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  • Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Madigan, Daniel
    York St John Univeristy.
    Estimating the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a psychosocial construct that has been extensively studied in athletes. Burnout is a significant threat to an athlete’s mental health and increases the risk of dropout from sport (Gustafsson, Madigan, & Lundkvist, 2017). However, little is known about prevalence of clinical-levels of burnout in athletes. This study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores taken from the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). To do so, cut-off scores were converted from the SMBQ to the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). This provided a cut-off score of 3.14. Data were derived from one cross-sectional sample (N = 1,931) and one 10-week longitudinal sample (N = 186; 10 waves). Analyses focused on the physical and emotional exhaustion subscale of the ABQ. In the longitudinal sample, the stability of the cut-offs was examined (i.e., those athletes scoring over 3.14 for over 50% of the time-points, versus those who never scored above 3.14). For the cross-sectional sample, 13% of athletes scored above the clinical cut-off score. For the longitudinal sample, 7.1% of athletes scored above the cut-off on over 50% of occasions, while 77.6% of athletes never scored above the cut-off score on any occasion. The present findings suggest that the estimated prevalence of athlete burnout differs when cross-sectional data are analysed than when longitudinal data are utilised. The findings reiterate that a significant proportion of athletes are at risk of burnout and that prevalence seem to be similar comparing with student- and working populations.

  • Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 23, artikkel-id E4766Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

  • Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Intensity of physical activity as a percentage of peak oxygen uptake, heart rate and Borg RPE in motor-complete para- and tetraplegia.2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 12, artikkel-id e0222542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe VO2peak, explore the potential influence of anthropometrics, demographics and level of physical activity within each cohort; b) to define common, standardized activities as percentages of VO2peak and categorize these as light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels according to present classification systems, and c) to explore how clinically accessible methods such as heart-rate monitoring and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) correlate or can describe light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional.

    SETTING: Rehabilitation facility and laboratory environment.

    SUBJECTS: Sixty-three individuals, thirty-seven (10 women) with motor-complete paraplegia (MCP), T7-T12, and twenty-six (7 women) with motor-complete tetraplegia (MCT), C5-C8.

    INTERVENTIONS: VO2peak was obtained during a graded peak test until exhaustion, and oxygen uptake during eleven different activities was assessed and categorized using indirect calorimetry.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VO2peak, Absolute and relative oxygen consumption, Borg RPE.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2peak was significantly higher in men than in women for both groups, with fairly small differences in relative VO2peak. For MCP sex, weight and time spent in vigorous-intensity activity explained 63% of VO2peak variance. For MCT sex and time in vigorous-intensity activity explained 55% of the variance. Moderate intensity corresponds to 61-72% HRpeak and RPE 10-13 for MCP vs. 71-79% HRpeak, RPE 13-14 for MCT.

    CONCLUSION: Using current classification systems, eleven commonly performed activities were categorized in relative intensity terms, (light, moderate and vigorous) based on percent of VO2peak, HRpeak and Borg RPE. This categorization enables clinicians to better guide persons with SCI to meet required physical activity levels.

  • Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Katedralskolan, Uppsala.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Learning health in Swedish physical education: A critical case study of students’ encounters with physical fitness and health as a learning object2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, s. 227-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfaces between health, physical education and schooling have a long history. Critical questions are being raised about the enforcement of learning a particular health practice in school physical education (PE). The present study departures from a practice-based research project evaluating a pedagogical model. The aim of the case study was to explore upper secondary students' learning and understandings of a specific learning object, aerobic fitness and how this influences health, after participating in a period of a longer lab work in the context of Swedish physical education. A phenomenographic approach was used when analyzing the students' written reports to identify and distinguish the variations of learning outcomes and understandings that emerged. Expectations of physical performance created tensions, and even conflicts, between the student-centred assignments and existing traditions within the field of physical education. The findings underscore the risk of neoliberal logics underpinning health education in the learning culture of PE. Further studies are needed where teaching methods/models and student learning are paid attention to in order to move away from teaching to be healthy towards students learning about health and make sense of themselves as healthy. This may offer new educational perspectives.

  • Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 23, artikkel-id E4721Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Transitioning from sickness absence to disability pension - the impact of poor health behaviours: a prospective Swedish twin cohort study.2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikkel-id e031889Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between three poor health behaviours (current smoker, high consumption of alcohol and low physical activity levels) and the transition to disability pension (DP) among individuals who have recently been sickness absent. Furthermore, we aimed to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviours increased the risk of transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to DP.

    DESIGN: Prospective twin cohort study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Twins aged 20-46 who had participated in a survey and been on SA (>14 days) in the year preceding baseline (date of answering the questionnaire).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident DP during the follow-up which ended on 31 December 2012 (mean 5.2 years). A national register with full coverage provided data on DP.

