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  • Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids2019In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles contain a mixture of type I and type II fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. Little is presently known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular responses of these different fiber types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise in combination with intake of essential amino acids (EAA) on mTORC1 signaling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibers. Five strength-trained men performed two sessions of heavy leg press exercise. During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution of EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibers dissected out and weighed (range 0.95-8.1 mu g). The fibers were homogenized individually and identified as type I or II by incubation with antibodies against the different isoforms of myosin. They were also analyzed for both the levels of protein as well as phosphorylation of proteins in the mTORC1 pathway using Western blotting. The levels of the S6K1 and eEF2 proteins were similar to 50% higher in type II than in type I fibers (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between fiber types with respect to the level of mTOR protein. Resistance exercise led to non-significant increases (2-3-fold) in mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as a 50% decrease (P < 0.05) in eEF2 phosphorylation in both fiber types. Intake of EAA caused a 2 and 6-fold higher (P < 0.05) elevation of mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation, respectively, in both type I and type II fibers compared to placebo, with no effect on phosphorylation of eEF2. In conclusion, protein levels of S6K1 and eEF2 were significantly higher in type II than type I fibers suggesting higher capacity of the mTOR pathway in type II fibers. Ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in both fiber types, but with considerable variation between single fibers of both types.

  • Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reexamination of Accelerometer Calibration with Energy Expenditure as Criterion: VO2net Instead of MET for Age-Equivalent Physical Activity Intensity.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 15, article id E3377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerometer calibration for physical activity (PA) intensity is commonly performed using Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) as criterion. However, MET is not an age-equivalent measure of PA intensity, which limits the use of MET-calibrated accelerometers for age-related PA investigations. We investigated calibration using VO2net (VO2gross - VO2stand; mL⋅min-1⋅kg-1) as criterion compared to MET (VO2gross/VO2rest) and the effect on assessment of free-living PA in children, adolescents and adults. Oxygen consumption and hip/thigh accelerometer data were collected during rest, stand and treadmill walk and run. Equivalent speed (Speedeq) was used as indicator of the absolute speed (Speedabs) performed with the same effort in individuals of different body size/age. The results showed that VO2net was higher in younger age-groups for Speedabs, but was similar in the three age-groups for Speedeq. MET was lower in younger age-groups for both Speedabs and Speedeq. The same VO2net-values respective MET-values were applied to all age-groups to develop accelerometer PA intensity cut-points. Free-living moderate-and-vigorous PA was 216, 115, 74 and 71 min/d in children, adolescents, younger and older adults with VO2net-calibration, but 140, 83, 74 and 41 min/d with MET-calibration, respectively. In conclusion, VO2net calibration of accelerometers may provide age-equivalent measures of PA intensity/effort for more accurate age-related investigations of PA in epidemiological research.

  • Haraldsen, Heidi Marian
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Halvari, Hallgeir
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Solstad, Bard Erlend
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Abrahamsen, Frank E.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The Role of Perfectionism and Controlling Conditions in Norwegian Elite Junior Performers' Motivational Processes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptualized within the framework of self-determination theory, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled (non-self-determined) motivation and (b) performance anxiety through basic psychological need frustration (frustration of competence, autonomy, and realtedness), and if these relations would be moderated by controlling teaching/coaching conditions. We used a cross-sectional moderated mediation design and purposefully selected Norwegian elite junior performers (N = 171; mean age = 17.3; SD age = 0.94) from talent development schools, who completed an online questionnaire to report their perceptions of the study variables. Associations were examined using structural equation modeling. The results showed that perfectionistic concerns were positively associated with controlling conditions, basic needs frustration, controlled motivation, and performance anxiety. Reported controlling teaching/coaching conditions moderated the positive indirect relationship between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled motivation and (b) performance anxiety through competence need frustration. Specifically, these indirect associations were evident for performers reporting moderate or high levels of controlling teaching/coaching conditions. In contrast, there were no indirect associations via competence need frustration for those performers who reported low levels of controlling conditions. In conclusion, the results indicate that perfectionistic concerns appear to be a vulnerability factor that exposes elite junior performers to higher risks of entering a debilitative motivational process. This seems especially likely when exposed to controlling teaching/coaching conditions. Coaches and teachers working with elite junior performers should avoid using controlling mechanisms and instead foster autonomous functioning.

