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  • Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Madigan, Daniel
    York St John Univeristy.
    Estimating the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a psychosocial construct that has been extensively studied in athletes. Burnout is a significant threat to an athlete’s mental health and increases the risk of dropout from sport (Gustafsson, Madigan, & Lundkvist, 2017). However, little is known about prevalence of clinical-levels of burnout in athletes. This study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores taken from the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). To do so, cut-off scores were converted from the SMBQ to the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). This provided a cut-off score of 3.14. Data were derived from one cross-sectional sample (N = 1,931) and one 10-week longitudinal sample (N = 186; 10 waves). Analyses focused on the physical and emotional exhaustion subscale of the ABQ. In the longitudinal sample, the stability of the cut-offs was examined (i.e., those athletes scoring over 3.14 for over 50% of the time-points, versus those who never scored above 3.14). For the cross-sectional sample, 13% of athletes scored above the clinical cut-off score. For the longitudinal sample, 7.1% of athletes scored above the cut-off on over 50% of occasions, while 77.6% of athletes never scored above the cut-off score on any occasion. The present findings suggest that the estimated prevalence of athlete burnout differs when cross-sectional data are analysed than when longitudinal data are utilised. The findings reiterate that a significant proportion of athletes are at risk of burnout and that prevalence seem to be similar comparing with student- and working populations.

  • Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

  • Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Intensity of physical activity as a percentage of peak oxygen uptake, heart rate and Borg RPE in motor-complete para- and tetraplegia.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 12, article id e0222542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe VO2peak, explore the potential influence of anthropometrics, demographics and level of physical activity within each cohort; b) to define common, standardized activities as percentages of VO2peak and categorize these as light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels according to present classification systems, and c) to explore how clinically accessible methods such as heart-rate monitoring and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) correlate or can describe light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional.

    SETTING: Rehabilitation facility and laboratory environment.

    SUBJECTS: Sixty-three individuals, thirty-seven (10 women) with motor-complete paraplegia (MCP), T7-T12, and twenty-six (7 women) with motor-complete tetraplegia (MCT), C5-C8.

    INTERVENTIONS: VO2peak was obtained during a graded peak test until exhaustion, and oxygen uptake during eleven different activities was assessed and categorized using indirect calorimetry.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VO2peak, Absolute and relative oxygen consumption, Borg RPE.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2peak was significantly higher in men than in women for both groups, with fairly small differences in relative VO2peak. For MCP sex, weight and time spent in vigorous-intensity activity explained 63% of VO2peak variance. For MCT sex and time in vigorous-intensity activity explained 55% of the variance. Moderate intensity corresponds to 61-72% HRpeak and RPE 10-13 for MCP vs. 71-79% HRpeak, RPE 13-14 for MCT.

    CONCLUSION: Using current classification systems, eleven commonly performed activities were categorized in relative intensity terms, (light, moderate and vigorous) based on percent of VO2peak, HRpeak and Borg RPE. This categorization enables clinicians to better guide persons with SCI to meet required physical activity levels.

  • Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Katedralskolan, Uppsala.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Learning health in Swedish physical education: A critical case study of students’ encounters with physical fitness and health as a learning object2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, p. 227-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfaces between health, physical education and schooling have a long history. Critical questions are being raised about the enforcement of learning a particular health practice in school physical education (PE). The present study departures from a practice-based research project evaluating a pedagogical model. The aim of the case study was to explore upper secondary students' learning and understandings of a specific learning object, aerobic fitness and how this influences health, after participating in a period of a longer lab work in the context of Swedish physical education. A phenomenographic approach was used when analyzing the students' written reports to identify and distinguish the variations of learning outcomes and understandings that emerged. Expectations of physical performance created tensions, and even conflicts, between the student-centred assignments and existing traditions within the field of physical education. The findings underscore the risk of neoliberal logics underpinning health education in the learning culture of PE. Further studies are needed where teaching methods/models and student learning are paid attention to in order to move away from teaching to be healthy towards students learning about health and make sense of themselves as healthy. This may offer new educational perspectives.

  • Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Transitioning from sickness absence to disability pension - the impact of poor health behaviours: a prospective Swedish twin cohort study.2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e031889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between three poor health behaviours (current smoker, high consumption of alcohol and low physical activity levels) and the transition to disability pension (DP) among individuals who have recently been sickness absent. Furthermore, we aimed to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviours increased the risk of transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to DP.

    DESIGN: Prospective twin cohort study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Twins aged 20-46 who had participated in a survey and been on SA (>14 days) in the year preceding baseline (date of answering the questionnaire).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident DP during the follow-up which ended on 31 December 2012 (mean 5.2 years). A national register with full coverage provided data on DP.

