Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Baldanzi, G., Sayols-Baixeras, S., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Dekkers, K. F., Hammar, U., . . . Fall, T. (2024). Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.. EBioMedicine, 100, Article ID 104989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.
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2024 (English)In: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 100, article id 104989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and the gut microbiota have relied on self-reported activity, prone to reporting bias. Here, we investigated the associations of accelerometer-based sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity (VPA) physical activity with the gut microbiota using cross-sectional data from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study.

METHODS: In 8416 participants aged 50-65, time in SED, MPA, and VPA were estimated with hip-worn accelerometer. Gut microbiota was profiled using shotgun metagenomics of faecal samples. We applied multivariable regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and technical covariates, and accounted for multiple testing.

FINDINGS: Overall, associations between time in SED and microbiota species abundance were in opposite direction to those for MPA or VPA. For example, MPA was associated with lower, while SED with higher abundance of Escherichia coli. MPA and VPA were associated with higher abundance of the butyrate-producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. We observed discrepancies between specific VPA and MPA associations, such as a positive association between MPA and Prevotella copri, while no association was detected for VPA. Additionally, SED, MPA and VPA were associated with the functional potential of the microbiome. For instance, MPA was associated with higher capacity for acetate synthesis and SED with lower carbohydrate degradation capacity.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that sedentary and physical activity are associated with a similar set of gut microbiota species but in opposite directions. Furthermore, the intensity of physical activity may have specific effects on certain gut microbiota species.

FUNDING: European Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

Keywords
Accelerometery, Epidemiology, Exercise, Gastrointestinal microbiome, Sedentary behaviour
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8120 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2024.104989 (DOI)38301483 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22
Kobayashi Frisk, M., Fagman, E., Arvidsson, D., Ekblom, Ö., Börjesson, M., Bergström, G. & Zou, D. (2024). Eveningness is associated with coronary artery calcification in a middle-aged Swedish population. Sleep Medicine, 113, 370-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eveningness is associated with coronary artery calcification in a middle-aged Swedish population
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2024 (English)In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 113, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an established imaging biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but its relationship to diurnal preference is not well studied. We investigated the association between chronotype and CAC in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort. Participants aged 50–64 years were randomly recruited and underwent extensive examination including imaging and accelerometry-assessed physical activity. 771 participants (47.3 % male, 57.6 ± 4.4 years) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. CAC was assessed by non-contrast computed tomography, and a CAC score > 10 was considered significant calcification. Self-assessed chronotype was classified as extreme morning, moderate morning, intermediate, moderate evening, or extreme evening. 10-year risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease was estimated by the Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation 2 (SCORE2). Significant CAC was present in 29 % of the cohort. CAC prevalence increased from extreme morning to extreme evening type (22 %, 28 %, 29 %, 27 %, 41 % respectively, p = 0.018). In a multivariate logistic regression model controlling for confounders, extreme evening chronotype was independently associated with increased CAC prevalence compared to extreme morning type (OR 1.90, [95%CI 1.04–3.46], p = 0.037). When stratified by SCORE2 risk category (low: <5 %; moderate: 5 to <10 %; high: ≥10 %), significant CAC was most prevalent among extreme evening chronotypes in the low and moderate-risk groups, while chronotype seemed less important in the high-risk group (p = 0.011, p = 0.023, p = 0.86, respectively). Our findings suggest circadian factors may play an important role in atherosclerosis and should be considered in early cardiovascular prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Accelerometry, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular risk, Chronotype, Circadian disruption, Population-based, Prevention, SCORE2, Socioeconomic status
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8003 (URN)10.1016/j.sleep.2023.11.004 (DOI)001147674300001 ()38118325 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22
Arvidsson, D., Fridolfsson, J., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2024). Fundament for a methodological standard to process hip accelerometer data to a measure of physical activity intensity in middle-aged individuals.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 34(1), Article ID e14541.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundament for a methodological standard to process hip accelerometer data to a measure of physical activity intensity in middle-aged individuals.
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2024 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, no 1, article id e14541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of a methodological standard to process accelerometer data to measures of physical activity, which impairs data quality and comparability. This study investigated the effect of different combinations of settings of multiple processing components, on the measure of physical activity and the association with measures of cardiometabolic health in an unselected population of middle-aged individuals.

