Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Baldanzi, G., Sayols-Baixeras, S., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Dekkers, K. F., Hammar, U., . . . Fall, T. (2024). Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.. EBioMedicine, 100, Article ID 104989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.
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2024 (English)In: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 100, article id 104989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and the gut microbiota have relied on self-reported activity, prone to reporting bias. Here, we investigated the associations of accelerometer-based sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity (VPA) physical activity with the gut microbiota using cross-sectional data from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study.

METHODS: In 8416 participants aged 50-65, time in SED, MPA, and VPA were estimated with hip-worn accelerometer. Gut microbiota was profiled using shotgun metagenomics of faecal samples. We applied multivariable regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and technical covariates, and accounted for multiple testing.

FINDINGS: Overall, associations between time in SED and microbiota species abundance were in opposite direction to those for MPA or VPA. For example, MPA was associated with lower, while SED with higher abundance of Escherichia coli. MPA and VPA were associated with higher abundance of the butyrate-producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. We observed discrepancies between specific VPA and MPA associations, such as a positive association between MPA and Prevotella copri, while no association was detected for VPA. Additionally, SED, MPA and VPA were associated with the functional potential of the microbiome. For instance, MPA was associated with higher capacity for acetate synthesis and SED with lower carbohydrate degradation capacity.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that sedentary and physical activity are associated with a similar set of gut microbiota species but in opposite directions. Furthermore, the intensity of physical activity may have specific effects on certain gut microbiota species.

FUNDING: European Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

Keywords
Accelerometery, Epidemiology, Exercise, Gastrointestinal microbiome, Sedentary behaviour
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8120 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2024.104989 (DOI)38301483 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-22
Bolam, K., Bojsen-Møller, E., Wallin, P., Paulsson, S., Lindwall, M., Rundqvist, H. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2024). Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.. British Journal of Sports Medicine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.
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2024 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adulthood and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

METHODS: In this prospective study, men who completed an occupational health profile assessment including at least two valid submaximal CRF tests, performed on a cycle ergometer, were included in the study. Data on prostate cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. HRs and CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression with inverse probability treatment weights of time-varying covariates.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years (SD 4.9), 592 (1%) of the 57 652 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 46 (0.08%) died with prostate cancer as the primary cause of death. An increase in absolute CRF (as % of L/min) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) but not mortality, in the fully adjusted model. When participants were grouped as having increased (+3%), stable (±3%) or decreased (-3%) CRF, those with increased fitness also had a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence compared with those with decreased fitness (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86), in the fully adjusted model.

CONCLUSION: In this study of employed Swedish men, change in CRF was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer incidence, but not mortality. Change in CRF appears to be important for reducing the risk of prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Physical fitness
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Urology and Nephrology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8093 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2023-107007 (DOI)38290798 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Available from: 2024-02-02 Created: 2024-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-22
Onerup, A., Mehlig, K., Af Geijerstam, A., Ekblom Bak, E., Kuhn, H.-G., Lissner, L., . . . Åberg, M. (2024). Associations between BMI in youth and site-specific cancer in men: A cohort study with register linkage.. Obesity, 32(2), 376-389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between BMI in youth and site-specific cancer in men: A cohort study with register linkage.
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2024 (English)In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 376-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: This study examined BMI in young men and incident site-specific cancer to estimate population attributable fractions due to BMI based on projected obesity prevalence.

METHODS: A population-based cohort study with measured height and weight at age 18. Cox regression models assessed linear associations for BMI and included age, year, and site of conscription as well as parental level of education as covariates.

RESULTS: Primary analyses were performed in 1,489,115 men, of whom 78,217 subsequently developed cancer during a mean follow-up of 31 years. BMI was linearly associated with risk of developing all 18 site-specific cancers assessed (malignant melanoma; leukemia; myeloma; Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; and cancer in the lungs, head and neck, central nervous system, thyroid, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and gallbladder, colon, rectum, kidney, and bladder), in some instances evident at BMI levels usually defined as normal (20-25 kg/m2 ). Higher BMI was associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. The highest hazard ratios and population attributable fractions were seen for some gastrointestinal cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reports linear associations between BMI at age 18 and subsequent site-specific cancers, calling for rapid action to stem the obesity epidemic and to prepare the health care system for steep increases in cancer cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7948 (URN)10.1002/oby.23942 (DOI)37927128 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-20 Created: 2023-11-20 Last updated: 2024-01-29
Arvidsson, D., Fridolfsson, J., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2024). Fundament for a methodological standard to process hip accelerometer data to a measure of physical activity intensity in middle-aged individuals.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 34(1), Article ID e14541.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundament for a methodological standard to process hip accelerometer data to a measure of physical activity intensity in middle-aged individuals.
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2024 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, no 1, article id e14541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of a methodological standard to process accelerometer data to measures of physical activity, which impairs data quality and comparability. This study investigated the effect of different combinations of settings of multiple processing components, on the measure of physical activity and the association with measures of cardiometabolic health in an unselected population of middle-aged individuals.