    RESULTS: The Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses showed that current smokers had a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP compared with never smokers (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.84). Alcohol use and lack of physical activity as well as poor health behaviour sum score showed no significant associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a current smoker influences the transition from SA to DP. Although non-significant, there were indications that more physical activity and fewer poor health behaviours could reduce the risk of exiting the labour market through DP. Improving health behaviours among people on SA could be a valuable tool for preventing the transition to DP.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons? views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes? situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

  • Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 251-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores learning during game-play of a snowboarding video game intrigued by questions raised in the wake of the increasing mediatisation and digitisation of learning. Correspondingly, we answer to calls for more suitable metaphors for learning to cater for the entangled learning processes that changes related to the increase of digital media may infer. Using a short term sensory ethnography approach, we elaborate on the idea of multisensory emplaced learning and propose an organic metaphor – mycorrhiza – to both methodology and learning. Mycorrhiza refers to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of plants in its environment where fungi are the visible effects of the mycorrhiza. The metaphor provides a way to start to unpack sensory, visual and embodied aspects of learning in the complexities of the digital age. By elaborating on the mycorrhizaic concepts fungus, soil, growth, mycelia and symbiosis we show three interrelated ways of moving through this game: (i) a social and cultural route, (ii) a competitive route, and (iii) an experiential route. With help of the metaphor we discern the symbiotic relations between what appeared in our empirical material as visual and other human and non-human aspects of emplacement.

  • Jacques, Tiago Canal
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bini, Rodrigo R.
    La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australien.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    BILATERAL TENDON STRAIN DURING A 5-KM RUNNING TIME-TRIAL2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Dickinson, Andrew
    et al.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rainbow, Michael J.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Image Resolution Affects Tracking in vivo Biplanar X-ray Images of the Human Foot During Dynamic Motion2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hegyi, Andras
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Peter, Annamaria
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil J.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Azcarate, Laura
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandamas, Paul
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muscle contributions to body mass centre acceleration during the first stance of sprint running2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Holm, Lennart
    Tre slag för den Gustavianska parken1996In: Landskap Utblick, ISSN 0281-7462, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln redogör för främst Sture Koinbergs skisser för ett utvecklat parklandskap vid Haga - Brunnsviken - Ulriksdal i Kungl. Nationalstadsparken, och inom ramen för Kommitténs för Gustavianska Parken medborgarplanering åren 1992-1996, med tre utställningar på Konstakademien i Stockholm (Kring Brunnsvikens stränder I-III).

  • Mikaels, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Imponerande om oskrivna kvinno(frilufts)liv: Recension av boken The Palgrave International Handbook of Women and Outdoor Learning (2018)2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 15 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hellström, John S.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    “- How does it feel right now?”: A narrative analysis of sports-interviews after performance2019In: The Society of the Study of Narrative Annual Conference, ISSN / [ed] James Phelan, Georgetown: Ohio State University Press, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Success stories and heroic tales are recurrently investigated narrative genres in literature (Propp, 1998), journalism (Lule, 2001) and, not the least, in sports (Hellström, 2014). In sports, we repeatedly hear athletes explain their performance at half-time or give us reflections on a recently completed competition. However, these stories are not produced in a social vacuum; they are part of a discursive framework and a product of time and place. The trajectories for a legitimate success story is limited and specific storylines are repeated and holds a specific dramaturgical structure. The heroic story typically follows a temporal structure, from a beginning to an end, where events and performances function as phases of a narrative journey towards a defining triumph (Hoebeke et al. 2011). Which performances that constitutes the highlight of an athlete’s career will always be culturally determined, since cultures produces heroes according to their own specific values and traditions (Whannel, 2002). Thereby, the “personal” story is both a contextually specific narrative and a culturally shared narrative.

     

    Aims and empirical material

    In this paper, we are seeking to investigate how success stories in sports as a central part of the athletes identity work, and how these stories also serve as symbols for values and morals of a wider sporting society (Kilger, 2017). Many narrative scholars within the area of sports have been interested in retrospective studies of sports heroes or historical media studies of successful athletes (Hargreaves, 2000; Hellström, 2014; Whannel, 2002). In this study, we would like to pay particular attention to how personal narratives are built ´in-action´ and study which narrative elements are recurrent in the interviews and how is the own performance explained. Accordingly, we are interested in how such narratives of success and failure are co-constructed in the interview interaction and how they are structured. By investigating which master narratives that the participants recruit in their personal stories, this can help us to uncover shared normative storylines in elite sports. Moreover, we would like to illuminate how the athletes are using ´temporal-identity´ in the interviews as a way to construct a legitimate story of performance.