    RESULTS: The Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses showed that current smokers had a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP compared with never smokers (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.84). Alcohol use and lack of physical activity as well as poor health behaviour sum score showed no significant associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a current smoker influences the transition from SA to DP. Although non-significant, there were indications that more physical activity and fewer poor health behaviours could reduce the risk of exiting the labour market through DP. Improving health behaviours among people on SA could be a valuable tool for preventing the transition to DP.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules2019Inngår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons? views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes? situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

  • Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, s. 251-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores learning during game-play of a snowboarding video game intrigued by questions raised in the wake of the increasing mediatisation and digitisation of learning. Correspondingly, we answer to calls for more suitable metaphors for learning to cater for the entangled learning processes that changes related to the increase of digital media may infer. Using a short term sensory ethnography approach, we elaborate on the idea of multisensory emplaced learning and propose an organic metaphor – mycorrhiza – to both methodology and learning. Mycorrhiza refers to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of plants in its environment where fungi are the visible effects of the mycorrhiza. The metaphor provides a way to start to unpack sensory, visual and embodied aspects of learning in the complexities of the digital age. By elaborating on the mycorrhizaic concepts fungus, soil, growth, mycelia and symbiosis we show three interrelated ways of moving through this game: (i) a social and cultural route, (ii) a competitive route, and (iii) an experiential route. With help of the metaphor we discern the symbiotic relations between what appeared in our empirical material as visual and other human and non-human aspects of emplacement.

  • Jacques, Tiago Canal
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Bini, Rodrigo R.
    La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australien.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    BILATERAL TENDON STRAIN DURING A 5-KM RUNNING TIME-TRIAL2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Dickinson, Andrew
    et al.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Rainbow, Michael J.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Image Resolution Affects Tracking in vivo Biplanar X-ray Images of the Human Foot During Dynamic Motion2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Hegyi, Andras
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Peter, Annamaria
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Cronin, Neil J.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Azcarate, Laura
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandamas, Paul
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muscle contributions to body mass centre acceleration during the first stance of sprint running2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Holm, Lennart
    Tre slag för den Gustavianska parken1996Inngår i: Landskap Utblick, ISSN 0281-7462, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln redogör för främst Sture Koinbergs skisser för ett utvecklat parklandskap vid Haga - Brunnsviken - Ulriksdal i Kungl. Nationalstadsparken, och inom ramen för Kommitténs för Gustavianska Parken medborgarplanering åren 1992-1996, med tre utställningar på Konstakademien i Stockholm (Kring Brunnsvikens stränder I-III).

  • Mikaels, Jonas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Imponerande om oskrivna kvinno(frilufts)liv: Recension av boken The Palgrave International Handbook of Women and Outdoor Learning (2018)2018Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, artikkel-id 15 novemberArtikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hellström, John S.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Idrottshistoriska forskningsgruppen.
    “- How does it feel right now?”: A narrative analysis of sports-interviews after performance2019Inngår i: The Society of the Study of Narrative Annual Conference, ISSN / [ed] James Phelan, Georgetown: Ohio State University Press, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Success stories and heroic tales are recurrently investigated narrative genres in literature (Propp, 1998), journalism (Lule, 2001) and, not the least, in sports (Hellström, 2014). In sports, we repeatedly hear athletes explain their performance at half-time or give us reflections on a recently completed competition. However, these stories are not produced in a social vacuum; they are part of a discursive framework and a product of time and place. The trajectories for a legitimate success story is limited and specific storylines are repeated and holds a specific dramaturgical structure. The heroic story typically follows a temporal structure, from a beginning to an end, where events and performances function as phases of a narrative journey towards a defining triumph (Hoebeke et al. 2011). Which performances that constitutes the highlight of an athlete’s career will always be culturally determined, since cultures produces heroes according to their own specific values and traditions (Whannel, 2002). Thereby, the “personal” story is both a contextually specific narrative and a culturally shared narrative.

     

    Aims and empirical material

    In this paper, we are seeking to investigate how success stories in sports as a central part of the athletes identity work, and how these stories also serve as symbols for values and morals of a wider sporting society (Kilger, 2017). Many narrative scholars within the area of sports have been interested in retrospective studies of sports heroes or historical media studies of successful athletes (Hargreaves, 2000; Hellström, 2014; Whannel, 2002). In this study, we would like to pay particular attention to how personal narratives are built ´in-action´ and study which narrative elements are recurrent in the interviews and how is the own performance explained. Accordingly, we are interested in how such narratives of success and failure are co-constructed in the interview interaction and how they are structured. By investigating which master narratives that the participants recruit in their personal stories, this can help us to uncover shared normative storylines in elite sports. Moreover, we would like to illuminate how the athletes are using ´temporal-identity´ in the interviews as a way to construct a legitimate story of performance.

     

    The data set will include after-performance media interviews from Swedish television (SVT) during the FIS Cross Country World Championships. More specifically, we are seeking to analyze between 15-20 after-race television interviews with Swedish athletes during the FIS Cross Country World Championships 2019 in Falun, Sweden.