METHODS: Free-living hip accelerometer data, aerobic fitness, body mass index, HDL:total cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure were achieved from 4391 participants 50-64 years old included in The Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) baseline measurement (cross-sectional). Lab data were also included for calibration of accelerometers to provide comparable measure of physical activity intensity and time spent in different intensity categories, as well as to enhance understanding. The accelerometer data processing components were hardware recalibration, frequency filtering, number of accelerometer axes, epoch length, wear time criterium, time composition (min/24 h vs. % of wear time). Partial least regression and ordinary least regression were used for the association analyses.

RESULTS: The setting of frequency filter had the strongest effect on the physical activity intensity measure and time distribution in different intensity categories followed by epoch length and number of accelerometer axes. Wear time criterium and recalibration of accelerometer data were less important. The setting of frequency filter and epoch length also showed consistent important effect on the associations with the different measures of cardiometabolic health, while the effect of recalibration, number of accelerometer axes, wear time criterium and expression of time composition was less consistent and less important. There was a large range in explained variance of the measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of processing settings, for example, 12.1%-20.8% for aerobic fitness and 5.8%-14.0% for body mass index.

CONCLUSIONS: There was a large variation in the physical activity intensity measure and the association with different measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of settings of accelerometer data processing components. The results provide a fundament for a standard to process hip accelerometer data to assess the physical activity in middle-aged populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
accelerometer, cardiometabolic health, method, physical activity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7967 (URN)10.1111/sms.14541 (DOI)001107489300001 ()37985378 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active
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2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, article id 1236848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

The family is assumed to be fundamental in youth socialization processes and development, connected to social and cultural practices such as healthy lifestyles and physical activity. However, gender patterns in physical activity among adolescents and the structural drivers of gender inequality (e.g., parentage and siblingship) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore further how gender structures relate to adolescents' time spent being sedentary and physically active, using contemporary gender theory.

Methods

This cross-sectional study involved 1,139 adolescents aged 13-14 and their parents, including 815 mothers and 572 fathers. Physical activity and time spent sedentary were assessed through accelerometry among adolescents and through a self-report questionnaire for parents validated against accelerometry.

Results

The results showed significant relationships between mothers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and girls' MVPA on weekdays and weekends, and fathers' MVPA was significantly related to girls' MVPA on weekdays. Our results imply that the relationship between Swedish parents' and adolescent girls' physical activity in higher intensities are to some extent gendered practices. However, time spent sedentary does not seem to show any patterns of being performed according to binary ideas of gender. Further, our exploratory analyses suggest that these results somewhat intersect with parents' educational level and relate to intra-categorical aspects of doing gender. The results also indicate slight gendered patterns in the “doing” of brotherhood for time spent sedentary, however, for boys only on weekends.

Discussion 

The study contributes to the understanding of gender norms as constraints and enablers for adolescents' participation in physical activity. The results can spur public health and physical activity research to apply a contemporary gender theory approach, and to expand the research agenda connected to what relates to gender inequalities in physical activity practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2024
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8126 (URN)10.3389/fspor.2024.1236848 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22
Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Hagströmer, M., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Nilsson, J. & Kallings, L. (2024). Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health. BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health
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2024 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: We have previously reported on the design and efficacy of two cluster-randomized multi-level workplace interventions, attempting to decrease sedentary behavior (SED) or increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among office workers to improve mental health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate intervention effects on mental health outcomes, i.e., mental wellbeing, depression or anxiety symptoms, and stress immediately after the 6-month intervention period.

Methods: Teams of 263 office workers were cluster-randomized to one of two interventions or a waitlist control group. The PA intervention (iPA) focused on increasing MVPA and the SED intervention (iSED) on reducing SED. Both multi-level interventions targeted individual office workers and their social, physical, and organizational work environment, incorporating counseling based on cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Mental health outcomes were assessed using validated questionnaires before and immediately after the intervention. Intervention effects were analyzed using linear mixed effects models.

Results: Participants were mostly female and highly educated, with a mean age of 42 years and had favorable levels of mental health at baseline. Mental wellbeing improved for the iSED group (β = 8, 95% CI 1 to 15, p = 0.030) but not for the iPA group (β = 6, 95% CI -1 to 12, p = 0.072) compared to the control group. No effects were found for depression or anxiety symptoms or stress.

Conclusions: The multi-level interventions improved mental wellbeing among this population of office workers, reaching statistical significance in the iSED group. The size of the effect can be regarded meaningful, considering favorable mental health and high PA level at baseline. Thus, workplace interventions that provide support on multiple levels appear to have potential for improving mental wellbeing, but not reducing ill-health variables, among healthy office workers. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which such improvements can be achieved and to identify the most effective intervention components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Behavior change, Mental health, Mental wellbeing, Office workers, Physical activity, Sedentary behavior, Workplace health promotion
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8049 (URN)10.1186/s12889-024-17647-2 (DOI)001139143500010 ()38195449 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160040
Note

At the time of Lisa-Marie Larisch's dissertation, this manuscript was submitted.

Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-02-23
Ekblom Bak, E., Börjesson, M., Ekblom, Ö., Angerås, O., Bergman, F., Berntsson, C., . . . Jernberg, T. (2023). Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study.. BMJ Open, 13(11), Article ID e073380.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study.
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2023 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e073380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim included investigation of the associations between sedentary (SED), low-intensity physical activity (LIPA), moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids and the estimated difference in prevalence by theoretical reallocation of time in different PA behaviours.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

SETTING: Multisite study at university hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 670 participants without cardiovascular disease (51% women, 57.4 years, SD 4.3) from the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage study were included. SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed by hip-worn accelerometer.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Any and significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (CA), Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) and carotid atherosclerosis (CarA) were derived from imaging data from coronary CT angiography and carotid ultrasound.

RESULTS: High daily SED (>70% ≈10.5 hours/day) associated with a higher OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), for significant CA, and with lower OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.95), for significant CarA. High LIPA (>55% ≈8 hours/day) associated with lower OR for significant CA 0.70 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.96), and CACS, 0.71 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.97), but with higher OR for CarA 1.41 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.76). MVPA above reference level, >2% ≈20 min/day, associated with lower OR for significant CA (OR range 0.61-0.67), CACS (OR range 0.71-0.75) and CarA (OR range 0.72-0.79). Theoretical replacement of 30 min of SED into an equal amount of MVPA associated with lower OR for significant CA, especially in participants with high SED 0.84 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96) or low MVPA 0.51 (0.36 to 0.73).

CONCLUSIONS: MVPA was associated with a lower risk for significant atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids, while the association varied in strength and direction for SED and LIPA, respectively. If causal, clinical implications include avoiding high levels of daily SED and low levels of MVPA to reduce the risk of developing significant subclinical atherosclerosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2023
Keywords
cardiovascular imaging, epidemiology, public health
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7971 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073380 (DOI)37996228 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2023-11-30
Fridolfsson, J., Arvidsson, D., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2023). Accelerometer-measured absolute versus relative physical activity intensity: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health in midlife.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 2322.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer-measured absolute versus relative physical activity intensity: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health in midlife.
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2023 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 2322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Observational studies investigating the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity and health all use absolute measures of physical activity intensity. However, intervention studies suggest that the physical activity intensity required to improve health is relative to individual fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between accelerometer-measured absolute and relative physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic health, and what implications these associations may have on the interpretation of health-associated physical activity.

METHODS: A sample of the cross-sectional Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) consisting of 4,234 men and women aged 55-64 years was studied. Physical activity intensity was measured by accelerometry and expressed as absolute (e.g., metabolic equivalents of task) or relative (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption). Fitness was estimated by the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. A composite ('metabolic syndrome') score combined measures of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin. Associations of absolute and relative physical activity intensity with the health indicators (i.e., fitness and metabolic syndrome score) were studied by partial least squares regression. Analyses were stratified by fitness level.

RESULTS: Both absolute and relative physical activity intensity associated with the health indicators. However, the strongest associations for absolute intensity varied depending on fitness levels, whereas the associations for relative intensity were more synchronized across fitness groups. The dose-response relationship between moderate-to-vigorous intensity and the health indicators was stronger for relative than for absolute intensity. The absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous intensity cut-offs intersected at the 5th fitness percentile, indicating that the absolute intensity cut-off is too low for 95% of individuals in this sample. While 99% of individuals fulfilled the general physical activity recommendations based on absolute intensity measures, only 21% fulfilled the recommendations based on relative intensity measures. In relation to a "sufficient" fitness level, 9% fulfilled the recommendations.

CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometer-measured relative physical activity intensity represents the intensity related to health benefits regardless of fitness level. Traditional absolute moderate intensity accelerometer cut-offs are too low for most individuals and should be adapted to the fitness level in the sample studied. Absolute and relative physical activity intensity cannot be used interchangeably.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Keywords
Cardiometabolic risk factors, Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular fitness, Recommendations
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7970 (URN)10.1186/s12889-023-17281-4 (DOI)001107237500003 ()37996871 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Beneficial acute effects of dietary nitrate have been demonstrated on working memory in adults, with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) being a potential mechanism. However, these effects have not been studied in adolescents. Moreover, having breakfast compared to skipping may also exhibit positive effects on working memory. Therefore, this randomized crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and changes in task-related CBF in adolescents.  Methods: This trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13–15 years old). There were three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) regular, and (3) regular breakfast with high nitrate in the form of concentrated beetroot juice. Working memory (1-, 2-, 3-back tests) and task-related CBF (prefrontal cortex oxygenated and deoxygenated-hemoglobin changes estimated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. The data collection for this study is ongoing, thus results for 35 adolescents are presented here and due to blinding of the researcher we are unable to report at this time in which condition these effects occurred, but will be revealed by the time of the conference, as well as for the results on changes in CBF.  Results: Preliminary results from the ongoing study showed that from pretest to posttest there was a statistically significant improvement in reaction time in all three conditions for all three n-back tests, but no intervention effects. Accuracy, however, improved from pretest to posttest in only one condition, for all three nback tests (β [95% confidence interval] from linear mixed-effects models with subject as random effect: 1-back 2.8[1.2-4.3], 2-back 2.6[0.9-4.2], 3-back 3.6[2.2-5.0]), and there was a tendency towards an intervention effect between this breakfast condition and another on the accuracy of the 3-back test (P for time-by-condition interaction 0.07).   Conclusions: The results from this study will increase our understanding into the effects of breakfast and its composition (i.e., nitrate-rich) on acutely improving working memory in adolescents and the potential mechanisms. In turn, the results will inform on whether policies on providing breakfast in schools should be considered to improve students' cognitive performance.

National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7794 (URN)
Conference
The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSkandias Stiftelse Idéer för livet
Note

Partners are: IKEA, Kronprinsessparets stiftelse/Generation Pep, Skanska, Coop, KFS

Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-10-03Bibliographically approved
Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7653 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0285581 (DOI)001050599900048 ()37205681 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180040
Note

This project is supported by The Knowledge Foundation https://www.kks.se/ (20180040; ÖE, GN), and the following companies: COOP Sverige, IKEA, Skandia, Skanska, Generation Pep, and Konsumentföreningen Stockholm.

Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2024-01-26
Memarian, E., Kharraziha, I., Hamrefors, V., Platonov, P. G., Ekblom, Ö., Gottsäter, A. & Engström, G. (2023). Associations between physical activity and autonomic function during deep breathing test: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS).. Clinical Autonomic Research, 33(4), 411-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between physical activity and autonomic function during deep breathing test: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS).
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2023 (English)In: Clinical Autonomic Research, ISSN 0959-9851, E-ISSN 1619-1560, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 411-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The deep breathing test (DBT) is a sensitive test of cardiovagal function. The aim of this study was to explore associations between physical activity and sedentary time, measured by accelerometer, and autonomic function, using DBT.

METHODS: In the Swedish Cardio-Pulmonary bioImage Study, men and women aged 50-64 were randomly invited from the general population. A total of 4325 subjects who underwent DBT and assessment of physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometery were included. ECG files from 1-min DBT were used to calculate measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA; expiration-inspiration (E-I) difference and E/I ratio], heart rate variability [HRV; root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), standard deviation of heart rates and mean circular resultant]. Low RSA and HRV was defined as the lowest 10% in the population.

RESULTS: For accelerometer-assessed physical activity, there were significant associations between high percentage of sedentary time and low E/I (p < 0.01), and low RMSSD (p < 0.01) in an age- and sex-adjusted model, and between percentage of sedentary time and low RMSSD (p = 0.04) in a risk factor-adjusted model. Low RMSSD was less common in those with a high percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity (p = 0.04, after risk-factor adjustment). These associations became non-significant when further adjusting for heart rate.