     

    The data set will include after-performance media interviews from Swedish television (SVT) during the FIS Cross Country World Championships. More specifically, we are seeking to analyze between 15-20 after-race television interviews with Swedish athletes during the FIS Cross Country World Championships 2019 in Falun, Sweden.

  • Nilsson, Avlant
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björnson, Elias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Nielsen, Jens
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise.2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 5072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles are tailored towards ATP synthesis. When exercising at high work rates muscles convert glucose to lactate, which is less nutrient efficient than respiration. There is hence a trade-off between endurance and power. Metabolic models have been developed to study how limited catalytic capacity of enzymes affects ATP synthesis. Here we integrate an enzyme-constrained metabolic model with proteomics data from muscle fibers. We find that ATP synthesis is constrained by several enzymes. A metabolic bypass of mitochondrial complex I is found to increase the ATP synthesis rate per gram of protein compared to full respiration. To test if this metabolic mode occurs in vivo, we conduct a high resolved incremental exercise tests for five subjects. Their gas exchange at different work rates is accurately reproduced by a whole-body metabolic model incorporating complex I bypass. The study therefore shows how proteome allocation influences metabolism during high intensity exercise.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 13:00 Aulan, Stockholm
    Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Glitch i Idrottslandet: en kritiskkreativ undersökning av queeranden inom svensk idrott(svetenskap)2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant story in critical sports research is that sport is characterised by heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity norms. These norms are manifested in sexism, homophobia, homonegativity and racism which affect all athletes, regardless of identity. Although important, this is a story that risks reinforcing ideas of how all sport “is”. The thesis is a response to calls from feminist theorists and sport researchers who argue that we need to move away from a logic of negativity built into critical theory and instead put our analytical tools to the task of constructing alternative possible scenarios. The aim of the thesis is to explore what some major strands within contemporary feminist theory can accomplish in relation to dominating stories about gender, sexuality and scientific knowledge production in sport research. More specifically, I explore how the concepts of figuration and intra-action can open up for other possible sport (science) worlds.

    The thesis consists of a frame-story and four articles, which in turn are based on three substudies. In the first substudy I interviewed boys and men who engage with horses and in horse riding. By engaging in a sport, equestrianism, that in Sweden is dominated by girls/women and female coded, they transgress and challenge – glitch – ideas of how Real sports boys/men should be, live and act. The interview stories from this study are enacted in various ways in article I and IV. In the second substudy I interviewed elite athletes with experiences of living non-straight and who in that way glitch heteronormativity in sports (sometimes also homonormativity). These stories make up the heart of the figurations presented in article II. In the third substudy, I explored athletic bodies that, due to intersex variations, glitch the idea that the only way of being a body (in sport) is to be male or female. This analysis is presented in article III.

    The thesis is populated by horseguys who challenge stereotypical masculinity norms, sporting contexts that turn heteronormativity up-side-down and inside-out, athletic bodies that implode binary gender and a researcher I glitching a scientific (writing) genre. The figurations presented in the thesis open up for queering elsewheres, where engaging in sport can serve as a condition of possibility for same-sex attractions/relations and non-normative ways of being a boy/man, and where creative writing – in the form of fiction, poetry and genre mixing – can be used as a method of inquiry.

    Through the concept of intra-action, the thesis also makes visible that “matter matters”. Firstly, I show how engaging materially with horses allow and encourage boys/men to be less constrained by dominant gender norms – in other words, that human-horse relations are entangled with, and affect, boys’ and men’s doing of gender. Secondly, I make visible how athletic bodies “strike back” in relation to ideas of binary gender, glitching a dominant medico-scientific story (in sport) telling us that the only way of being a body is to be male or female. Thirdly, I enact – in form and content – how the researcher is always already entangled in scientific knowledge production.

  • Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska institutet.
    School-based obesity prevention for busy low-income families: Organisational and personal barriers and facilitators to implementation.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e0224512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little research has targeted multiple-level barriers and facilitators in school-based parental support programmes. This qualitative study aims to describe barriers and facilitators, at organisational and personal levels, that teachers and parents in disadvantaged settings in Sweden perceived as influencing the implementation of the Healthy School Start II (HSS II) intervention.

    METHODS: Data collection, analysis and interpretation were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 14 parents and ten teachers within the HSS II trial. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis in a deductive step using the three CFIR domains-inner and outer setting, and personal characteristics-followed by an inductive analysis.