  • Nilsson, Avlant
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björnson, Elias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Nielsen, Jens
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise.2019Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 5072Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles are tailored towards ATP synthesis. When exercising at high work rates muscles convert glucose to lactate, which is less nutrient efficient than respiration. There is hence a trade-off between endurance and power. Metabolic models have been developed to study how limited catalytic capacity of enzymes affects ATP synthesis. Here we integrate an enzyme-constrained metabolic model with proteomics data from muscle fibers. We find that ATP synthesis is constrained by several enzymes. A metabolic bypass of mitochondrial complex I is found to increase the ATP synthesis rate per gram of protein compared to full respiration. To test if this metabolic mode occurs in vivo, we conduct a high resolved incremental exercise tests for five subjects. Their gas exchange at different work rates is accurately reproduced by a whole-body metabolic model incorporating complex I bypass. The study therefore shows how proteome allocation influences metabolism during high intensity exercise.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-13 13:00 Aulan, Stockholm
    Linghede, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Glitch i Idrottslandet: en kritiskkreativ undersökning av queeranden inom svensk idrott(svetenskap)2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant story in critical sports research is that sport is characterised by heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity norms. These norms are manifested in sexism, homophobia, homonegativity and racism which affect all athletes, regardless of identity. Although important, this is a story that risks reinforcing ideas of how all sport “is”. The thesis is a response to calls from feminist theorists and sport researchers who argue that we need to move away from a logic of negativity built into critical theory and instead put our analytical tools to the task of constructing alternative possible scenarios. The aim of the thesis is to explore what some major strands within contemporary feminist theory can accomplish in relation to dominating stories about gender, sexuality and scientific knowledge production in sport research. More specifically, I explore how the concepts of figuration and intra-action can open up for other possible sport (science) worlds.

    The thesis consists of a frame-story and four articles, which in turn are based on three substudies. In the first substudy I interviewed boys and men who engage with horses and in horse riding. By engaging in a sport, equestrianism, that in Sweden is dominated by girls/women and female coded, they transgress and challenge – glitch – ideas of how Real sports boys/men should be, live and act. The interview stories from this study are enacted in various ways in article I and IV. In the second substudy I interviewed elite athletes with experiences of living non-straight and who in that way glitch heteronormativity in sports (sometimes also homonormativity). These stories make up the heart of the figurations presented in article II. In the third substudy, I explored athletic bodies that, due to intersex variations, glitch the idea that the only way of being a body (in sport) is to be male or female. This analysis is presented in article III.

    The thesis is populated by horseguys who challenge stereotypical masculinity norms, sporting contexts that turn heteronormativity up-side-down and inside-out, athletic bodies that implode binary gender and a researcher I glitching a scientific (writing) genre. The figurations presented in the thesis open up for queering elsewheres, where engaging in sport can serve as a condition of possibility for same-sex attractions/relations and non-normative ways of being a boy/man, and where creative writing – in the form of fiction, poetry and genre mixing – can be used as a method of inquiry.

    Through the concept of intra-action, the thesis also makes visible that “matter matters”. Firstly, I show how engaging materially with horses allow and encourage boys/men to be less constrained by dominant gender norms – in other words, that human-horse relations are entangled with, and affect, boys’ and men’s doing of gender. Secondly, I make visible how athletic bodies “strike back” in relation to ideas of binary gender, glitching a dominant medico-scientific story (in sport) telling us that the only way of being a body is to be male or female. Thirdly, I enact – in form and content – how the researcher is always already entangled in scientific knowledge production.

  • Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska institutet.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska institutet.
    School-based obesity prevention for busy low-income families: Organisational and personal barriers and facilitators to implementation.2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 11, artikkel-id e0224512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little research has targeted multiple-level barriers and facilitators in school-based parental support programmes. This qualitative study aims to describe barriers and facilitators, at organisational and personal levels, that teachers and parents in disadvantaged settings in Sweden perceived as influencing the implementation of the Healthy School Start II (HSS II) intervention.

    METHODS: Data collection, analysis and interpretation were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 14 parents and ten teachers within the HSS II trial. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis in a deductive step using the three CFIR domains-inner and outer setting, and personal characteristics-followed by an inductive analysis.

    RESULTS: The theme 'being on the same page-getting burdened teachers and parents to work on common ground' was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to the structure of the schoolwork and curriculum, involvement from other staff and school management, the practical school workday, perception of high family needs but low parental interest, insufficient resources in the families, and teacher's personal knowledge, interests, and opinions about health and food. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived family needs and resources, parents' health knowledge, consensus about healthy behaviours and ability to cooperate, and school involvement in health issues and the intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions should facilitate parents' and teachers' work on common ground, with activities suitable for a stressful and burdensome workday and everyday life. This could be achieved by integrating evidence-based practices within school routines, and including activities that are practicable despite parents' stressful lives, and that increase parental consensus about promoting health. Strategies to increase involvement of parents in families with high needs are necessary. Also, this study suggests an expansion of the CFIR to capture the interface between different micro-level organisations, and account for several delivering/receiving organisations.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hoff, David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides2019Inngår i: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

  • Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • Girma Wondimu, Desalegn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien: Kartläggning av ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva hur barn- och ungdomsfotbollen är organiserad i Addis Abeba, Etiopien, med ett speciellt fokus på ungdomsfotbollen. Uppsatsen kommer att redovisa ledares, tränarnas och ungdomars beskrivning av ungdomsfotbollen. Frågeställningarna är: Hur beskriver tränare, ledare och ungdomar ungdomsfotbollens organisation samt dess hinder och möjligheter, i Addis Abeba Etiopien.

