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Nilsson, J., Ekblom, Ö., Ekblom, M., Lebedev, A., Tarassova, O., Moberg, M. & Lövdén, M. (2020). Acute increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in plasma following physical exercise relates to subsequent learning in older adults.. Scientific Reports, 10(1), Article ID 4395.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in plasma following physical exercise relates to subsequent learning in older adults.
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2020 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 4395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multidomain lifestyle interventions represents a promising strategy to counteract cognitive decline in older age. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for experience-dependent plasticity and increases following physical exercise, suggesting that physical exercise may facilitate subsequent learning. In a randomized-controlled trial, healthy older adults (65-75 years) completed a 12-week behavioral intervention that involved either physical exercise immediately before cognitive training (n = 25; 13 females), physical exercise immediately after cognitive training (n = 24; 11 females), physical exercise only (n = 27; 15 females), or cognitive training only (n = 21; 12 females). We hypothesized that cognition would benefit more from cognitive training when preceded as opposed to followed by physical exercise and that the relationship between exercise-induced increases in peripheral BDNF and cognitive training outcome would be greater when cognitive training is preceded by physical exercise. Greater increases of plasma BDNF were associated with greater cognitive training gains on trained task paradigms, but only when such increases preceded cognitive training (ß = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04, 0.25]). Average cognitive training outcome did not differ depending on intervention order (ß = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.20]). The study provides the first empirical support for a time-critical but advantageous role for post-exercise increases in peripheral BDNF for learning at an interindividual level in older adults, with implications for future multidomain lifestyle interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2020
National Category
Geriatrics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6085 (URN)10.1038/s41598-020-60124-0 (DOI)32157099 (PubMedID)
Projects
Träning för äldres hjärnhälsa
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-20
Moberg, M., Lindholm, M. E., Reitzner, S. M., Ekblom, B., Sundberg, C.-J. & Psilander, N. (2020). Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained Human Muscle.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained Human Muscle.
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2020 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Human skeletal muscle is thought to have heightened sensitivity to exercise stimulus when it has been previously trained (i.e., it possesses "muscle memory"). We investigated whether basal and acute resistance exercise-induced gene expression and cell signaling events are influenced by previous strength training history.

METHODS: Accordingly, 19 training naïve women and men completed 10 weeks of unilateral leg strength training, followed by 20 weeks of detraining. Subsequently, an acute resistance exercise session was performed for both legs, with vastus lateralis biopsies taken at rest and 1 h after exercise in both legs (memory and control).

RESULTS: The phosphorylation of AMPK and eEF2 was higher in the memory leg than in the control leg at both time points. Post-exercise phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was higher in the memory leg than in the control leg. The memory leg had lower basal mRNA levels of total PGC1α, and, unlike the control leg, exhibited increases in PGC1α-ex1a transcripts after exercise. In the genes related to myogenesis (SETD3, MYOD1, and MYOG), mRNA levels differed between the memory and the untrained leg; these effects were evident primarily in the male subjects. Expression of the novel gene SPRYD7 was lower in the memory leg at rest and decreased after exercise only in the control leg, but SPRYD7 protein levels were higher in the memory leg.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, several key regulatory genes and proteins involved in muscular adaptations to resistance exercise are influenced by previous training history. Although the relevance and mechanistic explanation for these findings need further investigation, they support the view of a molecular muscle memory in response to training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6079 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0000000000002310 (DOI)32079914 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-16Bibliographically approved
Horwath, O., Apro, W., Moberg, M., Godhe, M., Helge, T., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, B. (2020). Fiber type-specific hypertrophy and increased capillarization in skeletal muscle following testosterone administration of young women.. Journal of applied physiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber type-specific hypertrophy and increased capillarization in skeletal muscle following testosterone administration of young women.
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2020 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

