Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Väisänen, D., Ekblom, B., Wallin, P., Andersson, G. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2024). Reference values for estimated VO2max by two submaximal cycle tests: the Åstrand-test and the Ekblom-Bak test.. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference values for estimated VO2max by two submaximal cycle tests: the Åstrand-test and the Ekblom-Bak test.
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2024 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIMS: Submaximal tests estimating VO2max have inherent biases; hence, using VO2max estimations from the same test is essential for reducing this bias. This study aimed to establish sex- and age-specific reference values for estimated VO2max using the Åstrand-test (Å-test) and the Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test). We also assessed the effects of age, exercise level, and BMI on VO2max estimations.

METHODS: We included men and women (20-69 years) from the Swedish working population participating in Health Profile Assessments between 2010 and 2020. Excluding those on heart rate-affecting medicines and smokers, n = 263,374 for the Å-test and n = 95,043 for the EB-test were included. VO2max reference values were based on percentiles 10, 25, 40, 60, 75, and 90 for both sexes across 5-year age groups.

RESULTS: Estimated absolute and relative VO2max were for men 3.11 L/min and 36.9 mL/min/kg using the Å-test, and 3.58 L/min and 42.4 mL/min/kg using the EB-test. For women, estimated absolute and relative VO2max were 2.48 L/min and 36.6 mL/min/kg using the Å-test, and 2.41 L/min and 35.5 mL/min/kg using the EB-test. Higher age (negative), higher exercise level (positive), and higher BMI (negative) were associated with estimated VO2max using both tests. However, explained variance by exercise on estimated VO2max was low, 10% for the Å-test and 8% for the EB-test, and moderate for BMI, 23% and 29%.

CONCLUSION: We present reference values for estimated VO2max from two submaximal cycle tests. Age, exercise, and BMI influenced estimated VO2max. These references can be valuable in clinical evaluations using the same submaximal tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Cardiorespiratory fitness, Reference values, Submaximal test, VO2max
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8068 (URN)10.1007/s00421-023-05398-8 (DOI)38252302 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 21 1837 PjSwedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20200564
Available from: 2024-01-29 Created: 2024-01-29 Last updated: 2024-02-14
Holmlund, T., Blom, V., Hemmingsson, E., Ekblom, B., Andersson, G., Wallin, P. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2023). Change in cardiorespiratory fitness on self-rated health: prospective cohort study in 98 718 Swedish adults.. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 51(4), 542-551
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Change in cardiorespiratory fitness on self-rated health: prospective cohort study in 98 718 Swedish adults.
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2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 542-551Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To study how change in cardiorespiratory fitness over time is associated with the development of poor self-rated health in healthy Swedish adults, and whether this association varies with sex, age, body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline. A secondary aim was to study the influence of other predictors of self-rated health. Methods: A total of 98,718 participants (45% women, mean age 42.2 years) with two assessments from occupational health service screenings between 1988 and 2019 (mean duration 4.3 years), with good self-rated health at baseline were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption using submaximal cycle testing. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as percentage annual change. Poor self-rated health at follow-up was defined as percieving self-rated health as 'poor' or 'very poor'. Results: A large decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (⩾-3%) was associated with a 34% higher risk of poor self-rated health compared to maintainers (-1 to +1%) after multi-adjustment including change in body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise habits and sleep quality or sleep problems. The associations for decreasers were stronger with longer follow-up time (>10 years). Preserving, or changing to, risk level for body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise and sleep quality/problems were associated with a higher risk of poor self-rated health. Conclusions: Preserving or increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a lower risk of poor self-rated health, independently of change in other health-related variables, which may act as a protection against future poor self-rated health. This is of high clinical value, and strategies for maintaining or improving cardiorespiratory fitness have the potential to influence both disease and mortality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
Public health, cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise, pain, self-reported health, sleeping problems, stress
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6831 (URN)10.1177/14034948211047140 (DOI)000713202300001 ()34664534 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Dnr 2018-00384Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20180636Swedish Armed Forces, AF 922 0915
Available from: 2021-10-27 Created: 2021-10-27 Last updated: 2023-10-26
Helge, T., Godhe, M., Berglund, B. & Ekblom, B. (2023). Inhaling salbutamol may decrease time to exhaustion in some contexts of heavy endurance performances.. Paper presented at 23(5):766-773. European Journal of Sport Science, 23(5), 766-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhaling salbutamol may decrease time to exhaustion in some contexts of heavy endurance performances.
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 766-773Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To study the effect of inhaling a beta-agonist (salbutamol) compared to placebo on skiing and cycling performance in well-trained elite athletes.

