. In: : . Paper presented at 28th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 4-7 July 2023, Paris, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity for cognitive health across the lifespan: when, what and how?
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Physical activity for cognitive health across the lifespan: when, what and how?

Physical activity appears crucial to wellbeing, and is commonly linked to our physical health. Increasingly however, physical activity is acknowledged to also play a crucial role for mental, cognitive, and brain health throughout the lifespan. Speakers in this session will address the role of physical activity across three broad life stages, childhood, adulthood and older age. The session will present the evidence around physical activity for cognitive and brain health, and considerations for what and how physical activity can be delivered for optimal outcomes at different life stages.

Physical activity may benefit mental, cognitive, and brain health through several mechanisms. Reducing potential harm through chronic disease reduction, transiently improving mood via alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, providing a means for skill development and social interaction, and bathing the brain in a rich neurotropic environment are the main means through which cognitive benefits from physical activity are proposed.

The impact of physical activity on cognitive and brain function can be also considered from both an acute and chronic perspective. Beneficial chronic adaptations may come from the repeated exposure to positive acute physical activity responses, but how should physical activity be dosed for these important long-term benefits? This session will provide the latest updates in the area and suggest future directions for the field to emerge.

Speaker 1

Title:  Physical activity effects on cognitive and brain health in school age children Speaker Last Name: HillmanSpeaker First Name: CharlesSex: MaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: Northeastern UniversityDepartment: Psychology; Physical Therapy, Movement, & Rehabilitation SciencesCountry: USAEmail: c.hillman@northeastern.edu

Physical activity (PA) can improve physical, mental, cognitive, and brain health throughout the lifespan. During childhood, the benefits of PA for cognitive and brain health have been increasingly studied, with evidence indicating enhanced executive function and improved academic performance, along with adaptations to underlying brain structure and function in specific regions and networks that support these aspects of cognition. Such findings are especially relevant given that there is a growing public health burden of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity, excessive energy intake) among children of industrialized nations. In recent years, children have become increasingly inactive, leading to concomitant increases in the prevalence of being overweight and unfit. Poor PA behaviors during childhood often track throughout life and have implications for the prevalence of several chronic diseases during adulthood. Particularly troubling is the absence of public health concern for the effect of physical inactivity on cognitive and brain health. It is curious that this has not emerged as a larger societal issue, given its clear relation to childhood obesity and other health disorders that have captured public attention. 

Relative to cognitive and brain health, the literature has predominantly focused on preadolescent children, with a comparatively smaller body of evidence in preschool age and adolescent children. Such a contrast is even more striking relative to the use of neuroimaging tools to assess PA on brain health. To date, the vast majority of neuroimaging studies have investigated preadolescent children, using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and found that PA and aerobic fitness benefit neural structures and networks that support executive function and memory, including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Such findings have been linked to cognitive outcomes including aspects of executive function such as inhibition, working memory, and mental flexibility as well as other cognitive outcomes including relational memory and academic achievement.

Despite evidence that PA promotes cognitive and brain health during development, a growing number of schools have minimized PA opportunities across the school day. Accordingly, this generation of children have become increasingly inactive, contributing to public health and educational concerns. By dedicating time to active play, sports, physical education, and other forms of PA, children are best-positioned to thrive in both the physical and cognitive domains. Such discoveries are timely and important for public health concerns related to chronic disease prevention as a function of childhood inactivity and obesity. These findings link pervasive societal concerns with brain health and cognition, and have implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

Speaker 2

Title:  Building a cognitive reserve during adulthood: what is the prescription? Speaker Last Name: RattraySpeaker First Name: BenSex: MaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: University of CanberraDepartment: Sport and Exercise ScienceCountry: AustraliaEmail: ben.rattray@canberra.edu.au 

During adulthood, healthy individuals typically report few cognitive complaints. As a result, the role of physical activity in cognitive health either receives little attention or finds very few relationships. This is likely also a result of the cognitive engagement many adults have through education, vocational, and social settings. There are however observations that physical activity during adulthood does impact later life. Physical activity for cognitive health during early and middle adulthood therefore focuses on general health, reducing the potential harm to brain structures and processes that are associated with several lifestyle-related diseases.