    Metod

    Både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod har använts. Studien genomfördes dels med intervjuer med sex personer där två tillhör fotbollsfederationen, en är från kommunen, två är ungdomstränare och en sportchef på en klubb i Etiopiens första liga, dels via en enkätundersökning med två ungdomslag i åldrarna  13–17 år.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av intervjuerna och enkäterna visar att endast viss begränsad organisation finns. För åldrarna 6–12 år finns i Addis Abeba eller i Etiopien ingen organisation likt exempelvis Sveriges statsstödda barn- och ungdomsverksamhet. I denna åldersgrupp görs enbart tillfälliga lösningar genom klubbarna och federationen, eller av barnen och ungdomarna själva genom spontanfotboll. För de lite äldre pojkarna, 13-15 år, finns skolfotboll  samt så kallade ”projekt”, men ingen organisation eller några fotbollsföreningar. Ungdomsfotbollen har många utmaningar. Det saknas resurser, utbildade tränare, lämpliga fotbollsplaner, materiel, utrustning, lokaler och träningstider. Det saknas också en tydlig policy hos Etiopiens och Addis Abebas fotbollsfederation som prioriterar ungdomsfotbollen och som visar hur den bör organiseras. Det finns dock stora möjligheter till förbättring. Enkäten visar att intresset och motivationen är stort. 

    Slutsats

    Ungdomsfotbollen i Addis Abeba är organisatoriskt outvecklad och uppvisar brister i struktur, prioritering och långsiktighet. Detta behöver åtgärdas om man vill nå en hållbar ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien.  

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gun
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019Inngår i: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Almali, Leyli
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Vad är hälsa för högstadieelever?: En intervjustudie om flickor och pojkar och deras uppfattning om begreppet hälsa i årskurs 92019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this survey is to investigate what students in grade 9 thinks what health is. How they relate to health in the subject physical education and what image they have on the subject.

    Questions

    • What do students in grade 9 think about what they learn about the notion of health.
    • How do the teachers convey their knowledge to the students about health.
    • Do the students have a pathogen or a salutogenic perspective of health.

    Method

    To answer the questions the survey used a qulitative method with interviews. Six students from grade 9 and 3 teachers in physical education participated in the study. The interviews were semistructured because the content and questions were decided before hand but the follow up questions were adapted to the people that participated.

    Results

    The students perceived the notion of health in the subject differently. Some students connects the notion of health to different physical activities whilst some students thinks about nutrition as an important part of health. All the participating teachers used theory sessions to educate about health. However, the content could differ between the teachers. The image of what the students think about health is mainly from a salutogenic perspective. 5 of 6 students said they interpreted that they had a salutogenic perspective and only one person thought about health from a pathogen perspective.

    Conclusions

    The students interpreted the notion of health differently. The teachers used theory sessions when they educated about health. Both students and teachers thought about health from mainly a salutogenic perspective.

  • Nilsson, Hampus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Makten och skolan: Debatten om skolan inför riksdagsvalet 20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Undersökningen syftar till att analysera hur riksdagspartierna argumenterade kring den svenska skolan inför valet 2014. Frågeställningen för undersökningen var:

    • Hur argumenterade partierna kring skolans styrning?
    • Hur argumenterade partierna kring betyg och resultat?
    • Hur argumenterade partierna kring friskolor?
    • Hur argumenterade partierna kring lärares roll och lärarprofessionens status?

    Metod

    Det empiriska materialet bestod av 1) debattartiklar skrivna av partiledare eller språkrör samt skolpolitiska talespersoner, 2) SVT:s utfrågningar av partiledarna, 3) partiernas valprogram. Metoden som tillämpades var Arne Naess (1970) argumentationsanalys. I analysen söktes efter teser samt pro- och contra-argument till teserna. Urvalet för studiens empiriska material baserades på handplockade urval. 

    Resultat

    Undersökningen visade att Moderaterna argumenterade för ett delat ansvar för skolan mellan stat och kommun. Centerpartiet ville behålla nuvarande styrningsform. Socialdemokraterna, Sverigedemokraterna, Miljöpartiet och Folkpartiet ville att skolan skulle förstatligas. Folkpartiet argumenterade för att betyg skulle sättas från och med årskurs 6 men menade samtidigt att skriftliga omdömen ger en bättre bild av eleven. Socialdemokraterna, Centerpartiet och Folkpartiet använde PISA-undersökningar för att stärka sina argument. Kristdemokraterna var positivt inställda till friskolor. Likaså var Centerpartiet som menade att vinstutdelning för ägare av friskolor skulle vara tillåten. Socialdemokraterna och Vänsterpartiet argumenterade för ett vinstförbud. Socialdemokraterna, Folkpartiet, Miljöpartiet ville stärka lärarnas roll och status främst genom att höja lärarnas löner och genom att öka tiden för undervisning samtidigt som att minska det administrativa arbetet.

