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Larsson, K., Kallings, L., Ekblom, Ö., Blom, V., Andersson, E. & Ekblom, M. (2019). Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.. BMC Public Health, 19(1), Article ID 19:17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adults, Office-based work, Older adults, Reliability, Sedentary behaviour, Sitting, Validity, activPAL
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5520 (URN)10.1186/s12889-018-6329-1 (DOI)30611226 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08
Nooijen, C. F., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Ekblom, M. & Kallings, L. (2019). Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 266.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Physically inactive and sedentary lifestyles are negatively related to both mental health and cognition. For office-workers, who spend two-thirds of their workday sitting, it is important to improve these lifestyles. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, incorporating individual, environmental and organizational changes, to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior among office-workers in order to improve mental health and cognition.

Methods

a 3-arm, clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with waiting list control group amongst adult office-workers of two large Swedish companies. Cluster teams will be randomized into 6-month interventions or to a passive waiting list control group which will receive the allocated intervention with a 6-month delay. Two multicomponent interventions will be studied of which one focuses on improving physical activity and the other on reducing sedentary behavior. Both interventions include 5 sessions of motivational counselling. In the physical activity intervention persons also get access to a gym and team leaders will organize lunch walks and encourage to exercise. In the sedentary behavior intervention standing- and walking meetings will be implemented and team leaders will encourage to reduce sitting. The recruitment target is 110 office-workers per arm (330 in total). Measurements will be repeated every 6months for a total intended duration of 24months. Proximal main outcomes are physical activity measured with accelerometers and sedentary behavior with inclinometers. Distal outcomes are self-reported mental health and a cognition test battery. Additional outcomes will include cardiovascular fitness, body composition, sleep, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, other health habits, physical health, and working mechanisms from blood samples and questionnaires.

Discussion

This cluster RCT will contribute to the currently available evidence by comparing the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behavior with the end goal of improving mental health and cognition. This study is strong in its cluster randomized design, numerous objective outcome measures and long-term follow-up. The exact content of the interventions has been defined by combining theory with results from a larger research project as well as having a continuous dialogue with the involved companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5646 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-6589-4 (DOI)000460405200003 ()30836957 (PubMedID)
Projects
Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner: Delprojekt 3, Långsiktiga interventioner
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-21
Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Forsell, Y. & Ekblom, M. (2018). Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4), Article ID E792.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id E792Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

Keywords
barriers, facilitators, office workers, sedentary behaviour, workplace
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5262 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15040792 (DOI)000434868800231 ()29670047 (PubMedID)
Projects
Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner: Delprojekt 1, Tvärsnittsstudie
Available from: 2018-05-25 Created: 2018-05-25 Last updated: 2018-11-22
Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Forsell, Y. & Ekblom, M. (2018). Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers. In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1: . Paper presented at 7th International Society for Physical Activity and Health Congress, London, England, October 15 to October 17, 2018 (pp. S94-S95). Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 15(10)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, no 10, p. S94-S95Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5513 (URN)000446516100316 ()
Conference
7th International Society for Physical Activity and Health Congress, London, England, October 15 to October 17, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
da Silva, J. C., Ekblom, M., Tarassova, O., Andersson, E., Rönquist, G., Grundström, H. & Arndt, A. (2018). Effect of increasing workload on knee extensor and flexor muscular activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.. PLoS ONE, 13(8), Article ID e0201014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of increasing workload on knee extensor and flexor muscular activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0201014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of increasing workload on individual thigh muscle activation during a 20 minute incremental cycling test. Intramuscular electromyographic signals were recorded from the knee extensors rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and the knee flexors semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and the short and long heads of the biceps femoris during increasing workloads. Mean activation levels were compared over the whole pedaling cycle and the crank angles at which onset and offset of activation and peak activity occurred were identified for each muscle. These data were compared between three workloads. EMG activation level significantly increased (p<0.05) with increasing workload in the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus and semimembranosus but not in the biceps femoris short head. A significant change in activation timing was found for the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and semitendinosus. Of the knee flexors only the short head of the biceps femoris had its peak activity during the upstroke phase at the two highest workloads indicating a unique contribution to knee flexion.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5379 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0201014 (DOI)000440778600023 ()30071032 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-04
Ekblom, M., Blom, V., Ekblom, Ö., Kallings, L. & Nooijen, C. F. (2018). Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa. Fysioterapi (5), 32-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa
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2018 (Swedish)In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning. Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga många former av ohälsa, men vilka fysiska aktivitetsmönster som gynnar psykisk hälsa och kognitiva förmågor är fortfarande okänt. Denna typ av forskning är komplex och kräver samarbete med många olika aktörer i samhället.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5452 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Pantzar, A., Jonasson, L. S., Ekblom, Ö., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Ekblom, M. (2018). Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 2612.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: 1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and 2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span. Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL•kg-1•min-1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n=121), moderate (n=119), and high (n=122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2max for inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL•kg-1•min-1 (multivariate broken line regressions). Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL•kg-1•min-1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers, 2018
National Category
Psychology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5510 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02612 (DOI)000453917400001 ()30619011 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-01-09
Väisänen, D., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Andersson, E. (2018). Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population. In: : . Paper presented at ACSM Conference on Integrative Physiology of Exercise. September 05 - 08, 2018, San Diego, California.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5573 (URN)
Conference
ACSM Conference on Integrative Physiology of Exercise. September 05 - 08, 2018, San Diego, California
Available from: 2019-01-20 Created: 2019-01-20 Last updated: 2019-01-20Bibliographically approved
da Silva, J. C., Tarassova, O., Ekblom, M., Andersson, E., Rönquist, G. & Arndt, A. (2016). Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(9), 1807-1817
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, no 9, p. 1807-1817Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe thigh muscle activation during cycling using intramuscular electromyographic recordings of eight thigh muscles, including the biceps femoris short head (BFS) and the vastus intermedius (Vint).