Outside of reducing harm through physical health, physical activity may play a crucial role in building a cognitive reserve, potentially improving cognitive performance, but importantly protecting against later-life declines. Taking advantage of physical activity benefits, such as increases in cerebral blood flow and neurotrophic factors, offers an opportunity to maximise neural plasticity. In this session optimising the dose characteristics of physical activity will be discussed.

Interventions that specifically attempt to take advantage of plasticity-supporting physical activity are those that ensure cognitive activity is in close temporal proximity. Sequentially- or concurrently-programming physical exercise with a cognitive intervention are gaining popularity, with most evidence currently in older adults. This session will provide an update on the latest evidence for concurrent training in healthy adulthood.

It is hypothesized that an increased availability of factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor during targeted cognitive interventions improve the gains that such training can provide. However, depending on the outcome, some propose that concurrent activity may also work through the combination of effortful behaviours impacting individuals’ capacity, or tolerance for work. This fatigue-linked pathway may also impact cognitive health when engaged over longer periods, or when individuals are asked to report subjective cognitive complaints. These potential pathways will also be discussed in terms of informing the when, what, and how of physical activity interventions for cognitive health.

Speaker 3

Title:  How physical activity affects cognitive health in older adultsSpeaker Last Name: EkblomSpeaker First Name: MariaSex: FemaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: Swedish School of Sport and Health SciencesDepartment: Physical Activity and HealthCountry: SwedenEmail: maria.ekblom@gih.se 

There is consistent evidence to suggest that being more fit in young adulthood is associated to having better cognitive function in both young and older adulthood. We also know that being aerobically high fit is associated with having executive abilities that make it easier to attain and sustain healthy habits. While such information may be interesting, it tells us very little on whether physical activity promotion among low fit inactive individuals might have a positive influence on their future cognitive health. In midlife, lack of time is a commonly perceived barrier towards physical activity. Still, as we retire, individuals who were inactive in midlife tend to stay inactive after retiring, despite now having more spare time at hand. When preaching that it is never too late, we need to take care not to shame those whose shoes we have not walked in. Remember, that although we have all equal human value, we have different opportunities, both genetically and in terms of socioeconomic circumstances. 

When we compare the brain health of senior athletes to that of their less active peers, this is not helping anyone. That is why I prefer randomized controlled trials for the purpose of figuring out what type of exercise might work for whom. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability evaluated whether a 2-year multicomponent intervention with exercise, cognitive training, diet and vascular risk monitoring could slow down the cognitive decline in an at-risk population. They show that such intervention actually can have small effects on the trajectories of cognitive decline, but we are still not close to understanding what the active component is. Large scale exercise RCTs using advanced neuroimaging to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms are under way, but these are very expensive. Major breakthroughs in plasma biomarkers of neurodegenerative disease progression have been exposed recently. Such new techniques should be exploited in future RCTs by researchers who want to investigate if support to increased physical activity can really change the cognitive trajectories of physically inactive individuals who want to spare their brain health. This presentation will explore our current understanding of how and physical activity affects cognitive health in older adults and suggest new avenues of exploration.

National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8061 (URN)
Conference
28th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 4-7 July 2023, Paris, France
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20210002
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Short, frequent physical activity breaks improve working memory in adolescents during prolonged sitting (AbbaH teen study). In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short, frequent physical activity breaks improve working memory in adolescents during prolonged sitting (AbbaH teen study)
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Physical activity breaks in schools have been suggested as a promising strategy to acutely improve cognitive performance in children and adolescents. Most previous studies have explored the effects of single physical activity bouts, but they are infeasible in a school setting (e.g. long duration/high-intensity or requiring equipment/space). Further, studies investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms in adolescents arel acking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short, frequent physical activity breaks of different intensities on adolescents’ working memory (WM) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during prolonged sitting.

