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Helgadóttir, B., Owen, N., Dunstan, D. W., Ekblom, Ö., Hallgren, M. & Forsell, Y. (2017). Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with an exercise intervention in depressed adults. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 30, 10-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with an exercise intervention in depressed adults
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2017 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Exercise is beneficial for depression, but less is known about its impact on post-intervention physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of this paper was to determine the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention influenced habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. Methods Accelerometer data was collected pre- and post-intervention from depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week intervention groups: light (n = 21), moderate (n = 25) and vigorous (n = 22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in time spent sedentary and in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); time accumulated in sedentary and MVPA bouts; and, number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time. Results Overall sedentary time decreased while light activity time increased across all intervention groups but not significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced MVPA minutes (−8.22, 95% CI: −16.44, −0.01), time in MVPA bouts (−8.44, 95% CI: −14.27, −2.62), and number of activity bouts (−0.43, 95% CI: −0.77, −0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced time in MVPA bouts (−6.27, 95% CI: −11.71, −0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (−6.07, 95% CI: −9.30, −2.84). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group. Conclusions The exercise intervention led to an increase in overall light physical activity and decrease in sedentary time, though neither change was statistically significant. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention groups was associated with reductions of time in MVPA bouts, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

Keyword
Habitual physical activity, Exercise, Depression, Sedentary behavior, Intervention studies
National Category
Psychiatry Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4775 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.01.006 (DOI)000400038900002 ()
Available from: 2017-02-17 Created: 2017-02-17 Last updated: 2017-06-07
Millischer, V., Erhardt, S., Ekblom, Ö., Forsell, Y. & Lavebratt, C. (2017). Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 13, 967-972
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients
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2017 (English)In: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 13, p. 967-972Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans.

Materials and methods: Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study.

Results: No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed.

Limitations: As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes.

Conclusion: Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dove Medical Press, 2017
Keyword
Kynurenine pathway, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, depression, physical exercise, Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry, Internal medicine, Medicine
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4855 (URN)10.2147/NDT.S131746 (DOI)000397975100001 ()
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-21
Olsson, S. J., Ekblom, Ö., Andersson, E., Börjesson, M. & Kallings, L. (2016). Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 44(1), 70-76, Article ID 1403494815602830.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 70-76, article id 1403494815602830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS:

Physical activity (PA) used as prevention and treatment of disease has created a need for effective tools for measuring patients' PA level. Our aim was therefore to assess the validity of two PA questions and their three associated answer modes.

METHODS:

Data on PA according to the PA questions and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers, aerobic fitness (VO2max), cardiovascular biomarkers, and self-rated general health were collected in 365 Swedish adults (21-66 years). The PA questions ask about weekly PA via categories (Categorical), an open-ended answer (Open), or specified day by day (Table).

RESULTS:

The Categorical mode, compared with the Open mode, correlated (Spearman's rho) significantly more strongly (p<0.05) with accelerometer PA (0.31 vs. 0.18) and VO2max (0.27 vs. 0.06), and the level of BMI (-0.20 vs. -0.02), waist circumference (-0.22 vs. -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (-0.16 vs. 0.08), glucose (-0.18 vs. 0.04), triglycerides (-0.31 vs. -0.07), and general health (0.35 vs. 0.19). The validity of the Categorical and Table modes were similar regarding VO2max and accelerometry, but the Categorical mode exhibited more significant and stronger correlations with cardiovascular biomarkers. The capacity of the PA questions to identify insufficiently physically active individuals ranged from 0.57 to 0.76 for sensitivity and from 0.47 to 0.79 for specificity.

CONCLUSIONS:

The Categorical mode exhibits the strongest validity and Open mode the weakest. The PA questions may be used on a population level, or as a tool for determining patents' appropriateness for treatment.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-3958 (URN)10.1177/1403494815602830 (DOI)000369969000011 ()26392418 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-04 Created: 2015-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Helgadóttir, B., Dunstan, D., Owen, N., Ekblom, Ö., Hallgren, M. & Forsell, Y. (2016). Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Exercise Interventions in Depressed Adults: 2109 Board #261 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM.. In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 594.: (pp. 594-594). , 48(5S Suppl 1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Exercise Interventions in Depressed Adults: 2109 Board #261 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM.
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2016 (English)In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 594., 2016, Vol. 48, no 5S Suppl 1, p. 594-594Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Exercise training programs are beneficial for depression, but less is known about their impact on non-intervention physical activity patterns and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. We determined the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention programs influenced the habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults.

METHODS: Accelerometer data were collected pre- and post-treatment from a subset of depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week exercise intervention programs: light (n=21), moderate (n=25) and vigorous (n=22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in accelerometer-measured overall time spent in sedentary, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); accumulated sedentary and MVPA bouts; and number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time.