METHODS: Three different exercise protocols were used, all with a cross-over double blind placebo-controlled design. Participants inhaled 800 µg salbutamol or a placebo prior to the test, which was repeated on a following day with the participants inhaling the other substance. Fifteen junior elite skiers performed four free-style high intensity sprints (1100 m/work time 3.5-4.5 min). Twelve elite cyclists carried out a short cycling protocol, starting with two 5 min submaximal workloads followed by a maximal intermittent performance test to exhaustion. Another 12 elite cyclists performed the maximal intermittent performance test to exhaustion after a 150 min long submaximal cycling protocol.

RESULTS: Group mean time for the ski sprints increased, with no difference between treatment groups. In the short cycling protocol time to exhaustion was 9.1% (95% CI 52-161) lower after inhaling salbutamol compared to placebo and in the long cycling protocol time to exhaustion was 9.1% (95% CI - 121-267) lower after inhaling salbutamol compared to placebo. Blood lactate, heart rate and ventilation increased during submaximal exercise with salbutamol compared to placebo in the short cycling protocol (p < .05).

CONCLUSION: This study could not confirm any positive performance effects from inhaling 800 µg salbutamol compared to placebo in skiing and high-intensity intermittent cycling performance. Instead, time to exhaustion in the maximal intermittent performance test was lower in both cycling protocols. HighlightsThere was no difference in performance time between salbutamol and placebo treatment in real-life applicable repeated ski sprints.Time to exhaustion in the maximal intermittent performance test was 9.1% lower after inhaling salbutamol compared to placebo, both when performed after 10 and 150 min of submaximal cycling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Performance, doping, endurance, physiology, respiratory
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7027 (URN)10.1080/17461391.2022.2063071 (DOI)000787211000001 ()35392766 (PubMedID)
Conference
23(5):766-773
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in SportsSwedish Armed Forces, AF 922 0916
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2023-05-18
Flockhart, M., Tischer, D., Nilsson, L. C., Blackwood, S. J., Ekblom, B., Katz, A., . . . Larsen, F. J. (2023). Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after prolonged exercise in endurance athletes.. Acta Physiologica, 238(4), Article ID e13972.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after prolonged exercise in endurance athletes.
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2023 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 238, no 4, article id e13972Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: The purpose of this study was to 1. investigate if glucose tolerance is affected after one acute bout of different types of exercise; 2. assess if potential differences between two exercise paradigms are related to changes in mitochondrial function; and 3. determine if endurance athletes differ from nonendurance-trained controls in their metabolic responses to the exercise paradigms.

METHODS: Nine endurance athletes (END) and eight healthy nonendurance-trained controls (CON) were studied. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and mitochondrial function were assessed on three occasions: in the morning, 14 h after an overnight fast without prior exercise (RE), as well as after 3 h of prolonged continuous exercise at 65% of VO2 max (PE) or 5 × 4 min at ~95% of VO2 max (HIIT) on a cycle ergometer.

RESULTS: Glucose tolerance was markedly reduced in END after PE compared with RE. END also exhibited elevated fasting serum FFA and ketones levels, reduced insulin sensitivity and glucose oxidation, and increased fat oxidation during the OGTT. CON showed insignificant changes in glucose tolerance and the aforementioned measurements compared with RE. HIIT did not alter glucose tolerance in either group. Neither PE nor HIIT affected mitochondrial function in either group. END also exhibited increased activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in muscle extracts vs. CON.