Methods: This randomized crossover study was performed in adolescents (13-15 years of age). In 80-minute sessions, one of the following types of breaks was performed four times in three minutes durations on three different days: simple resistance training (SRA), step-up at a pre-determined pace (STEP), or remaining seated (SOCIAL). Before and after each session, WM (accuracy and reaction time during the 1,2,3-back test) were measured, with simultaneous measurement of task-related CBF (assessed by prefrontal oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Analysis of CBF is ongoing and will be presented at the conference.

Results: A total of 17 students participated (mean age 13.6 years, 11 girls). In the most demanding task (3-back) the following results were seen: improvement in reaction time following SRA (-30.1, p=0.04) and STEP (-34.3 ms, p=0.05) and no improvement following prolonged sitting. We also found a moderating effect (p <0.01) of WM performance at baseline (using a mean split), such that students with poor WM significantly improved their accuracy and reaction time following the higher-intensity breaks (STEP) while students with high performance did not.

Conclusion: We found that implementing physical activity breaks of both moderate and high intensities was beneficial for WM performance. For students with low WM performance, high-intensity breaks were more beneficial. Implementing physical activity breaks during periods of prolonged sitting, such as long school classes could improve the students’ cognitive performance. However, future studies should investigate if these breaks are feasible, acceptable, and beneficial to implement in the school setting.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7798 (URN)
Conference
The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSkandias Stiftelse Idéer för livetThe Kamprad Family FoundationSwedish ESF Council (Council of the European Social Fund in Sweden)
Note

Partners är: IKEA, Kronprinsessparets stiftelse/Generation Pep, Storytel, SATS, Permobil

Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J., Ekblom, M., Moberg, M. & Lövdén, M. (2023). The role of acute changes in mBDNF, cortisol and pro-BDNF in predicting cognitive performance in old age.. Scientific Reports, 13(1), Article ID 9418.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of acute changes in mBDNF, cortisol and pro-BDNF in predicting cognitive performance in old age.
2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 9418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interplay between biomarkers of relevance to neuroplasticity and its association with learning and cognitive ability in old age remains poorly understood. The present study investigated acute changes in plasma concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), its precursor protein (pro-BDNF), and cortisol, in response to acute physical exercise and cognitive training interventions, their covariation and role in predicting cognitive performance. Confirmatory results provided no support for mBDNF, pro-BDNF and cortisol co-varying over time, as the acute interventions unfolded, but did confirm a positive association between mBDNF and pro-BDNF at rest. The confirmatory results did not support the hypothesis that mBDNF change following physical exercise were counteracted by temporally coupled changes in cortisol or pro-BDNF, or by cortisol at rest, in its previously demonstrated faciliatory effect on cognitive training outcome. Exploratory results instead provided indications of a general and trait-like cognitive benefit of exhibiting greater mBDNF responsiveness to acute interventions when coupled with lesser cortisol responsiveness, greater pro-BDNF responsiveness, and lower cortisol at rest. As such, the results call for future work to test whether certain biomarker profiles are associated with preserved cognition in old age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2023
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7671 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-35847-5 (DOI)001006690200060 ()37296176 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26
Projects
Physical readiness, brain health in military training and duty [AF9220916]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHPhysical activity and healthy brain functions in office workers [KK 20160040]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Hagströmer, M., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Nilsson, J. & Kallings, L. (2024). Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health. BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 127. Larisch, L.-M., Kallings, L., Thedin Jakobsson, B. & Blom, V. (2023). “It depends on the boss”: A qualitative study of multi-level interventions aiming at office workers’ movement behavior and mental health. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 18(1), Article ID 2258564. Larisch, L.-M. (2023). Movement behavior and mental health in office workers: Associations and intervention effects. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIHEkblom, M., Bojsen-Møller, E., Blom, V., Tarassova, O., Moberg, M., Pontén, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2022). Acute effects of physical activity patterns on plasma cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in relation to corticospinal excitability.. Behavioural Brain Research, 430, Article ID 113926. Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Kallings, L. & Thedin Jakobsson, B. (2022). Changing movement behavior for improving mental health among office workers: A qualitative study on acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of two RCT interventions. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Phoenix, May 18-21, 2022. Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V. & Kallings, L. (2022). Effectiveness of two randomized and controlled multi-component interventions on 24-h movement behavior and mental health outcomes among office workers. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Phoenix, Arizona, USA, May 18-21. Bojsen-Møller, E. (2022). Movement Behaviors and Cognitive Health for Office Workers. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIHBojsen-Møller, E., Wang, R., Nilsson, J., Heiland, E. G., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Kallings, L. & Ekblom, M. (2022). The effect of two multi-component behavior change interventions on cognitive functions.. BMC Public Health, 22(1), Article ID 1082. Wang, R., Ekblom, M., Arvidsson, D., Fridolfsson, J., Börjesson, M. & Ekblom, Ö. (2022). The interrelationship between physical activity intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in middle-aged adults: An observational study of office workers.. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 1035521. Wang, R., Blom, V., Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Ekblom, Ö. & Ekblom, M. M. (2022). The Role of Executive Function in the Effectiveness of Multi-Component Interventions Targeting Physical Activity Behavior in Office Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 266-266
Physical Activity for Healthy Brain Functions in School Youth [KK 20180040]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848. Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581. Yman, J., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica, 112(3), 452-459Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Ekblom, Ö. (2023). COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1115789. Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 380. Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023. Fernström, M., Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Pontén, M., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 112(5), 1011-1018Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Has COVID-19 led to changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents?: A cohort study. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Thedin Jakobsson, B., Hoy, S., Lunde, C. & Larsson, H. (2023). Physical Activity during the School Day: A Case Study in Swedish School for Students with Special Needs.. In: : . Paper presented at European Educational Research Association (ECER) Glasgow, den 22- 25 Augusti 2023..
School project for brain health - A school-based intervention to improve mental health, cognitive function, academic performance in adolescents; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Farias, L., Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B. & Andermo, S. (2023). Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 1631. Andermo, S., Helgadóttir, B., Ekblom, Ö., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2021). Extra schemalagd fysisk aktivitet i högstadiet: en väg framåt?. In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3: . Paper presented at Idrottsmedicinskt höstmöte, Malmö, 30 sept - 1 okt 2021.
E-PABS - a centre of Excellence in Physical Activity, healthy Brain functions and Sustainability [20210002 01 H]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848. Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581. Farias, L., Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B. & Andermo, S. (2023). Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 1631. Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788Yman, J., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica, 112(3), 452-459Wu, J., Xiong, Y., Xia, X., Orsini, N., Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., . . . Wang, R. (2023). Can dementia risk be reduced by following the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7?: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.. Ageing Research Reviews, 83, Article ID 101788. Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Ekblom, Ö. (2023). COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1115789. Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 380. Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023.
The twin project – Twin-based studies on the importance of genes and environment in associations between physical activity patterns and brain health in adolescents; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Wiklund, C. & Wang, R. (2023). Environmental and genetic contributions to device-based measures of physical activity in Swedish 9-year-olds.. In: : . Paper presented at ISBNPA, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, June 14-17, 2023, Uppsala, Sweden.
Physiological and psychological effect of physical activity in patients with burnout; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHPlasma markers of neurodegeneration, cognition and physical activity in healthy aging; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHMuscle to brain cross-talk in the molecular regulation of neuroplasticity [M21-0134_Åke Wiberg]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHActivity breaks for brain health in wheelchair users; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHWhat can motor function tell us about cognitive aging and dementia? A multidisciplinary approach towards precision medicine [VR 2022-01404]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788Wu, J., Xiong, Y., Xia, X., Orsini, N., Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., . . . Wang, R. (2023). Can dementia risk be reduced by following the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7?: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.. Ageing Research Reviews, 83, Article ID 101788. Wang, R., Dekhtyar, S. & Wang, H.-X. (2023). Cognitive Reserve: A Life-Course Perspective. In: Petrosini, Laura (Ed.), Neurobiological and Psychological Aspects of Brain Recovery: (pp. 121-135). Springer Publishing Company
Exploring neighbourhood effects on aging: An opportunity for enhancing brain health across the lifespan [KK 20220202]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788
ExStress - Exercise Intensity on Brain and Mental Health in Stress; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7879-9188

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