    RESULTS: The theme 'being on the same page-getting burdened teachers and parents to work on common ground' was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to the structure of the schoolwork and curriculum, involvement from other staff and school management, the practical school workday, perception of high family needs but low parental interest, insufficient resources in the families, and teacher's personal knowledge, interests, and opinions about health and food. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived family needs and resources, parents' health knowledge, consensus about healthy behaviours and ability to cooperate, and school involvement in health issues and the intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions should facilitate parents' and teachers' work on common ground, with activities suitable for a stressful and burdensome workday and everyday life. This could be achieved by integrating evidence-based practices within school routines, and including activities that are practicable despite parents' stressful lives, and that increase parental consensus about promoting health. Strategies to increase involvement of parents in families with high needs are necessary. Also, this study suggests an expansion of the CFIR to capture the interface between different micro-level organisations, and account for several delivering/receiving organisations.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hoff, David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides2019In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

  • Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • Girma Wondimu, Desalegn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien: Kartläggning av ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva hur barn- och ungdomsfotbollen är organiserad i Addis Abeba, Etiopien, med ett speciellt fokus på ungdomsfotbollen. Uppsatsen kommer att redovisa ledares, tränarnas och ungdomars beskrivning av ungdomsfotbollen. Frågeställningarna är: Hur beskriver tränare, ledare och ungdomar ungdomsfotbollens organisation samt dess hinder och möjligheter, i Addis Abeba Etiopien.

    Metod

    Både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod har använts. Studien genomfördes dels med intervjuer med sex personer där två tillhör fotbollsfederationen, en är från kommunen, två är ungdomstränare och en sportchef på en klubb i Etiopiens första liga, dels via en enkätundersökning med två ungdomslag i åldrarna  13–17 år.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av intervjuerna och enkäterna visar att endast viss begränsad organisation finns. För åldrarna 6–12 år finns i Addis Abeba eller i Etiopien ingen organisation likt exempelvis Sveriges statsstödda barn- och ungdomsverksamhet. I denna åldersgrupp görs enbart tillfälliga lösningar genom klubbarna och federationen, eller av barnen och ungdomarna själva genom spontanfotboll. För de lite äldre pojkarna, 13-15 år, finns skolfotboll  samt så kallade ”projekt”, men ingen organisation eller några fotbollsföreningar. Ungdomsfotbollen har många utmaningar. Det saknas resurser, utbildade tränare, lämpliga fotbollsplaner, materiel, utrustning, lokaler och träningstider. Det saknas också en tydlig policy hos Etiopiens och Addis Abebas fotbollsfederation som prioriterar ungdomsfotbollen och som visar hur den bör organiseras. Det finns dock stora möjligheter till förbättring. Enkäten visar att intresset och motivationen är stort. 

    Slutsats

    Ungdomsfotbollen i Addis Abeba är organisatoriskt outvecklad och uppvisar brister i struktur, prioritering och långsiktighet. Detta behöver åtgärdas om man vill nå en hållbar ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien.  

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gun
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Almali, Leyli
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är hälsa för högstadieelever?: En intervjustudie om flickor och pojkar och deras uppfattning om begreppet hälsa i årskurs 92019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this survey is to investigate what students in grade 9 thinks what health is. How they relate to health in the subject physical education and what image they have on the subject.

    Questions

    • What do students in grade 9 think about what they learn about the notion of health.
    • How do the teachers convey their knowledge to the students about health.
    • Do the students have a pathogen or a salutogenic perspective of health.

    Method

    To answer the questions the survey used a qulitative method with interviews. Six students from grade 9 and 3 teachers in physical education participated in the study. The interviews were semistructured because the content and questions were decided before hand but the follow up questions were adapted to the people that participated.

    Results

    The students perceived the notion of health in the subject differently. Some students connects the notion of health to different physical activities whilst some students thinks about nutrition as an important part of health. All the participating teachers used theory sessions to educate about health. However, the content could differ between the teachers. The image of what the students think about health is mainly from a salutogenic perspective. 5 of 6 students said they interpreted that they had a salutogenic perspective and only one person thought about health from a pathogen perspective.

    Conclusions

    The students interpreted the notion of health differently. The teachers used theory sessions when they educated about health. Both students and teachers thought about health from mainly a salutogenic perspective.

  • Nilsson, Hampus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Makten och skolan: Debatten om skolan inför riksdagsvalet 20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to analyze how the parties in the Swedish parliament debated the matter of  the Swedish school prior to the 2014 election. The question for the survey was:

    • How did the parties debate school governance?