CONCLUSION: Prolonged exercise reduces glucose tolerance and increases insulin resistance in endurance athletes the following day. These findings are associated with an increased lipid load, a high capacity to oxidize lipids, and increased fat oxidation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
endurance athletes, endurance exercise, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, mitochondria, reactive oxygen species
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Endocrinology and Diabetes
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7627 (URN)10.1111/apha.13972 (DOI)000972308100001 ()37017615 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2017-0067, P2018-0083, P2019-0062, P2020-0061
Note

At the time of Mikael Flockhart's dissertation, this article was a submitted manuscript.

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-08-29
Flockhart, M., Nilsson, L. C., Ekblom, B. & Larsen, F. J. (2022). A simple model for diagnosis of maladaptations to exercise training. Sports Medicine Open, 8(1), Article ID 136.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simple model for diagnosis of maladaptations to exercise training
2022 (English)In: Sports Medicine Open, E-ISSN 2198-9761, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The concept of overreaching and super compensation is widely in use by athletes and coaches seeking to maximize performance and adaptations to exercise training. The physiological aspects of acute fatigue, overreaching and non-functional overreaching are, however, not well understood, and well-defined negative physiological outcomes are missing. Instead, the concept relies heavily on performance outcomes for differentiating between the states. Recent advancements in the field of integrated exercise physiology have associated maladaptations in muscular oxidative function to high loads of exercise training.

Method: Eleven female and male subjects that exercised regularly but did not engage in high-intensity interval training (HIIT) were recruited to a 4-week long training intervention where the responses to different training loads were studied. Highly monitored HIIT sessions were performed on a cycle ergometer in a progressive fashion with the intent to accomplish a training overload. Throughout the intervention, physiological and psychological responses to HIIT were assessed, and the results were used to construct a diagnostic model that could indicate maladaptations during excessive training loads.

Results: We here use mitochondrial function as an early marker of excessive training loads and show the dynamic responses of several physiological and psychological measurements during different training loads. During HIIT, a loss of mitochondrial function was associated with reduced glycolytic, glucoregulatory and heart rate responses and increased ratings of perceived exertion in relation to several physiological measurements. The profile of mood states was highly affected after excessive training loads, whereas performance staled rather than decreased. By implementing five of the most affected and relevant measured parameters in a diagnostic model, we could successfully, and in all the subjects, identify the training loads that lead to maladaptations.

Conclusions: As mitochondrial parameters cannot be assessed without donating a muscle biopsy, this test can be used by coaches and exercise physiologists to monitor adaptation to exercise training for improving performance and optimizing the health benefits of exercise. Clinical trial registry number NCT04753021 . Retrospectively registered 2021-02-12.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Exercise; Maladaptations; Mitochondria; Overreaching; Performance; Physiology; Testing.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7117 (URN)10.1186/s40798-022-00523-x (DOI)36333619 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2020-0061
Note

At the time of Mikael Flockhart's dissertation this manuscript was submitted.