CONCLUSION: We report associations between degree of physical activity and indices of autonomic dysfunction in a large population. The relationships were no longer significant after adjustments for heart rate, indicating that the relationship between physical activity and cardiovagal function partly is accounted for by reduced heart rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Accelerometer, Autonomic function, Cardiovagal function, Deep breathing test, Heart rate variation, Physical activity
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7679 (URN)10.1007/s10286-023-00960-y (DOI)001013936900001 ()37344567 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-09-13
Projects
Physical readiness, brain health in military training and duty [AF9220916]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHPhysical activity and healthy brain functions in office workers [KK 20160040]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Hagströmer, M., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Nilsson, J. & Kallings, L. (2024). Improving movement behavior in office workers: effects of two multi-level cluster-RCT interventions on mental health. BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 127. Larisch, L.-M., Kallings, L., Thedin Jakobsson, B. & Blom, V. (2023). “It depends on the boss”: A qualitative study of multi-level interventions aiming at office workers’ movement behavior and mental health. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 18(1), Article ID 2258564. Larisch, L.-M. (2023). Movement behavior and mental health in office workers: Associations and intervention effects. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIHEkblom, M., Bojsen-Møller, E., Blom, V., Tarassova, O., Moberg, M., Pontén, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2022). Acute effects of physical activity patterns on plasma cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in relation to corticospinal excitability.. Behavioural Brain Research, 430, Article ID 113926. Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V., Kallings, L. & Thedin Jakobsson, B. (2022). Changing movement behavior for improving mental health among office workers: A qualitative study on acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of two RCT interventions. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Phoenix, May 18-21, 2022. Larisch, L.-M., Blom, V. & Kallings, L. (2022). Effectiveness of two randomized and controlled multi-component interventions on 24-h movement behavior and mental health outcomes among office workers. In: : . Paper presented at International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Phoenix, Arizona, USA, May 18-21. Bojsen-Møller, E. (2022). Movement Behaviors and Cognitive Health for Office Workers. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIHBojsen-Møller, E., Wang, R., Nilsson, J., Heiland, E. G., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Kallings, L. & Ekblom, M. (2022). The effect of two multi-component behavior change interventions on cognitive functions.. BMC Public Health, 22(1), Article ID 1082. Wang, R., Ekblom, M., Arvidsson, D., Fridolfsson, J., Börjesson, M. & Ekblom, Ö. (2022). The interrelationship between physical activity intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in middle-aged adults: An observational study of office workers.. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 1035521. Wang, R., Blom, V., Nooijen, C. F., Kallings, L., Ekblom, Ö. & Ekblom, M. M. (2022). The Role of Executive Function in the Effectiveness of Multi-Component Interventions Targeting Physical Activity Behavior in Office Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 266-266
Physical Activity for Healthy Brain Functions in School Youth [KK 20180040]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848. Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581. Yman, J., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica, 112(3), 452-459Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Ekblom, Ö. (2023). COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1115789. Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 380. Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023. Fernström, M., Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Pontén, M., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 112(5), 1011-1018Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Has COVID-19 led to changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents?: A cohort study. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Thedin Jakobsson, B., Hoy, S., Lunde, C. & Larsson, H. (2023). Physical Activity during the School Day: A Case Study in Swedish School for Students with Special Needs.. In: : . Paper presented at European Educational Research Association (ECER) Glasgow, den 22- 25 Augusti 2023..
School project for brain health - A school-based intervention to improve mental health, cognitive function, academic performance in adolescents; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Farias, L., Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B. & Andermo, S. (2023). Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 1631. Andermo, S., Helgadóttir, B., Ekblom, Ö., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2021). Extra schemalagd fysisk aktivitet i högstadiet: en väg framåt?. In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3: . Paper presented at Idrottsmedicinskt höstmöte, Malmö, 30 sept - 1 okt 2021.
E-PABS - a centre of Excellence in Physical Activity, healthy Brain functions and Sustainability [20210002 01 H]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848. Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581. Farias, L., Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B. & Andermo, S. (2023). Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 1631. Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788Yman, J., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica, 112(3), 452-459Wu, J., Xiong, Y., Xia, X., Orsini, N., Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., . . . Wang, R. (2023). Can dementia risk be reduced by following the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7?: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.. Ageing Research Reviews, 83, Article ID 101788. Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Ekblom, Ö. (2023). COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1115789. Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 380. Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023.
The twin project – Twin-based studies on the importance of genes and environment in associations between physical activity patterns and brain health in adolescents; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Wiklund, C. & Wang, R. (2023). Environmental and genetic contributions to device-based measures of physical activity in Swedish 9-year-olds.. In: : . Paper presented at ISBNPA, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, June 14-17, 2023, Uppsala, Sweden.
Cardiorespiratory fitness in early-life and adulthood and brain health later in life; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHPhysiological and psychological effect of physical activity in patients with burnout; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHAnaemia in military recruits during basic military training; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHb.Predictive validity for physical employment standard tests in military climbers and other duties with upper body work; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHPhysical and cognitive combat readiness in Home Guard soldiers; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHExploring neighbourhood effects on aging: An opportunity for enhancing brain health across the lifespan [KK 20220202]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6058-4982

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