    Slutsats

    Socialdemokraterna, Folkpartiet, Sverigedemokraterna, Miljöpartiet och Vänsterpartiet drev tesen om att förstatliga skolan. Kristdemokraterna, Folkpartiet och Centerpartiet var i sina teser positiva till vinstutdelning för friskolor medan Miljöpartiet, Socialdemokraterna och Vänsterpartiet teser ställde sig negativ till vinstutdelning. Folkpartiet argumenterade för tidigare betyg. Socialdemokraterna drev tesen om att införa karriärtjänster för lärare vilket skulle leda till att lärarna snarare skulle komma längre från sitt uppdrag att undervisa. Frågorna kring skolan följde inte den traditionella höger- och vänsterskalan. 

    Naess (1970) argumentations analys lämpade sig mindre väl för analys av partiernas valprogram än utfrågningarna och debattartiklarna då texterna i partiernas valprogram till sin karaktär sällan var argumenterande.

  • Åberg, John
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Bryta målchansen tidigt: Fysiska tester skapade för målvakter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka relationen mellan ungdomsmålvakters resultat i vanligt förekommande standardtester som är avsedda att mäta fysisk kapacitet och deras prestation i matchlika aktioner. Syftet är också att undersöka om resultaten skiljer sig mellan målvakter i två olika ålderskategorier.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Vad är korrelation mellan resultat i standardtester och matchlika aktioner?

    • Skiljer sig resultaten mellan ungdomsmålvakter på U17 och U19 nivå?

    Metod

    För att svara på studiens frågeställningar skapades ett testbatteri innehållande fysiska tester designade för fotbollsmålvakter, utifrån deras rörelsemönster och aktioner (verklighetsnära tester), som jämförs med tester som används av dagens fotbollsklubbar (standardtester). Med hjälp av aktuellt forskningsläge tillsammans med information som mottagits från tränare och målvakter, utfördes 6 tester, på 15 målvakter, som registrerades med mätinstrument och höghastighetskameror. Resultatet analyserades med dubbelsidig t-test för att finna en statistisk signifikans mellan två åldersgrupper och Spearmans test för att finna en korrelation mellan standard- och verklighetsnära testerna.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från t-testet visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan U17:s och U19:s målvakter på samtliga tester (p> 0,05). Spearmans test visade ingen statistiskt signifikant korrelation mellan testerna.

    Slutsats

    Både standard- och verklighetsnära testerna har sina fördelar men är syftet att utvärdera målvaktens fysiska kapacitet i matchlika situationer genom tester, bör dessa vara utformade utifrån målvaktens agerande under match. Enligt resultaten från denna studie visar detta att man inte enbart kan använda standardtester utan dessa bör kompletteras med tester specifikt utformade för måvakter.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Romerska speglingar2014Inngår i: Om människan i rörelse och i vila: Essäer, Stockholm: Oak Meadow Hill Editions , 2014, 1, s. 11-19Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser kulturella förbindelser mellan Sverige och Italien under 1700-talets senare hälft, och hur dessa äger rum i en kontext av en förändrad natursyn. Allt detta får avtryck runt sjön Brunnsviken norr om Stockholms innerstad.

  • Lutula, Antonio
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Resisted Sprint Training in Swimming: A Quasi-Experimental Study on Swedish National Level Swimmers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of resisted sprint training in swimming on maximal swimming velocity and performance characteristics. The aim was also to examine how maximal swimming velocity is related to maximal swim power and maximal dry-land power.

    Method

    Eighteen competitive national level swimmers (9 male and 9 female; age: 18.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass: 72 ± 8.3 kg, height: 177.2 ± 4.6 cm, mean ± SD) were recruited to this study. Subjects were assigned to either resisted sprint training (RST) or unresisted sprint training (UST). Sprint training was performed two times per week during 6 weeks as 8x15m with a 2min send-off interval. RST performed sprint training using individualized load corresponding 10% of maximum drag load (L10), UST performed sprint training with no added resistance. A test-battery including dry-land strength assessment; maximal strength (MxS) and explosive strength (ExS), a timed 25m front-crawl swim and in-water force-velocity profiling was performed prior and following the training intervention. Maximal swim power (Pmax), maximum drag load (F0), theoretical maximum velocity (v0) and slope of force-velocity curve (SFv) was computed though force-velocity profiling.

    Results

    No significant within group differences occurred in neither RST nor UST following the 6-week intervention period in: swimming velocity, MxS, ExS, Pmax, F0, v0, and SFv. Strong correlations were found between swimming velocity and MxS (r = 0.75), ExS (r =0.82) and Pmax (r = 0.92).