METHODS: Free-living hip accelerometer data, aerobic fitness, body mass index, HDL:total cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure were achieved from 4391 participants 50-64 years old included in The Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) baseline measurement (cross-sectional). Lab data were also included for calibration of accelerometers to provide comparable measure of physical activity intensity and time spent in different intensity categories, as well as to enhance understanding. The accelerometer data processing components were hardware recalibration, frequency filtering, number of accelerometer axes, epoch length, wear time criterium, time composition (min/24 h vs. % of wear time). Partial least regression and ordinary least regression were used for the association analyses.

RESULTS: The setting of frequency filter had the strongest effect on the physical activity intensity measure and time distribution in different intensity categories followed by epoch length and number of accelerometer axes. Wear time criterium and recalibration of accelerometer data were less important. The setting of frequency filter and epoch length also showed consistent important effect on the associations with the different measures of cardiometabolic health, while the effect of recalibration, number of accelerometer axes, wear time criterium and expression of time composition was less consistent and less important. There was a large range in explained variance of the measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of processing settings, for example, 12.1%-20.8% for aerobic fitness and 5.8%-14.0% for body mass index.

CONCLUSIONS: There was a large variation in the physical activity intensity measure and the association with different measures of cardiometabolic health depending on the combination of settings of accelerometer data processing components. The results provide a fundament for a standard to process hip accelerometer data to assess the physical activity in middle-aged populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
accelerometer, cardiometabolic health, method, physical activity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7967 (URN)10.1111/sms.14541 (DOI)001107489300001 ()37985378 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Väisänen, D., Ekblom, B., Wallin, P., Andersson, G. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2024). Reference values for estimated VO2max by two submaximal cycle tests: the Åstrand-test and the Ekblom-Bak test.. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference values for estimated VO2max by two submaximal cycle tests: the Åstrand-test and the Ekblom-Bak test.
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2024 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIMS: Submaximal tests estimating VO2max have inherent biases; hence, using VO2max estimations from the same test is essential for reducing this bias. This study aimed to establish sex- and age-specific reference values for estimated VO2max using the Åstrand-test (Å-test) and the Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test). We also assessed the effects of age, exercise level, and BMI on VO2max estimations.

METHODS: We included men and women (20-69 years) from the Swedish working population participating in Health Profile Assessments between 2010 and 2020. Excluding those on heart rate-affecting medicines and smokers, n = 263,374 for the Å-test and n = 95,043 for the EB-test were included. VO2max reference values were based on percentiles 10, 25, 40, 60, 75, and 90 for both sexes across 5-year age groups.

RESULTS: Estimated absolute and relative VO2max were for men 3.11 L/min and 36.9 mL/min/kg using the Å-test, and 3.58 L/min and 42.4 mL/min/kg using the EB-test. For women, estimated absolute and relative VO2max were 2.48 L/min and 36.6 mL/min/kg using the Å-test, and 2.41 L/min and 35.5 mL/min/kg using the EB-test. Higher age (negative), higher exercise level (positive), and higher BMI (negative) were associated with estimated VO2max using both tests. However, explained variance by exercise on estimated VO2max was low, 10% for the Å-test and 8% for the EB-test, and moderate for BMI, 23% and 29%.