    • How did the parties debate grades and results?

    • How did the parties debate the question of independent schools?

    • How did the parties debate the role of teachers and the status of teacher profession?

    Method

    The empirical material consisted of 1) debating articles written by party leaders or school political spokesmen. 2) Swedish public service hearings with party leaders 3) party election programs. The method for analysis Arne Naess´ (1970) argumentative analysis described by Bergström och Boréus (2005) searching for thesis, pro- and contra arguments. The selection of the empirical material was made through hand picked selections. Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.

    Results

    The study showed that the Moderate party argued for shared responsibility between the state and the municipalities. The Centre party, the Social democrats, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Liberal party argued for a nationalization. The Liberal party argued for grades starting from grade 6 at the same time as arguing for written reviews giving a more descriptive picture of the pupil. The Social democrats, The Centre party and the Liberal party used PISA surveys supporting their argument in the question of grades. The Christian democrats were in favour of independent schools. Similarly, the Centre party argued for continued legislation allowing share-out for owners of independent schools. The Social democrats and the Left party argued for banning share-outs. The Social democrats, the Liberal party, the Green party argued for strengthening teachers ‘role and status primarily by raising teacher´s and increasing the time spent teaching while decreasing administrative work.

    Conclusions

    The Social democrats, The Liberal party, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Left party wanted nationalize the Swedish school. The Christian democrats, the Liberal party and the Centre party were in favour of share-outs while the Social democrats, the Green party and the Left party opposed share-outs. The Liberal party argued for grading pupils at a lower age. The Social democrats argued for the introduction of career opportunities which would lead to teachers being becoming more separated from their teaching assignments. The question of the school could not be divided into left or right wing politics.

    Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.

  • Åberg, John
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bryta målchansen tidigt: Fysiska tester skapade för målvakter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between youth goalkeepers' results in commonly used standard tests that are intended to measure physical capacity and their performance in match-like actions. The purpose is also to investigate whether the results differ between goalkeepers in two different age categories.

    Research questions:

    • What is the correlation between results in standard tests and match-like actions?

    • Do the results differ between youth goalkeepers at U17 and U19 level?

    Method

    To answer the study's questions, a test battery was created containing physical tests designed for football goalkeepers based on their movement patterns and actions (match-like actions) compared to tests used by today's football clubs (standard tests). With the help of research, together with information we received from coaches and goalkeepers, 6 tests were designed and performed, on 15 goalkeepers, which were recorded with measuring instruments and high-speed cameras. The results were analyzed with two tailed t-test to find a statistical significance between the two age groups and Spearman's test to find a correlation between the standard and realistic tests.

    Results

    The results of the t-test show no significant difference between the U17 and U19 goalkeepers on all tests (p> 0.05). Spearman's test shows that there was no statistic significant correlation between the tests.

    Conclusions

    Both standard and realistic tests have their advantages, but if the purpose is to evaluate the goalkeeper's physical capacity in match-like actions through tests, should these be designed based on the goalkeeper's actions during the match. According to the results of this study, this shows that you should not just use standard tests, but these should be supplemented with tests specifically designed for goalkeepers.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Romerska speglingar2014In: Om människan i rörelse och i vila: Essäer, Stockholm: Oak Meadow Hill Editions , 2014, 1, p. 11-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser kulturella förbindelser mellan Sverige och Italien under 1700-talets senare hälft, och hur dessa äger rum i en kontext av en förändrad natursyn. Allt detta får avtryck runt sjön Brunnsviken norr om Stockholms innerstad.

  • Lutula, Antonio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Resisted Sprint Training in Swimming: A Quasi-Experimental Study on Swedish National Level Swimmers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of resisted sprint training in swimming on maximal swimming velocity and performance characteristics. The aim was also to examine how maximal swimming velocity is related to maximal swim power and maximal dry-land power.

    Method

    Eighteen competitive national level swimmers (9 male and 9 female; age: 18.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass: 72 ± 8.3 kg, height: 177.2 ± 4.6 cm, mean ± SD) were recruited to this study. Subjects were assigned to either resisted sprint training (RST) or unresisted sprint training (UST). Sprint training was performed two times per week during 6 weeks as 8x15m with a 2min send-off interval. RST performed sprint training using individualized load corresponding 10% of maximum drag load (L10), UST performed sprint training with no added resistance. A test-battery including dry-land strength assessment; maximal strength (MxS) and explosive strength (ExS), a timed 25m front-crawl swim and in-water force-velocity profiling was performed prior and following the training intervention. Maximal swim power (Pmax), maximum drag load (F0), theoretical maximum velocity (v0) and slope of force-velocity curve (SFv) was computed though force-velocity profiling.