METHODS: Nine experienced cyclists performed an incremental test (start at 170 W and increased by 20 W every 2 min) on a bicycle ergometer either for a maximum of 20 min or to fatigue. Intramuscular electromyography (EMG) of eight muscles and kinematic data of the right lower limb were recorded during the last 20 s in the second workload (190 W). EMG data were normalized to the peak activity occurring during this workload. Statistical significance was assumed at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: The vastii showed a greater activation during the 1st quadrant compared to other quadrants. The rectus femoris (RF) showed a similar activation, but with two bursts in the 1st and 4th quadrants in three subjects. This behavior may be explained by the bi-articular function during the cycling movement. Both the BFS and Vint were activated longer than, but in synergy with their respective agonistic superficial muscles.

CONCLUSION: Intramuscular EMG was used to verify muscle activation during cycling. The activation pattern of deep muscles (Vint and BFS) could, therefore, be described and compared to that of the more superficial muscles. The complex coordination of quadriceps and hamstring muscles during cycling was described in detail.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4517 (URN)10.1007/s00421-016-3428-5 (DOI)000384214300018 ()27448605 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Frank, P., Andersson, E., Pontén, M., Ekblom, B., Ekblom, M. & Sahlin, K. (2016). Strength training improves muscle aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance in elderly. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26(7), 764-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strength training improves muscle aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance in elderly
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 764-773Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term resistance training (RET) on mitochondrial protein content and glucose tolerance in elderly. Elderly women and men (age 71 ± 1, mean ± SEM) were assigned to a group performing 8 weeks of resistance training (RET, n = 12) or no training (CON, n = 9). The RET group increased in (i) knee extensor strength (concentric +11 ± 3%, eccentric +8 ± 3% and static +12 ± 3%), (ii) initial (0-30 ms) rate of force development (+52 ± 26%) and (iii) contents of proteins related to signaling of muscle protein synthesis (Akt +69 ± 20 and mammalian target of rapamycin +69 ± 32%). Muscle fiber type composition changed to a more oxidative profile in RET with increased amount of type IIa fibers (+26.9 ± 6.8%) and a trend for decreased amount of type IIx fibers (-16.4 ± 18.2%, P = 0.068). Mitochondrial proteins (OXPHOS complex II, IV, and citrate synthase) increased in RET by +30 ± 11%, +99 ± 31% and +29 ± 8%, respectively. RET resulted in improved oral glucose tolerance measured as reduced area under curve for glucose (-21 ± 26%) and reduced plasma glucose 2 h post-glucose intake (-14 ± 5%). In CON parameters were unchanged or impaired. In conclusion, short-term resistance training in elderly not only improves muscular strength, but results in robust increases in several parameters related to muscle aerobic capacity.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3501 (URN)10.1111/sms.12537 (DOI)000379758500006 ()26271931 (PubMedID)
Note

At the time of Per Frank's dissertation this article was accepted.

Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7879-9188

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