RESULTS: Overall sedentary time decreased while overall light activity increased across all intervention groups but neither significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced their MVPA minutes (-8.22, 95% CI: -16.44, -0.01), time in MVPA bouts (-8.44, 95% CI: -14.27, -2.62), and number of activity bouts (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.77, -0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced the time in MVPA bouts (-6.27, 95% CI: -11.71, -0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (-5.79, 95% CI: -9.11, -2.46). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, participating in a structured exercise intervention did not lead people who are affected by depression to significantly reduce their overall light physical activity nor to increase their sedentary time. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention programs was associated with reductions in overall MVPA, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention program.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4513 (URN)
Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2016-08-08Bibliographically approved
Hallgren, M., Herring, M. P., Owen, N., Dunstan, D., Ekblom, Ö., Helgadottir, B., . . . Forsell, Y. (2016). Exercise, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in the Treatment of Depression: Broadening the Scientific Perspectives and Clinical Opportunities.. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in the Treatment of Depression: Broadening the Scientific Perspectives and Clinical Opportunities.
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research exploring links between exercise and depression now span several decades, yet several clinically relevant research questions remain unanswered. This opinion article briefly describes the status of selected research issues from the exercise depression literature and offer insights into research areas that are currently lacking. We draw particular attention to the potential of research exploring links between sedentary behavior and depression.

National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4395 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00036 (DOI)000371758700001 ()27014101 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Ekblom, Ö. & Börjesson, M. (2016). Hela rörelsemönstret har betydelse. Idrottsmedicin, 35(3), 5-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hela rörelsemönstret har betydelse
2016 (Swedish)In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 2016
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4597 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved
Ekblom-Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2016). Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23(9), 967-974
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 967-974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Time spent being sedentary, regardless of time in exercise, has been associated with metabolic risk using regression modelling. By using isotemporal substitution modelling, the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equal amount of time in physical activity (PA) of different intensities can be considered. The present study aims to investigate the effect of replacing sedentary time with time in light, moderate and vigorous PA to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Also, replacement of sedentary time by PA of different bout lengths was studied.

METHODS: In total, 836 participants (52% women), aged 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily time spent sedentary and in PA of different intensities was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers.

RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time with the same amount of light PA was associated with significant lower MetS prevalence, odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98). Replacement with moderate PA resulted in even lower OR, 0.89 (0.82-0.97), with the lowest OR for vigorous PA, 0.41 (0.26-0.66). Participants with high energy intake and high daily sedentary time benefitted more from the replacement of sedentary time with light PA. Significant associations were seen for all bout lengths of light, moderate and vigorous PA in a stepwise-like fashion from one minute to up to 120 minute bouts.

CONCLUSION: Theoretical substitutions of sedentary time with PA of any intensity and of as little as one minute were associated with significantly lower ORs for MetS. This may be an easily communicable message in clinical practice and for public health purposes.

National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4246 (URN)10.1177/2047487315619734 (DOI)000376288500008 ()26635358 (PubMedID)
Projects
SCAPIS
Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, M., Börjesson, M., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G., Lappas, G. & Rosengren, A. (2016). Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study. Preventive Medicine Reports, 4, 44-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study
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2016 (English)In: Preventive Medicine Reports, ISSN 0350-1159, E-ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 4, p. 44-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR]=0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.46–0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.39–0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5mL×min−1×kg−1) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4448 (URN)10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.04.010 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Berg, U. & Ekblom, Ö. (2016). Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar. In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling (pp. 98-113). Läkartidningen förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar
2016 (Swedish)In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, p. 98-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Fysisk aktivitet ger fysiska och mentala hälsovinster hos barn och ungdomar.

Mognads- och tillväxtprocesserna hos barn och ungdomar påverkar en rad fysiska, mentala och sociala kapaciteter och förmågor. Vid rekommendation av fysisk aktivitet bör hänsyn tas till detta och individuella intressen.

Alla barn och ungdomar mellan 6 och 17 år rekommenderas minst 60 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet av främst aerob karaktär. Muskelstärkande och skelettstärkande aktiviteter bör ingå tre gånger i veckan. Hos barn från 0–5 år ska daglig fysisk aktivitet uppmuntras och underlättas.

Barn och ungdomar som inte kan nå upp till rekommendationerna på grund av sjukdom eller funktionsnedsättning bör vara så aktiva som tillståndet medger.

Individuella råd för anpassad regelbunden fysisk aktivitet bör ges.

Barn och ungdomar med övervikt och fetma kan uppnå positiva hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende till exempel blodfetter och insulinkänslighet även om vikten är oförändrad. Konditionshöjande fysisk aktivitet har tydligast effekt, och i kombination med kostförändringar är effekterna större.

Hos barn och ungdomar med astma bör en noggrann analys av ansträngningsutlösta besvär göras. Astman ska vara välreglerad och anpassad information och kunskap ska ges för att trygga den unge och främja fysisk aktivitet.

Fysisk aktivitet utgör en del av behandlingen vid depression hos barn och ungdomar.

Barn och ungdomars hälsa tycks kunna påverkas negativt av långvarigt stillasittande. För närvarande finns dock inte tillräckligt med vetenskapligt stöd för att ge en evidensbaserad rekommendation angående begränsning av stillasittande i den här åldersgruppen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Läkartidningen förlag, 2016
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4703 (URN)9789198171129 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-01-20Bibliographically approved
Ekblom-Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bolam, K., Ekblom, B., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2016). SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(7), 697-703
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 697-703Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

Keyword
Isotemporal substitution, sedentary, light physical activity, moderate physical activity, insulin resistance
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4378 (URN)10.1123/jpah.2015-0611 (DOI)000381244300001 ()26900674 (PubMedID)
Projects
SCAPIS
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6058-4982

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