It is well established that testosterone administration induces muscle fiber hypertrophy and myonuclear addition in men, however, it remains to be determined whether similar morphological adaptations can be achieved in women. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether exogenously administered testosterone alters muscle fiber morphology in skeletal muscle of young healthy, physically active women. Thirty-five young (20-35 years), recreationally trained women were randomly assigned to either 10-week testosterone administration (10 mg daily) or placebo. Before and after the intervention, hormone concentrations and body composition were assessed, and muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Fiber type composition, fiber size, satellite cell- and myonuclei content, as well as muscle capillarization were assessed in a fiber type-specific manner using immunohistochemistry. Following the intervention, testosterone administration elevated serum testosterone concentration (5.1-fold increase, P=0.001), and induced significant accretion of total lean mass (+1.9%, P=0.002) and leg lean mass (+2.4%, P=0.001). On the muscle fiber level, testosterone increased mixed fiber cross-sectional area (+8.2%, P=0.001), an effect primarily driven by increases in type II fiber size (9.2%, P=0.006). Whereas myonuclei content remained unchanged, a numerical increase (+30.8%) was found for satellite cells associated with type II fibers in the Testosterone group. In parallel with fiber hypertrophy, testosterone significantly increased capillary contacts (+7.5%, P=0.015) and capillary-to-fiber ratio (+9.2%, P=0.001) in type II muscle fibers. The current study provides novel insight into fiber type-specific adaptations present already after 10 weeks of only moderately elevated testosterone levels in women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2020
Keywords
androgens, capillarization, myonuclear domain, myonuclei, satellite cells
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6096 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00893.2019 (DOI)32191598 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-24 Created: 2020-03-24 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Holm, L., Dideriksen, K., Nielsen, R. H., Doessing, S., Bechshoeft, R. L., Højfeldt, G., . . . van Hall, G. (2019). An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.. Physiological Reports, 7(17), Article ID e14143.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.
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2019 (English)In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 17, article id e14143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study explores the methods to determine human in vivo protein-specific myofibrillar and collagenous connective tissue protein fractional synthesis and breakdown rates. We found that in human myofibrillar proteins, the protein-bound tracer disappearance method to determine the protein fractional breakdown rate (FBR) (via 2 H2 O ingestion, endogenous labeling of 2 H-alanine that is incorporated into proteins, and FBR quantified by its disappearance from these proteins) has a comparable intrasubject reproducibility (range: 0.09-53.5%) as the established direct-essential amino acid, here L-ring-13 C6 -phenylalanine, incorporation method to determine the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (range: 2.8-56.2%). Further, the determination of the protein breakdown in a protein structure with complex post-translational processing and maturation, exemplified by human tendon tissue, was not achieved in this experimentation, but more investigation is encouraged to reveal the possibility. Finally, we found that muscle protein FBR measured with an essential amino acid tracer prelabeling is inappropriate presumably because of significant and prolonged intracellular recycling, which also may become a significant limitation for determination of the myofibrillar FSR when repeated infusion trials are completed in the same participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
Amino acid recycling, deuterated alanine, deuterated water, fractional breakdown rate, fractional synthesis rate, protein turnover, stable isotope
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5840 (URN)10.14814/phy2.14143 (DOI)000485983500012 ()31496135 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-17 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-10-11
Edman, S., Söderlund, K., Moberg, M., Apro, W. & Blomstrand, E. (2019). mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids. Frontiers in nutrition, 6, Article ID 96.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human muscles contain a mixture of type I and type II fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. Little is presently known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular responses of these different fiber types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise in combination with intake of essential amino acids (EAA) on mTORC1 signaling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibers. Five strength-trained men performed two sessions of heavy leg press exercise. During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution of EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibers dissected out and weighed (range 0.95-8.1 mu g). The fibers were homogenized individually and identified as type I or II by incubation with antibodies against the different isoforms of myosin. They were also analyzed for both the levels of protein as well as phosphorylation of proteins in the mTORC1 pathway using Western blotting. The levels of the S6K1 and eEF2 proteins were similar to 50% higher in type II than in type I fibers (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between fiber types with respect to the level of mTOR protein. Resistance exercise led to non-significant increases (2-3-fold) in mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as a 50% decrease (P < 0.05) in eEF2 phosphorylation in both fiber types. Intake of EAA caused a 2 and 6-fold higher (P < 0.05) elevation of mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation, respectively, in both type I and type II fibers compared to placebo, with no effect on phosphorylation of eEF2. In conclusion, protein levels of S6K1 and eEF2 were significantly higher in type II than type I fibers suggesting higher capacity of the mTOR pathway in type II fibers. Ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in both fiber types, but with considerable variation between single fibers of both types.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
muscle fiber type, protein expression, S6K1, single muscle fiber, EAA
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5807 (URN)10.3389/fnut.2019.00096 (DOI)000472610200002 ()31294029 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-12-05
Moberg, M. (2018). ACSM Annual Meeting: Två dagar med fokus på muskelhypertrofi/atrofi. Idrottsmedicin, 37(3), 29-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ACSM Annual Meeting: Två dagar med fokus på muskelhypertrofi/atrofi
2018 (Swedish)In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5435 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Moberg, M. (2018). Effekt av kombinerad styrke- och konditionsträning. Idrottsmedicin, 37(3), 8-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekt av kombinerad styrke- och konditionsträning
2018 (Swedish)In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Det finns teorier om att kombinerad konditions- och styrketräning hämmar styrkeutvecklingen jämfört med enbart styrketräning. För att ta reda på om det stämmer genomfördes studier där cykling kombinerades med styrketräning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5434 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Lilja, M., Moberg, M., Mandić, M., Gustafsson, T. & Lundberg, T. R. (2018). High versus Low doses of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Do Not Differentially Affect Muscle Molecular Response to Acute Resistance Exercise: 2008 Board #269 May 31 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM.. In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2018 Supplement 1, Vol. 50, p488-488: . Paper presented at ACSM 65th Annual meeting, May 2018 Minneapolis (pp. 488-488). , 50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High versus Low doses of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Do Not Differentially Affect Muscle Molecular Response to Acute Resistance Exercise: 2008 Board #269 May 31 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM.
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2018 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2018 Supplement 1, Vol. 50, p488-488, 2018, Vol. 50, p. 488-488Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5509 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000536687.38475.2c (DOI)000456870502129 ()
Conference
ACSM 65th Annual meeting, May 2018 Minneapolis
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Moberg, M., Apró, W., Ekblom, B., Gerrit, v. H., Holmberg, H.-C. & Blomstrand, E. (2016). Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 310(11), C874-C884
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 310, no 11, p. C874-C884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mTORC1 signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo, leucine, BCAA or EAA (including the BCAA) in random order. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, immediately after exercise and following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Following 90 min of recovery the activity of S6K1 was greater than at rest in all four trials (Placebo<Leucine<BCAA<EAA; P<0.05 time x supplement), with a 9-fold increase in the EAA trial. At this same time-point phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Thr37/46 was unaffected by supplementation, while that of Thr46 alone exhibited a pattern similar to that of S6K1, being 18% higher with EAA than BCAA. However, after 180 min of recovery this difference between EAA and BCAA had disappeared, although with both these supplements the increases were still higher than with leucine (40%, P<0.05) and placebo (100%, P<0.05). In summary, EAA ingestion appears to stimulate translation initiation more effectively than the other supplements, although the results also suggest that this effect is primarily attributable to the BCAA.