Available from: 2022-08-24 Created: 2022-08-24 Last updated: 2023-01-09
Jonsson, W. O., Ponette, J., Horwath, O., Rydenstam, T., Söderlund, K., Ekblom, B., . . . Blomstrand, E. (2022). Changes in plasma concentration of kynurenine following intake of branched-chain amino acids are not caused by alterations in muscle kynurenine metabolism.. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 322, C49-C62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in plasma concentration of kynurenine following intake of branched-chain amino acids are not caused by alterations in muscle kynurenine metabolism.
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2022 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 322, p. C49-C62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been suggested to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis, including levels of PGC-1α, which may, in turn, alter kynurenine metabolism. Ten healthy subjects performed 60 min of dynamic one-leg exercise at ~70% of Wmax on two occasions. They were in random order supplied either a mixture of BCAA or flavored water (placebo) during the experiment. Blood samples were collected during exercise and recovery, and muscle biopsies were taken from both legs before, after and 90 and 180 min following exercise. Ingestion of BCAA doubled their concentration in both plasma and muscle while causing a 30-40% reduction (P<0.05 vs. placebo) in levels of aromatic amino acids in both resting and exercising muscle during 3-h recovery. The muscle concentration of kynurenine decreased by 25% (P<0.05) during recovery, similar in both resting and exercising leg and with both supplements, although plasma concentration of kynurenine during recovery was 10% lower (P<0.05) when BCAA were ingested. Ingestion of BCAA reduced the plasma concentration of kynurenic acid by 60% (P<0.01) during exercise and recovery, while the level remained unchanged with placebo. Exercise induced a 3-4-fold increase (P<0.05) in muscle content of PGC-1a1 mRNA after 90 min of recovery under both conditions, whereas levels of KAT4 mRNA and protein were unaffected by exercise or supplement. In conclusion, the reduction of plasma levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid caused by BCAA were not associated with any changes in the level of muscle kynurenine, suggesting that kynurenine metabolism was altered in tissues other than muscle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2022
Keywords
PGC-1α, kynurenic acid, muscle, tryptophan
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6862 (URN)10.1152/ajpcell.00285.2021 (DOI)000744029900005 ()34817270 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in SportsNovo Nordisk
Available from: 2021-12-02 Created: 2021-12-02 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, B. (2022). "Man kan inte säga annat än att bordet var dukat": Björn Ekblom om 60-talet på GCI. Idrottsmedicin : Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin (2), 3-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Man kan inte säga annat än att bordet var dukat": Björn Ekblom om 60-talet på GCI
2022 (Swedish)In: Idrottsmedicin : Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, no 2, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin, 2022
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7141 (URN)
Available from: 2022-10-03 Created: 2022-10-03 Last updated: 2022-10-03
Horwath, O., Moberg, M., Hirschberg, A. L., Ekblom, B. & Apro, W. (2022). Molecular Regulators of Muscle Mass and Mitochondrial Remodeling Are Not Influenced by Testosterone Administration in Young Women.. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13, Article ID 874748.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Regulators of Muscle Mass and Mitochondrial Remodeling Are Not Influenced by Testosterone Administration in Young Women.
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 13, article id 874748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Testosterone (T) administration has previously been shown to improve muscle size and oxidative capacity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations in human skeletal muscle remain to be determined. Here, we examined the effect of moderate-dose T administration on molecular regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial remodeling in muscle samples collected from young women. Forty-eight healthy, physically active, young women (28 ± 4 years) were assigned in a random double-blind fashion to receive either T (10 mg/day) or placebo for 10-weeks. Muscle biopsies collected before and after the intervention period were divided into sub-cellular fractions and total protein levels of molecular regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial remodeling were analyzed using Western blotting. T administration had no effect on androgen receptor or 5α-reductase levels, nor on proteins involved in the mTORC1-signaling pathway (mTOR, S6K1, eEF2 and RPS6). Neither did it affect the abundance of proteins associated with proteasomal protein degradation (MAFbx, MuRF-1 and UBR5) and autophagy-lysosomal degradation (AMPK, ULK1 and p62). T administration also had no effect on proteins in the mitochondria enriched fraction regulating mitophagy (Beclin, BNIP3, LC3B-I, LC3B-II and LC3B-II/I ratio) and morphology (Mitofilin), and it did not alter the expression of mitochondrial fission- (FIS1 and DRP1) or fusion factors (OPA1 and MFN2). In summary, these data indicate that improvements in muscle size and oxidative capacity in young women in response to moderate-dose T administration cannot be explained by alterations in total expression of molecular factors known to regulate muscle protein turnover or mitochondrial remodeling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
androgen receptor, fission, fusion, mTORC1-signaling, ubiquitin-proteasome system
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7055 (URN)10.3389/fendo.2022.874748 (DOI)000795475000001 ()35498440 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-05-18 Created: 2022-05-18 Last updated: 2024-01-17
Holmlund, T., Ekblom, B. & Ekblom Bak, E. (2022). P05-01 Change in cardiorespiratory fitness in midlife and incident hypertension. In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2: . Paper presented at 11th Conference of HEPA Europe (Health Enhancing Physical Activity). 31 August - 2 September 2022, Nice, France. Oxford University Press, 32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>P05-01 Change in cardiorespiratory fitness in midlife and incident hypertension
2022 (English)In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2, Oxford University Press, 2022, Vol. 32Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
Keywords
Hypertension, cardiorespiratory, fitness, change, risk
National Category
Health Sciences Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7412 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckac095.068 (DOI)000848627100279 ()
Conference
11th Conference of HEPA Europe (Health Enhancing Physical Activity). 31 August - 2 September 2022, Nice, France
Available from: 2022-11-29 Created: 2022-11-29 Last updated: 2022-11-29
Flockhart, M., Tischer, D., Nilsson, L., Blackwood, S. J., Ekblom, B., Katz, A., . . . Larsen, F. J. (2022). THREE HOURS OF MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING REDUCES GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN ENDURANCE TRAINED ATHLETES. In: : . Paper presented at Vålådalsdagarna 2022, 8-10 februari, Vålådalen..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>THREE HOURS OF MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING REDUCES GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN ENDURANCE TRAINED ATHLETES
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