CONCLUSION: We present reference values for estimated VO2max from two submaximal cycle tests. Age, exercise, and BMI influenced estimated VO2max. These references can be valuable in clinical evaluations using the same submaximal tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Cardiorespiratory fitness, Reference values, Submaximal test, VO2max
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8068 (URN)10.1007/s00421-023-05398-8 (DOI)38252302 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 21 1837 PjSwedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20200564
Available from: 2024-01-29 Created: 2024-01-29 Last updated: 2024-02-14
Ekblom Bak, E., Börjesson, M., Ekblom, Ö., Angerås, O., Bergman, F., Berntsson, C., . . . Jernberg, T. (2023). Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study.. BMJ Open, 13(11), Article ID e073380.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study.
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2023 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e073380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim included investigation of the associations between sedentary (SED), low-intensity physical activity (LIPA), moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids and the estimated difference in prevalence by theoretical reallocation of time in different PA behaviours.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

SETTING: Multisite study at university hospitals.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 670 participants without cardiovascular disease (51% women, 57.4 years, SD 4.3) from the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage study were included. SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed by hip-worn accelerometer.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Any and significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (CA), Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) and carotid atherosclerosis (CarA) were derived from imaging data from coronary CT angiography and carotid ultrasound.

RESULTS: High daily SED (>70% ≈10.5 hours/day) associated with a higher OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), for significant CA, and with lower OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.95), for significant CarA. High LIPA (>55% ≈8 hours/day) associated with lower OR for significant CA 0.70 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.96), and CACS, 0.71 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.97), but with higher OR for CarA 1.41 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.76). MVPA above reference level, >2% ≈20 min/day, associated with lower OR for significant CA (OR range 0.61-0.67), CACS (OR range 0.71-0.75) and CarA (OR range 0.72-0.79). Theoretical replacement of 30 min of SED into an equal amount of MVPA associated with lower OR for significant CA, especially in participants with high SED 0.84 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96) or low MVPA 0.51 (0.36 to 0.73).

CONCLUSIONS: MVPA was associated with a lower risk for significant atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids, while the association varied in strength and direction for SED and LIPA, respectively. If causal, clinical implications include avoiding high levels of daily SED and low levels of MVPA to reduce the risk of developing significant subclinical atherosclerosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2023
Keywords
cardiovascular imaging, epidemiology, public health
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7971 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073380 (DOI)37996228 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2023-11-30
Fridolfsson, J., Arvidsson, D., Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Bergström, G. & Börjesson, M. (2023). Accelerometer-measured absolute versus relative physical activity intensity: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health in midlife.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 2322.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerometer-measured absolute versus relative physical activity intensity: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health in midlife.
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2023 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 2322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Observational studies investigating the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity and health all use absolute measures of physical activity intensity. However, intervention studies suggest that the physical activity intensity required to improve health is relative to individual fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between accelerometer-measured absolute and relative physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic health, and what implications these associations may have on the interpretation of health-associated physical activity.

METHODS: A sample of the cross-sectional Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) consisting of 4,234 men and women aged 55-64 years was studied. Physical activity intensity was measured by accelerometry and expressed as absolute (e.g., metabolic equivalents of task) or relative (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption). Fitness was estimated by the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. A composite ('metabolic syndrome') score combined measures of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin. Associations of absolute and relative physical activity intensity with the health indicators (i.e., fitness and metabolic syndrome score) were studied by partial least squares regression. Analyses were stratified by fitness level.

RESULTS: Both absolute and relative physical activity intensity associated with the health indicators. However, the strongest associations for absolute intensity varied depending on fitness levels, whereas the associations for relative intensity were more synchronized across fitness groups. The dose-response relationship between moderate-to-vigorous intensity and the health indicators was stronger for relative than for absolute intensity. The absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous intensity cut-offs intersected at the 5th fitness percentile, indicating that the absolute intensity cut-off is too low for 95% of individuals in this sample. While 99% of individuals fulfilled the general physical activity recommendations based on absolute intensity measures, only 21% fulfilled the recommendations based on relative intensity measures. In relation to a "sufficient" fitness level, 9% fulfilled the recommendations.

CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometer-measured relative physical activity intensity represents the intensity related to health benefits regardless of fitness level. Traditional absolute moderate intensity accelerometer cut-offs are too low for most individuals and should be adapted to the fitness level in the sample studied. Absolute and relative physical activity intensity cannot be used interchangeably.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Keywords
Cardiometabolic risk factors, Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular fitness, Recommendations
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7970 (URN)10.1186/s12889-023-17281-4 (DOI)001107237500003 ()37996871 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Ekblom Bak, E., Bojsen-Møller, E., Wallin, P., Paulsson, S., Lindwall, M., Rundqvist, H. & Bolam, K. (2023). Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cancer Incidence and Cancer-Specific Mortality of Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Among Swedish Men.. JAMA Network Open, 6(6), Article ID e2321102.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cancer Incidence and Cancer-Specific Mortality of Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Among Swedish Men.
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2023 (English)In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e2321102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels appear to be an important risk factor for cancer incidence and death.