    Conclusion

    Resisted sprint training in swimming using L10 did in the present study not elicit any improvements in maximal swimming velocity or examined performance characteristics. Resisted sprint training does not appear to be a superior method of improving swimming performance compared to unresisted sprint training. MxS, ExS and Pmax can be used as robust predictors of swim performance, however only Pmax was found to be casually related to swimming velocity.

  • Rudner, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Stegius, Madeleine
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Vilken inlärningsteori lämpar sig bäst?: en experimentell studie i idrottsundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilken effekt har kamratåterkopplingsmodellen har i samband med idrottsundervisning i jämförelse med kontrollgruppen som utövar direkta instruktionsmodellen. Samt vilken av inlärningsteorierna har störst effekt. Vår hypotes är att kamratåterkopplingsmodellen är den inlärningsteori som ger bäst effekt vid inlärning av elevers färdighetsförmågor i momentet basket. Momentet behandlar öga-hand motoriken i form av basket.

    Metod: Ett före och efter test som innefattade 35 skott från straffkastlinjen – 4,25 m från baslinjen genomfördes. Deltagarna utför 5 övningskast för att därefter kasta 30 försök i 3 block (10 försök/block). Kasten graderas via ett poängsystem och dokumenteras. Totalt var det 6 tillfällen, ett testtillfälle innan experiment, 4 lektioner på 60 minuter/lektion där gruppen fördelades slumpmässigt in i två grupper med en bestämd inlärningsmetod per grupp samt ett testtillfälle efter avslutat experiment. Urvalet utgår från en målpopulation i årskurs 5 och använder sig av ett icke-slumpmässigt urval med ett bekvämlighetsurval på målpopulationen. I studien deltog totalt 28 elever, hälften killar (n=14) hälften tjejer (n=14). Two way repeated measures ANOVA utfördes för att analysera en eventuell statistisk signifikant interaktionsterm. Därefter granskades huvudeffekten för båda faktorerna och avslutades med ett post hoc test för att förstå eventuella skillnader.

    Resultat: I studiens resultat går det att urskilja att majoriteten av testpersonerna i respektive grupp har förbättrat sitt totala resultat från det första testtillfället till det slutliga resultatet. Det var dock inte en tillräcklig förändring av resultatet för att kunna urskilja något signifikantvärde hos någon av grupperna. Detta då skillnaden mellan för- och eftertest för gruppen med den direkta instruktionsmodellen inte visade på någon signifikans (p=0,758) och detsamma gäller gruppen med kamratåterkoppling (p=0,598).

    Slutsats: Enligt resultatet från denna studie går det inte att tyda vilket av de två pedagogiska tillvägagångssätten som är det mest effektiva för att leverera önskade lärandemål och färdigheter i undervisningen. I och med detta menar vi att det fortfarande saknas betydande mätningar som jämför olika undervisningsmetoder och strategier som lärare kan använda sig av för att uppnå kompetensbaserade resultat.

  • Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 18, artikkel-id E3370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

  • Stigson, Helena
    et al.
    Åman, Malin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway and Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Incidence of Acute Injuries among Licensed and Non-Licensed Cyclists using Insurance Registry Data2019Inngår i: 2019 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury / [ed] International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have examined acute injuries in competitive cycling or training as compared to other sports. By using nationwide insurance data including all injured cyclist registered in the Swedish Cycling Federation and all reported injuries during exercise race in Sweden, the objective was to examine acute injuries during competitive cycling or training for different types of cyclists. The injury incidence and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment were examined. All cyclists that were injured during 2008-2017 were included (n=1937).

    Among the 2666 licensed cyclists the incidence of cyclists injured during training or competition was 44 per 1000 licensed cyclists per year. Focusing on participants in exercise races, the incidence was annually 1.5 injured cyclists per 1000 participants per year. The most commonly injured body region was the upper extremity (41%), followed by head and neck (18%). In total 9.4% of all injured cyclists sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, non-licensed participants in exercise races were slightly older, and the proportion of females were higher (30% vs. 16%), than among licensed cyclists. The injury incidence among the cyclists was high, and to maintain a healthy and physically active population it is important to make efforts to prevent injuries.

  • Christenson, Anne
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    “…or else I close my ears” How women with obesity want to be approached and treated regarding gestational weight management: A qualitative interview study.2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of helping pregnant women maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive gestational weight gain is well recognized, but pregnant women do not always perceive communication about body weight as respectful or helpful. Furthermore, fear of inducing shame or guilt can prohibit some midwives from talking about body weight, especially if the woman has obesity. We aimed to explore what women of reproductive age with obesity regard to be the most important and relevant aspects when discussing gestational weight management. Methods: Qualitative interview study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews with 17 women of reproductive age (19–39 y) with obesity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Importance of obtaining vital medical information; 2) A wish to feel understood and treated with respect; 3) Midwives’ approach is crucial in sensitive key situations, which include bringing up the subject of body weight, weighing, providing weight-related information, coaching lifestyle modification, dealing with emotional reactions and ending a conversation. Conclusions: A majority of the interviewed women wished to receive information about risks about obesity and gestational weight gain, and recommendations on weight management. However, the risk of midwives offending someone by raising the topic may be increased if the pregnant woman believe that gestational weight gain is uncontrollable by the individual. Also, several situations during maternity care meetings can be stigmatizing and make women less receptive to advice or support. Women suggest that a good working alliance is likely to be achieved if midwives have knowledge about the causes of obesity, take interest in the patients’ background, have a non-judgmental approach and refrain from giving unsolicited advice. 