It is well accepted that exercise training improves glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, and that endurance trained athletes in general show a high capacity for these parameters and excellent metabolic control. However, some studies fail to observe positive effects on glucose regulation in healthy, trained subjects the day after exercise. These, often unexpected, results have been postulated to be caused by excessive training loads, muscle damage, energy deficit, differences in glucose uptake in the exercised and non-exercised musculature and a metabolic interaction through increased fatty acid metabolism which suppresses glucose oxidation and uptake. The mode or volume of exercise that can lead to glucose intolerance in trained athletes as well as mechanistic insights and its relevance for health and performance are, however, not fully understood.

AIM

We studied the metabolic response to a glucose load the day after a session of high intensity interval training (HIIT) or three hours of continuous exercise (3h) in endurance trained athletes and compared the results with measurements during rest.

METHOD

Nine endurance trained athletes (5 females, 4 males) underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) after rest and ~14 hours after exercise on a cycle ergometer (HIIT 5x4 minutes at ~95% of VO2max or 3h at 65% of VO2max). Venous blood was sampled at 15-minute intervals for 120 minutes and concentrations of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA) and ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using a RM one-way ANOVA with the Giesser-Greenhouse correction and Dunnett’s test was used to compare the exercise conditions to the resting condition.

RESULTS

The area under the curve (AUC) during the OGTT increased greatly after 3h (668±124 mM · min) (p<0.01) compared to rest (532±89) but was found to be unchanged after HIIT (541±96). Resting values of FFA and ketones were increased after 3h (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) but not after HIIT. Insulin was found to be unaltered during all conditions.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

Here, we show manifestation of glucose intolerance in endurance trained athletes together with concomitant increases in plasma concentrations of FFA and ketones the day after a session of prolonged exercise training but not after HIIT. This could be a protective response for securing glucose delivery to the brain and therefore have a positive effect on endurance. It also has the potential to reduce the recovery of glycogen depots, glucose uptake during exercise and performance at higher work rates.

Keywords
glucose, exercise, performance
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6969 (URN)
Conference
Vålådalsdagarna 2022, 8-10 februari, Vålådalen.
Available from: 2022-02-18 Created: 2022-02-18 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Projects
Den äldre orienteraren – Hälsa och Livsstil; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4030-5437

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