OBJECTIVES: To examine CRF and prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish men, and to assess whether age moderated any associations between CRF and cancer.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a population of men who completed an occupational health profile assessment between October 1982 and December 2019 in Sweden. Data analysis was performed from June 22, 2022, to May 11, 2023.

EXPOSURE: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption, estimated using a submaximal cycle ergometer test.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data on prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS: Data on 177 709 men (age range, 18-75 years; mean [SD] age, 42 [11] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 26 [3.8]) were analyzed. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 9.6 (5.5) years, a total of 499 incident cases of colon, 283 of lung, and 1918 of prostate cancer occurred, as well as 152 deaths due to colon cancer, 207 due to lung cancer, and 141 deaths due to prostate cancer. Higher levels of CRF (maximal oxygen consumption as milliliters per minute per kilogram) were associated with a significantly lower risk of colon (HR, 0.98, 95% CI, 0.96-0.98) and lung cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) incidence, and a higher risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01). Higher CRF was associated with a lower risk of death due to colon (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), lung (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and prostate (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) cancer. After stratification into 4 groups and in fully adjusted models, the associations remained for moderate (>35-45 mL/min/kg), 0.72 (0.53-0.96) and high (>45 mL/min/kg), 0.63 (0.41-0.98) levels of CRF, compared with very low (<25 mL/min/kg) CRF for colon cancer incidence. For prostate cancer mortality, associations remained for low (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-1.00), moderate (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.97), and high (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86) CRF. For lung cancer mortality, only high CRF (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) was significant. Age modified the associations for lung (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99) and prostate (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.00; P < .001) cancer incidence, and for death due to lung cancer (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort of Swedish men, moderate and high CRF were associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. Low, moderate, and high CRF were associated with lower risk of death due to prostate cancer, while only high CRF was associated with lower risk of death due to lung cancer. If evidence for causality is established, interventions to improve CRF in individuals with low CRF should be prioritized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Medical Association (AMA), 2023
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7722 (URN)10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.21102 (DOI)001059352200007 ()37382952 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 21 1837
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-01-11
Onerup, A., Mehlig, K., Geijerstam, A. A., Ekblom Bak, E., Kuhn, H. G., Lissner, L., . . . Börjesson, M. (2023). Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness in youth and the incidence of site-specific cancer in men: a cohort study with register linkage.. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 57, 1248-1256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness in youth and the incidence of site-specific cancer in men: a cohort study with register linkage.
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2023 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 57, p. 1248-1256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in young men and the incidence of site-specific cancer.

METHODS: A Swedish population-based cohort study with register linkage of men who underwent military conscription in 1968-2005 was undertaken. CRF was assessed by maximal aerobic workload cycle test at conscription. Cox regression models assessed linear associations and included CRF, age, year and site of conscription, body mass index and parental level of education. CRF was also categorised into low, moderate and high for facilitated interpretation and results comparing high and low CRF are reported.

RESULTS: Primary analyses were performed in 1 078 000 men, of whom 84 117 subsequently developed cancer in at least one site during a mean follow-up of 33 years. Higher CRF was linearly associated with a lower hazard ratio (HR) of developing cancer in the head and neck (n=2738, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.90), oesophagus (n=689, HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.74), stomach (n=902, HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.94), pancreas (n=1280, HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.01), liver (n=1111, HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.71), colon (n=3222, HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.90), rectum (n=2337, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.05), kidney (n=1753, HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.90) and lung (n=1635, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.66). However, higher CRF predicted a higher hazard of being diagnosed with prostate cancer (n=14 232, HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and malignant skin cancer (n=23 064, HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.36).