    Results

    No significant within group differences occurred in neither RST nor UST following the 6-week intervention period in: swimming velocity, MxS, ExS, Pmax, F0, v0, and SFv. Strong correlations were found between swimming velocity and MxS (r = 0.75), ExS (r =0.82) and Pmax (r = 0.92).

    Conclusion

    Resisted sprint training in swimming using L10 did in the present study not elicit any improvements in maximal swimming velocity or examined performance characteristics. Resisted sprint training does not appear to be a superior method of improving swimming performance compared to unresisted sprint training. MxS, ExS and Pmax can be used as robust predictors of swim performance, however only Pmax was found to be casually related to swimming velocity.

  • Rudner, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stegius, Madeleine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vilken inlärningsteori lämpar sig bäst?: en experimentell studie i idrottsundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate what effect the peer teaching model has in connection with sports education in comparison with the control group that exercises the direct instructional model And which of the learning theories has the greatest effect. Our hypothesis is that peer teaching is the learning theory that gives the best effect when learning skills abilities in basketball. The moment is about eye-hand motor skills in the form of basketball.

    Method: A pre- and post test that included 35 shots from the penalty shootout - 4.25m from the baseline was completed. The participants perform 5 exercises tries to then throw 30 tries in 3 blocks (10 tries / blocks). The tries were graded through a scoring system and documented. In total there were 6 occasions, one pre-test, 4 lessons in 60 minutes / lesson, where the group was randomly divided into two groups with a specific learning method per group and a post-test. The selection is based on a target population at grade 5 and uses a non-random selection with a comfort selection on the target population. In the study, a total of 28 students participated, half boys (n = 14) as girls (n = 14). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze any statistically significant interaction term. Thereafter, the main effect was examined for both factors and concluded with a post hoc test to understand any differences.

    Results: The results of the study show that the majority of test subjects in each group have improved their overall result from the first test case to the final result. However, there was not a sufficient change in the result to be able to discern any significant value in any of the groups. This is because the difference between pre- and post-test for the group with the direct instruction model showed no significance (p = 0.758) and the same applies to the group with peer feedback (p = 0.598).

    Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it is not clear which of the two pedagogical approaches is the most effective in delivering desired learning objectives and skills in teaching. By this we mean that there are still no significant measurements that compare different teaching methods and strategies that teachers can use to achieve competency-based results.

  • Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 18, article id E3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

  • Stigson, Helena
    et al.
    Åman, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway and Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Incidence of Acute Injuries among Licensed and Non-Licensed Cyclists using Insurance Registry Data2019In: 2019 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury / [ed] International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have examined acute injuries in competitive cycling or training as compared to other sports. By using nationwide insurance data including all injured cyclist registered in the Swedish Cycling Federation and all reported injuries during exercise race in Sweden, the objective was to examine acute injuries during competitive cycling or training for different types of cyclists. The injury incidence and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment were examined. All cyclists that were injured during 2008-2017 were included (n=1937).

    Among the 2666 licensed cyclists the incidence of cyclists injured during training or competition was 44 per 1000 licensed cyclists per year. Focusing on participants in exercise races, the incidence was annually 1.5 injured cyclists per 1000 participants per year. The most commonly injured body region was the upper extremity (41%), followed by head and neck (18%). In total 9.4% of all injured cyclists sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, non-licensed participants in exercise races were slightly older, and the proportion of females were higher (30% vs. 16%), than among licensed cyclists. The injury incidence among the cyclists was high, and to maintain a healthy and physically active population it is important to make efforts to prevent injuries.

  • Christenson, Anne
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    “…or else I close my ears” How women with obesity want to be approached and treated regarding gestational weight management: A qualitative interview study.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of helping pregnant women maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive gestational weight gain is well recognized, but pregnant women do not always perceive communication about body weight as respectful or helpful. Furthermore, fear of inducing shame or guilt can prohibit some midwives from talking about body weight, especially if the woman has obesity. We aimed to explore what women of reproductive age with obesity regard to be the most important and relevant aspects when discussing gestational weight management. Methods: Qualitative interview study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews with 17 women of reproductive age (19–39 y) with obesity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Importance of obtaining vital medical information; 2) A wish to feel understood and treated with respect; 3) Midwives’ approach is crucial in sensitive key situations, which include bringing up the subject of body weight, weighing, providing weight-related information, coaching lifestyle modification, dealing with emotional reactions and ending a conversation. Conclusions: A majority of the interviewed women wished to receive information about risks about obesity and gestational weight gain, and recommendations on weight management. However, the risk of midwives offending someone by raising the topic may be increased if the pregnant woman believe that gestational weight gain is uncontrollable by the individual. Also, several situations during maternity care meetings can be stigmatizing and make women less receptive to advice or support. Women suggest that a good working alliance is likely to be achieved if midwives have knowledge about the causes of obesity, take interest in the patients’ background, have a non-judgmental approach and refrain from giving unsolicited advice. 