Keywords
4E-BP1, p70S6 kinase 1, BCAA, skeletal muscle
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4369 (URN)10.1152/ajpcell.00374.2015 (DOI)000384745400004 ()
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Note

At the time of Marcus Moberg's disertation this manuscript was submitted.

Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Rundqvist, H. C., Esbjörnsson, M., Rooyackers, O., Apro, W., Moberg, M., Österlund, T. & Jansson, E. (2016). Amino Acid Transport after Sprint Exercise and Oral Amino Acids: 90 Board #6 June 1, 9. In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Volume 48(5S) Supplement 1, May 2016, p 5: . Paper presented at American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) 63rd Annual Meeting, May 31-June 4 2016, Boston (pp. 5). , 48(5 Suppl 1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amino Acid Transport after Sprint Exercise and Oral Amino Acids: 90 Board #6 June 1, 9
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2016 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Volume 48(5S) Supplement 1, May 2016, p 5, 2016, Vol. 48, no 5 Suppl 1, p. 5-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To study if oral ingestion of essential amino acids (oral EAA) increases the amino acid transporter SNAT2, Akt/mTOR signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after sprint exercise.

METHODS: 12 healthy subjects performed three 30-s sprints with 20 minutes rest in between. Subjects consumed EAA + maltodextrin solution or flavoured water (placebo) during the sprint exercise up to 15 min after the last sprint in a randomized order with one month interval. In vivo MPS rate was measured using a stable isotope technique. Subject received a stable isotope of phenylalanine (D5-phenylalanine) to label the precursor pool for protein synthesis. Continuous infusion started before the first sprint and was ended 200 min after the last sprint. Two post exercise biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained 80 min and 200 min after last sprint. The amount of labelled phenylalanine incorporated into muscle protein over these 2 hours represents the in vivo MPS rate and was expressed as fractional synthesis rate (FSR %) calculated by dividing amount of labelled phenylalanine incorporated during these 2 hours by the amount in the free amino acid (precursor) plasma pool. Biopsies were also analyzed for Akt/mTOR signaling and SNAT2 amino acid transporter by Western blot and for SNAT2 gene expression by real-time PCR. Blood samples were analyzed for amino acids, glucose, lactate, and insulin. Four subjects, involuntary vomiting after exercise during EAA condition, showed a minor increase in plasma leucine and were presented separately.

RESULTS: Non-vomiting subjects (n=8): The expression of the amino acid transporter SNAT2 was higher both at the protein (P<0.05) and the mRNA (P<0.001) level after EEA than after placebo. Fold increase for phosphorylated Akt, mTOR and p70 was 1.7-3.6 (P<0.01 - P<0.001) comparing EAA with placebo. FSR % after EEA was increased by 25 % (P=0.02) compared to placebo. None of these variables were significantly increased in the subjects who vomited.

CONCLUSION: Oral EAA increased MPS after sprint exercise. Enhanced capacity for amino acid transport and subsequent enhanced Akt/mTOR signaling are suggested to mediate the increased MPS.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4566 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000485021.31770.d3 (DOI)27584180 (PubMedID)
Conference
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) 63rd Annual Meeting, May 31-June 4 2016, Boston
Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2016-09-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3747-0148

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