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking2019Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, nr 11-12, s. 2655-2671Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims therefore to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

     

    Methods. On two different days, heart rate and oxygen uptake measurements were made during three submaximal (model 1) and a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 14 habitual walking commuters participated. The reproducibility, based on the regression equations from test and retest and using three levels of heart rate from the walking commuting was analyzed. Differences between the two models were also analyzed. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest for either model. However, some rather large individual differences were seen in both models. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two models in slopes, intercepts and r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate – oxygen uptake relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of heart rate which are representative for walking commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • Bengs, Dagny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Elitaktiva sprintkanotisternas rörelseutslag i axelleden under paddling på ergometer i relation till aktiv rörlighet mätt i axelleden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att a) beskriva elitkanotisternas aktiva rörelseutslag (ARoM), b) undersöka hur stor del av ARoM i axelledens inåt- och utåtrotation som kanotisten använder under paddling för höger och vänster arm samt c) undersöka hur förhållandet eventuellt ändras under tre tävlingsfarter (200, 500 och 1000 m). Syftet var också att d) beskriva elitkanotisterna rörelseutslag i axelledens rotation under de tre tävlingsfarterna. 

    Metod

    Åtta elitkanotister (fyra kvinnor och fyra män 22,5 ±3,8 år, 1.80 ±0,11m, 81 kg±14 kg) deltog i studien. Axelledens rörlighet i inåt- och utåtrotation undersöktes med två olika metoder; ARoM mätt med goniometer i ryggliggande position och tredimensionell (3D) rörelseanalys mätt under paddling på kajakergometer. Data till 3D rörelseanalysen samlades in med ett optoelektroniskt kamerasystem med 12 kameror som mätte rörelser från markörer fästa på försökspersonerna under paddling på 200, 500 och 1000 m tävlingsfart. Medelvärdet analyserades från tio paddlingscykler under respektive fart och data bearbetades och analyserades i Visual3D och MATLAB.  

    Resultat

    Elitkanotisterna medelvärde och standardavvikelse (±) av ARoM i axelledens inåtrotation var 46° (±16°) och 39° (±10°) och i axelledens utåtrotation 75° (±13°) och 86° (±5°) för vänster respektive höger sida. Samtliga elitkanotister hade inskränkt rörlighet i axelledens inåtrotation. Ingen signifikant skillnad sågs mellan sidorna i varken axelledens inåt- eller utåtrotation (F=0.87, p=0.38). Under paddling på de tre olika tävlingsfarterna sågs heller ingen signifikant skillnad mellan sidorna i axelledens inåtrotation (F= 0.63, p=0.45), dock sågs en signifikant skillnad i rörelseutslaget i axelledens inåtrotation beroende på tävlingsfart (F=6.46. p=0.01); ju högre fart/kortare distans desto större rörelseutslag. Axelledens rörelseutslag i utåtrotation påverkades inte av varken tävlingsfart (F=3.59, p=0.94) eller sida (vänster/ höger) (F=1.76, p=0.23). Tävlingsfarten hade en signifikant betydelse för hur stor procentandel kanotisterna använde av sin maximala ARoM i axelledens inåtrotation under paddling (F=6,48, p=0,01); ju högre fart/kortare distans desto större procentuell andel nyttjades. Elitkanotisterna nyttjade en väldig liten procentandel av deras ARoM i axelledens utåtrotation under paddling; 0-1%. 

    Slutsats

    Det sågs ingen sidoskillnad mellan vänster och höger sida i axelledens rotationer hos elitkanotisterna och resultatet var oberoende av tävlingsfart. Alla elitkanotister hade en tydlig inskränkt rörlighet i axelledens inåtrotation. Den inskränkta inåtrotationen kompenseras troligen av andra strukturer i axel/skuldra under paddling, då elitkanotisterna använder över 100 % av deras AROM under paddling. Tidigare forskning har visat att inskränkt rörlighet i axelledens inåtrotation är en riskfaktor för skada hos kanotister. Resultaten från denna forskning ger värdefull information för elitkanotister och deras team om vad som sker i axelleden under paddling. De kan använda information till att uppmärksamma vikten av att öka rörlighet i inåtrotationen för att minska eventuella kompensatoriska rörelser i axelleden och på så sätt minska risken för smärta och skada under paddling. 