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2655-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims therefore to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

     

    Methods. On two different days, heart rate and oxygen uptake measurements were made during three submaximal (model 1) and a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 14 habitual walking commuters participated. The reproducibility, based on the regression equations from test and retest and using three levels of heart rate from the walking commuting was analyzed. Differences between the two models were also analyzed. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest for either model. However, some rather large individual differences were seen in both models. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two models in slopes, intercepts and r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate – oxygen uptake relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of heart rate which are representative for walking commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • Bengs, Dagny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitaktiva sprintkanotisternas rörelseutslag i axelleden under paddling på ergometer i relation till aktiv rörlighet mätt i axelleden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was a) to examine elite flatwater kayakers’ active range of motion (ARoM), b) to detect the extent of their ARoM they use in shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotations (ER) for right and left shoulder under kayaking and c) to examine the impact of how the range change during the racing speed (200, 500 and 1000 m). In addition, the aim was d) to describe competitive flatwater kayakers’ range of motion in the shoulder rotation under the three racing speeds.

    Method

    Eight elite sprint kayakers (four women and four men 22,5 ±3,8 year, 1.80 ±0,11m, 81 kg ±14 kg) participated in the study. The range of motion in shoulder joint rotations were measured with two different methods; ARoM was measured with a goniometer in a supine position and a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture measured under kayaking on a kayak ergometer. Data from a 3D motion capture analysis was collected with an optoelectronic system with 12 infrared cameras which captured the motion from markers attached on the participants under kayaking on 200, 500 and 100o m racing speed. The average value was analyzed from ten stroke cycles under every speed and the data was processed and the calculations were done with Visual3D and MATLAB.  

    Results

    The elite kayakers’ average values and standard deviation (±) of ARoM in shoulder IR was 46°(±16°) and 39° (±10°) and in ER 75° (±13°) and 86° (±5°) for respective left and right side. All participants had decreased ARoM in shoulder IR. No significance difference in ARoM was detected for the sides (left/right) in neither IR nor ER (F=0.87, p=0.38).Either no significant differences were detected between the left and right side under kayaking in shoulder IR under racing speed (F= 0.63, p=0.45), however racing speed had a significant difference for range of motion in shoulder internal rotation (F=6.46. p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater range of motion. Shoulder ER was not affected neither on racing speed (F=3.59, p=0.94) or side (left/right) (F=1.76, p=0.23). Racing speed had a significant difference in the percentage the elite kayakers used of their maximal ARoM in shoulder IR during kayaking (F=6.48, p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater percentage used. The elite kayakers´ utilized a very small percentage of their ARoM in shoulder ER during paddling; 0-1%.  

    Conclusions

    No difference was detected between left and right side in shoulder rotation within elite kayakers, the result was independent of the racing speed. All elite kayakers´ had an obvious decreased range of motion in shoulder IR. The decreased IR is probably compensated by other structures in the shoulder/ scapula under kayaking, due to that elite kayakers’ use more than 100 % of their ARoM under kayaking. Earlier studies have showed that decreased IR in shoulder joint is a risk factor for injuries in kayakers. The results from this study can give valuable information for elite kayakers and their teams about what happens in the shoulder joint during paddling. They may use this information to recognize the importance of increasing the range of motion in shoulder IR, to be able to decrease any compensational movements in the shoulder joint and therefore reduce the risk of pain and injury under kayaking.