CONCLUSION: We report a number of protective associations between higher CRF in healthy young men and the subsequent hazard of site-specific cancers. These results have implications for public health policymaking, strengthening the incentive to promote health through improving CRF in youth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Epidemiology, Medical Oncology, Public health, Sports medicine
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7778 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2022-106617 (DOI)001049449300001 ()37582636 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2023-10-26
Hedlund, M., Jonsson, A., Bogdan, C., Meixner, G., Ekblom Bak, E. & Matviienko, A. (2023). BlocklyVR: Exploring Block-based Programming in Virtual Reality. In: Florian Michahelles, Pascal Knierim, Jonna Häkkilä (Ed.), MUM'23: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia: . Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, December 3-6 2023, Vienna, Austria (pp. 251-263). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BlocklyVR: Exploring Block-based Programming in Virtual Reality
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2023 (English)In: MUM'23: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia / [ed] Florian Michahelles, Pascal Knierim, Jonna Häkkilä, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 251-263Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As programming is typically a static activity in front of a screen, we perform an initial exploration around the capabilities of block-based programming in the immersive space using Virtual Reality (VR) to make an early charting on how programming could involve moving the programmer's body. We created a block-based programming interface in a VR space called BlocklyVR based on the existing Blockly programming environment. To investigate programmer performance and experience in BlocklyVR, we conducted a controlled lab experiment (N = 20) with eight programming tasks that covered mathematical operations, if-statements, and function creation. Our initial exploration contributes by classifying movement types made by BlocklyVR programmers and reflecting on how these movements are related to the programming tasks. Additionally, our data suggests that participant performance in BlocklyVR was not affected compared to the 2D Blockly, even if participants were physically moving in VR space. We also found that the virtual reality sickness was marginal. Lastly, we identified four types of interaction that can potentially be employed by VR designers and developers aiming to convert a static task, like programming at a desk, into a "mobile"immersive experience. © 2023 Owner/Author.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Keywords
blockly, physical movement, programming, virtual reality, User interfaces, Block based, Immersive, Initial exploration, Performance, Physical movements, Programming environment, Programming interface, Programming tasks
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8063 (URN)10.1145/3626705.3627779 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180124461 (Scopus ID)9798400709210 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, December 3-6 2023, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-01-23
Projects
Sitting and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working population – secular trends and association with health, cardiovascular disease and longevity over 30 years. [2018-00384_Forte]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHE-PABS - a centre of Excellence in Physical Activity, healthy Brain functions and Sustainability [20210002 01 H]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Hoy, S., Larsson, H., Kjellenberg, K., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2024). Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 6, Article ID 1236848. Heiland, E. G., Kjellenberg, K., Tarassova, O., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö. & Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial. In: : . Paper presented at The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), Uppsala, Sweden, June 15-18, 2023. Regan, C., Heiland, E. G., Ekblom, Ö., Tarassova, O., Kjellenberg, K., Larsen, F. J., . . . Helgadóttir, B. (2023). Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.. PLOS ONE, 18(5), Article ID e0285581. Farias, L., Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B. & Andermo, S. (2023). Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 1631. Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788Yman, J., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Nyberg, G. (2023). Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica, 112(3), 452-459Wu, J., Xiong, Y., Xia, X., Orsini, N., Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., . . . Wang, R. (2023). Can dementia risk be reduced by following the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7?: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.. Ageing Research Reviews, 83, Article ID 101788. Nyberg, G., Helgadóttir, B., Kjellenberg, K. & Ekblom, Ö. (2023). COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1115789. Helgadóttir, B., Fröberg, A., Kjellenberg, K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2023). COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.. BMC Public Health, 23(1), Article ID 380. Kjellenberg, K., Heiland, E. G., Tarassova, O., Fernström, M., Nyberg, G., Ekblom, M., . . . Ekblom, Ö. (2023). Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study. In: : . Paper presented at ArtScientific 2023, Frankfurt, Germany, May 5-6, 2023.
Cardiorespiratory fitness in early-life and adulthood and brain health later in life; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHThe ActToPrevent study [21 1837 Pj 01 H]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Bolam, K., Bojsen-Møller, E., Wallin, P., Paulsson, S., Lindwall, M., Rundqvist, H. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2024). Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.. British Journal of Sports Medicine
Exploring neighbourhood effects on aging: An opportunity for enhancing brain health across the lifespan [KK 20220202]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH; Publications
Larsson, L. E., Wang, R., Cederholm, T., Wiggenraad, F., Rydén, M., Hagman, G., . . . Thunborg, C. (2023). Association of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components with the Degree of Cognitive Impairment in a Memory Clinic Population.. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 96(2), 777-788
The WORK TOGETHER program: Using a systems approach to update an occupational health service and reduce the health gap [2023-01126]; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIHDen äldre orienteraren – Hälsa och Livsstil; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3901-7833

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