  • Holm, Lars
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dideriksen, Kasper
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Rie H
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Doessing, Simon
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bechshoeft, Rasmus L
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Højfeldt, Grith
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp. Karolinska institutet.
    Reitelseder, Søren
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.2019Inngår i: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, nr 17, artikkel-id e14143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the methods to determine human in vivo protein-specific myofibrillar and collagenous connective tissue protein fractional synthesis and breakdown rates. We found that in human myofibrillar proteins, the protein-bound tracer disappearance method to determine the protein fractional breakdown rate (FBR) (via 2 H2 O ingestion, endogenous labeling of 2 H-alanine that is incorporated into proteins, and FBR quantified by its disappearance from these proteins) has a comparable intrasubject reproducibility (range: 0.09-53.5%) as the established direct-essential amino acid, here L-ring-13 C6 -phenylalanine, incorporation method to determine the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (range: 2.8-56.2%). Further, the determination of the protein breakdown in a protein structure with complex post-translational processing and maturation, exemplified by human tendon tissue, was not achieved in this experimentation, but more investigation is encouraged to reveal the possibility. Finally, we found that muscle protein FBR measured with an essential amino acid tracer prelabeling is inappropriate presumably because of significant and prolonged intracellular recycling, which also may become a significant limitation for determination of the myofibrillar FSR when repeated infusion trials are completed in the same participants.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Are health effects of cycling underestimated due to inaccurate estimates of the physical activity?2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The enclosure is a summary of my perspectives as Discussant at the symposium: “Cycling and health in Europe and beyond – explaining and updating the evidence base” at the 10th HEPA Europe Health Enhancing Physical Activity Europe Conference at Southern University of Denmark in Odense, Denmark, August 28-30, 2019. Contributors to the symposium were Drs Adrian Bauman, Sylvia Titze, Niamph Murphy and Pekka Oja.

  • Blackwood, Sarah J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Katz, Abram
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Isoproterenol enhances force production in mouse glycolytic and oxidative muscle via separate mechanisms.2019Inngår i: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 471, nr 10, s. 1305-1316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fight or flight is a biologic phenomenon that involves activation of β-adrenoceptors in skeletal muscle. However, how force generation is enhanced through adrenergic activation in different muscle types is not fully understood. We studied the effects of isoproterenol (ISO, β-receptor agonist) on force generation and energy metabolism in isolated mouse soleus (SOL, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, glycolytic) muscles. Muscles were stimulated with isometric tetanic contractions and analyzed for metabolites and phosphorylase activity. Under conditions of maximal force production, ISO enhanced force generation markedly more in SOL (22%) than in EDL (8%). Similarly, during a prolonged tetanic contraction (30 s for SOL and 10 s for EDL), ISO-enhanced the force × time integral more in SOL (25%) than in EDL (3%). ISO induced marked activation of phosphorylase in both muscles in the basal state, which was associated with glycogenolysis (less in SOL than in EDL), and in EDL only, a significant decrease (16%) in inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP turnover during sustained contractions (1 s EDL, 5 s SOL) was not affected by ISO in EDL, but essentially doubled in SOL. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, ISO has a minor effect on force generation in EDL that is associated with a decrease in Pi, whereas ISO has a marked effect on force generation in SOL that is associated with an increase in ATP turnover. Thus, phosphorylase functions as a phosphate trap in ISO-mediated force enhancement in EDL and as a catalyzer of ATP supply in SOL.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019Inngår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, artikkel-id 105799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

  • Fainstein, Nina
    et al.
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Tyk, Reuven
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Touloumi, Olga
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Lagoudaki, Roza
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Goldberg, Yehuda
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Agranyoni, Oryan
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Navon-Venezia, Shiri
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Katz, Abram
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Grigoriadis, Nikolaos
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ben-Hur, Tamir
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Einstein, Ofira
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel..
    Exercise intensity-dependent immunomodulatory effects on encephalomyelitis.2019Inngår i: Annals of Clinical & Translational Neurology, ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 1647-1658Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the intensity-dependent effects of ET on the systemic immune system in EAE remain undefined.

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the systemic immune modulatory effects of moderate versus high-intensity ET protocols in protecting against development of EAE; (2) To investigate whether ET affects autoimmunity selectively, or causes general immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Healthy mice performed moderate or high-intensity treadmill running programs. Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE was utilized to examine ET effects specifically on the systemic immune system. Lymph node (LN)-T cells from trained versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE severity was assessed, by clinical assessment and histopathological analysis. LN-T cells derived from donor trained versus sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for proliferation assays by flow cytometry analysis and cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression using real-time PCR. T cell-dependent immune responses of trained versus sedentary mice to the nonautoantigen ovalbumin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli-induced acute peritonitis were examined.

    RESULTS: High-intensity training in healthy donor mice induced significantly greater inhibition than moderate-intensity training on proliferation and generation of encephalitogenic T cells in response to PLP-immunization, and on EAE severity upon their transfer into recipient mice. High-intensity training also inhibited LN-T cell proliferation in response to ovalbumin immunization. E. coli bacterial counts and dissemination were not affected by training.

    INTERPRETATION: High-intensity training induces superior effects in preventing autoimmunity in EAE, but does not alter immune responses to E. coli infection.