     

  • Holm, Lars
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dideriksen, Kasper
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Rie H
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Doessing, Simon
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bechshoeft, Rasmus L
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Højfeldt, Grith
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Reitelseder, Søren
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.2019In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 17, article id e14143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the methods to determine human in vivo protein-specific myofibrillar and collagenous connective tissue protein fractional synthesis and breakdown rates. We found that in human myofibrillar proteins, the protein-bound tracer disappearance method to determine the protein fractional breakdown rate (FBR) (via 2 H2 O ingestion, endogenous labeling of 2 H-alanine that is incorporated into proteins, and FBR quantified by its disappearance from these proteins) has a comparable intrasubject reproducibility (range: 0.09-53.5%) as the established direct-essential amino acid, here L-ring-13 C6 -phenylalanine, incorporation method to determine the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (range: 2.8-56.2%). Further, the determination of the protein breakdown in a protein structure with complex post-translational processing and maturation, exemplified by human tendon tissue, was not achieved in this experimentation, but more investigation is encouraged to reveal the possibility. Finally, we found that muscle protein FBR measured with an essential amino acid tracer prelabeling is inappropriate presumably because of significant and prolonged intracellular recycling, which also may become a significant limitation for determination of the myofibrillar FSR when repeated infusion trials are completed in the same participants.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Are health effects of cycling underestimated due to inaccurate estimates of the physical activity?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The enclosure is a summary of my perspectives as Discussant at the symposium: “Cycling and health in Europe and beyond – explaining and updating the evidence base” at the 10th HEPA Europe Health Enhancing Physical Activity Europe Conference at Southern University of Denmark in Odense, Denmark, August 28-30, 2019. Contributors to the symposium were Drs Adrian Bauman, Sylvia Titze, Niamph Murphy and Pekka Oja.

  • Blackwood, Sarah J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Isoproterenol enhances force production in mouse glycolytic and oxidative muscle via separate mechanisms.2019In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 471, no 10, p. 1305-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fight or flight is a biologic phenomenon that involves activation of β-adrenoceptors in skeletal muscle. However, how force generation is enhanced through adrenergic activation in different muscle types is not fully understood. We studied the effects of isoproterenol (ISO, β-receptor agonist) on force generation and energy metabolism in isolated mouse soleus (SOL, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, glycolytic) muscles. Muscles were stimulated with isometric tetanic contractions and analyzed for metabolites and phosphorylase activity. Under conditions of maximal force production, ISO enhanced force generation markedly more in SOL (22%) than in EDL (8%). Similarly, during a prolonged tetanic contraction (30 s for SOL and 10 s for EDL), ISO-enhanced the force × time integral more in SOL (25%) than in EDL (3%). ISO induced marked activation of phosphorylase in both muscles in the basal state, which was associated with glycogenolysis (less in SOL than in EDL), and in EDL only, a significant decrease (16%) in inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP turnover during sustained contractions (1 s EDL, 5 s SOL) was not affected by ISO in EDL, but essentially doubled in SOL. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, ISO has a minor effect on force generation in EDL that is associated with a decrease in Pi, whereas ISO has a marked effect on force generation in SOL that is associated with an increase in ATP turnover. Thus, phosphorylase functions as a phosphate trap in ISO-mediated force enhancement in EDL and as a catalyzer of ATP supply in SOL.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, article id 105799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

  • Fainstein, Nina
    et al.
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Tyk, Reuven
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Touloumi, Olga
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Lagoudaki, Roza
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Goldberg, Yehuda
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Agranyoni, Oryan
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Navon-Venezia, Shiri
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grigoriadis, Nikolaos
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ben-Hur, Tamir
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Einstein, Ofira
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel..
    Exercise intensity-dependent immunomodulatory effects on encephalomyelitis.2019In: Annals of Clinical & Translational Neurology, ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1647-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the intensity-dependent effects of ET on the systemic immune system in EAE remain undefined.

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the systemic immune modulatory effects of moderate versus high-intensity ET protocols in protecting against development of EAE; (2) To investigate whether ET affects autoimmunity selectively, or causes general immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Healthy mice performed moderate or high-intensity treadmill running programs. Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE was utilized to examine ET effects specifically on the systemic immune system. Lymph node (LN)-T cells from trained versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE severity was assessed, by clinical assessment and histopathological analysis. LN-T cells derived from donor trained versus sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for proliferation assays by flow cytometry analysis and cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression using real-time PCR. T cell-dependent immune responses of trained versus sedentary mice to the nonautoantigen ovalbumin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli-induced acute peritonitis were examined.

    RESULTS: High-intensity training in healthy donor mice induced significantly greater inhibition than moderate-intensity training on proliferation and generation of encephalitogenic T cells in response to PLP-immunization, and on EAE severity upon their transfer into recipient mice. High-intensity training also inhibited LN-T cell proliferation in response to ovalbumin immunization. E. coli bacterial counts and dissemination were not affected by training.

    INTERPRETATION: High-intensity training induces superior effects in preventing autoimmunity in EAE, but does not alter immune responses to E. coli infection.