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Salier Eriksson, J., Ekblom, B., Kallings, L., Hemmingsson, E., Andersson, G., Wallin, P., . . . Ekblom Bak, E. (2020). Active commuting in Swedish workers between 1998 and 2015 - trends, characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 30(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active commuting in Swedish workers between 1998 and 2015 - trends, characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk.
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2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Trend analyses of active commuting and potential variations in trends and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk within sub-groups are unknown.

OBJECTIVES: To a) describe trends in active commuting between 1998 to 2015 and b) to study the association between different amounts of active commuting and the incidence risk of CVD in a large sample of Swedish workers, and analyses of potential variations across sub-groups of socio-demographics, physical activity and BMI.

METHODS: A total of 318,309 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1998 and 2015 were included. Commuting habits were self-reported, and data on first-time CVD events were derived from national registers.

RESULTS: Self-reported passive commuters decreased between 1998 and 2015 (64% to 56%), transferring to an increase in mainly moderate/high-dose active commuters (12% to 19%). Changes were seen in all subgroups. The characteristics and life-style habits of the typical passive and active commuter changed little over the study period. Low- and moderate/high-dose active commuters had significantly decreased risks for a first time CVD during follow-up. This was accentuated in men, middle-aged and in participants with light physical work situations, irregular exercise habits, being overweight/obese and with low fitness.

CONCLUSION: Increases in active commuting were observed between 1998 and 2015, however still leaving a majority who do not actively commute. As active commuting, regardless dose, is associated with a lower CVD risk, encouraging more people to actively commute may provide an easily accessible and time-efficient possibility to increase physical activity and health in the general population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
active commuting, cardiovascular disease, cycling, physical activity, trends, walking, working population
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5889 (URN)10.1111/sms.13581 (DOI)000499749900001 ()31631386 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
Fröberg, A., Lindroos, A.-K., Ekblom, Ö. & Nyberg, G. (2020). Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.. Acta Paediatrica
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.
2020 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between participation in organised physical activity (PA), such as sport and exercise during leisure time, and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

METHODS: This study was part of the school-based cross-sectional Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17. Data from 3477 adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were used in the analyses. Participation in organised PA and parental education were reported in questionnaires. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured through accelerometry during seven consecutive days.

RESULTS: Adolescents who participated in organised PA had significantly higher total PA (14%, p<0.001), more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (eight minutes, p<0.001) and had less sedentary time (15 minutes, p<0.001). Those who participated in organised PA were more likely to reach recommended PA levels. Total PA and MVPA did not differ by parental education among those who participated in organised PA.

CONCLUSION: Adolescents who participated in organised PA were more physically active, less sedentary and more likely to reach PA recommendations than those who did not.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2020
Keywords
Adolescent health, Exercise, Physical activity, Sedentary behaviour, Socioeconomic, Sports
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6012 (URN)10.1111/apa.15187 (DOI)31977109 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-29 Created: 2020-01-29 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Ekblom, Ö. (2020). Placebo "exercise drink" study provides a welcome wake-up call about the importance of rigorous research.. Acta Paediatrica, 109(2), 226-227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Placebo "exercise drink" study provides a welcome wake-up call about the importance of rigorous research.
2020 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 226-227Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5890 (URN)10.1111/apa.15009 (DOI)31577038 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Blom, V., Kallings, L., Ekblom, B., Wallin, P., Andersson, G., Hemmingsson, E., . . . Ekblom Bak, E. (2020). Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), Article ID E511.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
loneliness, public health, self-reported health, sleeping problems, stress, working population
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6007 (URN)10.3390/ijerph17020511 (DOI)31947519 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Available from: 2020-01-28 Created: 2020-01-28 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Larsson, K., Kallings, L., Ekblom, Ö., Blom, V., Andersson, E. & Ekblom, M. (2019). Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.. BMC Public Health, 19(1), Article ID 19:17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adults, Office-based work, Older adults, Reliability, Sedentary behaviour, Sitting, Validity, activPAL
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5520 (URN)10.1186/s12889-018-6329-1 (DOI)30611226 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08
Väisänen, D., Ekblom, Ö., Ekblom Bak, E., Andersson, E., Nilsson, J. & Ekblom, M. (2019). Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Cardiorespiratory fitness, Elderly, Oxygen uptake, Public health, Submaximal test, Validity
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5960 (URN)10.1007/s00421-019-04275-7 (DOI)31820103 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18
Ekblom, M., Bojsen-Möller, E., Tarassova, O. & Ekblom, Ö. (2019). Day-to day variations in physical activity patterns affect corticospinal excitability on the following day. In: Brain Stimulation March-April 2019, vol 12, issue 2: . Paper presented at 3rd International Brain Stimulation Conference, Feb 24-27 2019, Vancouver (pp. 468). Elsevier, 12(2), Article ID 437.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Day-to day variations in physical activity patterns affect corticospinal excitability on the following day
2019 (English)In: Brain Stimulation March-April 2019, vol 12, issue 2, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 468-, article id 437Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5738 (URN)10.1016/j.brs.2018.12.523 (DOI)
Conference
3rd International Brain Stimulation Conference, Feb 24-27 2019, Vancouver
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-12-02Bibliographically approved
Ekblom Bak, E., Ekblom, Ö., Andersson, G., Wallin, P., Söderling, J., Hemmingsson, E. & Ekblom, B. (2019). Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29(2), 232-239
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 232-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max) in the general population are limited.

OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in VO2 max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions.

METHODS: 354.277 participants (44% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1995 and 2017 were included. Changes in standardized mean values of absolute (L·min-1 ) and relative (ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) VO2 max, and the proportion with low (<32) relative VO2 max are reported. VO2 max was estimated using a submaximal cycle test.

RESULTS: Absolute VO2 max decreased by -6.7% (-0.19 L·min-1 ) in the total population. Relative VO2 max decreased by -10.8% (-4.2 ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) with approximately one-third explained by a simultaneous increase in body mass. Decreases in absolute fitness were more pronounced in men vs. women (8.7% vs. 5.3%), in younger vs. older (6.5% vs 2.3%), in short (11.4%) vs. long (4.5%) education, and in rural vs. urban regions (6.5% vs 3.5%), all p<0.001. The proportions with low VO2 max increased from 27% to 46% (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Between 1995 and 2017, there was a steady and pronounced decline in mean cardiorespiratory fitness in Swedish adults. Male gender, young age, short education and living in a rural area were predictive of greater reductions. The proportion with low cardiorespiratory fitness almost doubled. Given the strong associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple morbidities and mortality, preventing further decreases is a clear public health priority, especially for vulnerable groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
Maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max, aerobic capacity, population, secular trend
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5460 (URN)10.1111/sms.13328 (DOI)30351472 (PubMedID)
Projects
HPI-gruppen
Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Kuster, R. P., Grooten, W. J., Baumgartner, D., Blom, V., Hagströmer, M. & Ekblom, Ö. (2019). Detecting Prolonged Sitting Bouts with the ActiGraph GT3X.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting Prolonged Sitting Bouts with the ActiGraph GT3X.
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The ActiGraph has a high ability to measure physical activity, however, it lacks an accurate posture classification to measure sedentary behaviour. The aim of the present study was to develop an ActiGraph (waist-worn, 30Hz) posture classification to detect prolonged sitting bouts, and to compare the classification to proprietary ActiGraph data. The activPAL, a highly valid posture classification device, served as reference criterion.1 Both sensors were worn by 38 office workers over a median duration of 9 days. An automated feature selection extracted the relevant signal information for a minute based posture classification. The machine-learning algorithm with optimal feature number to predict the time in prolonged sitting bouts (≥5 and ≥10 minutes) was searched and compared to the activPAL using Bland-Altman statistics. The comparison included optimised and frequently used cut-points (100 and 150 counts-per-minute (cpm), with and without low-frequency-extension (LFE) filtering). The new algorithm predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts most accurate (bias ≤7 minutes/day). Of all proprietary ActiGraph methods, only 150 cpm without LFE predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts non-significantly different from the activPAL (bias ≤18 minutes/day). However, the frequently used 100 cpm with LFE accurately predicted total sitting time (bias ≤7 minutes/day). To study the health effects of ActiGraph measured prolonged sitting, we recommend using the new algorithm. In case a cut-point is used, we recommend 150 cpm without LFE to measure prolonged sitting, and 100 cpm with LFE to measure total sitting time. However, both cpm cut-points are not recommended for a detailed bout analysis.

Keywords
Automated Feature Selection, Bout Analysis, Machine Learning, Posture Prediction, Sedentary Behaviour, activPAL
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5934 (URN)10.1111/sms.13601 (DOI)000503822900001 ()31743494 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Ekblom, M., Ekblom, Ö., Börjesson, M., Bergström, G., Jern, C. & Wallin, A. (2019). Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24), Article ID E5136.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 24, article id E5136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High aerobic fitness, more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less sedentary behavior (SED) have all been suggested to promote cognitive functions, but it is unclear whether they are independent predictors of specific cognitive domains. This study aimed to investigate to what extent aerobic fitness MVPA and SED are independently associated with cognitive performance among middle-aged Swedish adults. We acquired device-based measures of aerobic fitness, cognitive performance and percent daily time spent in MVPA and SED in Swedish adults (n = 216; 54-66 years old). Aerobic fitness was associated with better performance at one out of two tests of speed/attention and one out of four tests of executive attention, and with worse performance at one of seven tests of memory. Increasing %MVPA was associated with better performance at one out of seven tests of memory and two out of three tests of verbal ability, whereas increasing %SED was associated with better performance at all four tests of executive attention and four out of seven tests of memory. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness, %MVPA and %SED are partly independent correlates of cognitive performance. To fully understand the association between SED and performance at several tests of cognitive function, future investigations might attempt to investigate intellectually engaging SED (such as reading books) separately from mentally undemanding SED (such as watching TV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
accelerometry, cognitive functions, exercise, physical activity, sedentary behavior
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5980 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16245136 (DOI)31888199 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-07 Created: 2020-01-07 Last updated: 2020-01-07
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6058-4982

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