  • Spiegl, Ondrej
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The effects of new Edea and Graf figure skating boots and used Graf boots on the kinetics and kinematics of landing after simulated on-ice jumps2019In: Footwear Science, ISSN 1942-4280, E-ISSN 1942-4299, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in training intensity and the number of active participants and competitors in figure skating has been accompanied by an increasing frequency of injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different brands of skates as well as the usage of the skates modify the kinetics and kinematics of the landing impact from a jump. New Graf Edmonton (NG), old used Graf Edmonton (OG) and new Edea Concerto (NE) skates were compared. Twelve participants completed six jump trials from 30 cm and 50 cm high boxes, respectively in all three skates and landed on a section of artificial ice placed on a laboratory floor. Landing kinematics (Oqus4 system, Qualisys, Sweden) and kinetics (force plate: Kistler, Switzerland; insoles: Pedar, Novel, Germany) were examined. Each participant acted as their own control for statistical comparison between the skates. The results confirmed that the kinetics and kinematics of the landing are affected by wearing different skates. During landing impacts in NG, participants had significantly greater dorsiflexion at initial contact (IC) and peak dorsiflexion of the ankle, peak flexion of the knee and also greater in-skate plantar forces (PF) than in NE, which may increase the risk of injury. In OG, participants had significantly greater peak flexion of knee and longer time from IC to first peak dorsiflexion (TP) of the ankle than in NG. The differences observed may be due to the different construction designs, such as height of the heel, used materials, and stiffness of the skates, which may affect injury occurrence.

  • Lönnberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Sweden..
    Improved unhealthy lifestyle habits in patients with high cardiovascular risk: results from a structured lifestyle programme in primary care2019In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Physical activity, healthful dietary habits, and not smoking are associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined how counselling to improve poor lifestyle habits might be carried out in clinical practice. In Swedish primary care, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated into everyday clinical practice. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to describe a novel lifestyle intervention programme in primary care; and (2) to evaluate change in unhealthy lifestyle habits over 1 year in men and women with high cardiovascular risk who participated in the lifestyle intervention programme. Method. A single-group study with a 1-year follow-up was carried out. A total of 417 people was enrolled, median age 62 years (54% women), with either hypertension (69%), type 2 diabetes mellitus, or impaired glucose tolerance. The 1-year intervention included five counselling sessions that focused on lifestyle habits, delivered by a district nurse with postgraduate credits in diabetes care and the metabolic syndrome. All patients were offered in-depth counselling for one or more lifestyle habits when needed. Lifestyle habits were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Total change was assessed using a nine-factor unhealthy lifestyle habit index. Results. Favourable, significant changes were observed for physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, and stress over 1 year. Similar improvements were seen for both sexes and type of diagnosis. Conclusions. The results support the utility of a multifactorial, structured approach to change unhealthy lifestyle habits for cardiovascular risk prevention in a primary care setting.

  • Ibrahim Ahmed, Wesam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sam- eller särundervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa?: En kvalitativ studie om vad lärare samt elever tycker om sär/samundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to investigate what students in grade 9 and teachers think of the two forms of teaching co-or single gender education. In addition, the study should investigate what pros and cons the students and teachers associated with these types of teaching.

    Issue

    • What are the advantages / disadvantages with co-or a single gender education?
    • What kind of teaching do students and teachers prefer?

    Method To achieve the purpose and get answers to the questions, data is collected through interviews. This type of method is relevant because the study is based on reaching an understanding of what the pupil / teacher thinks and likes about each type of teaching. The theoretical point of the study is the socio-cultural perspective and Hirdman's theory of the gender system.

    Results

    The teachers agreed that co gender teaching is an important form of teaching from a social perspective, but that there are advantages and disadvantages of the form of teaching. All teachers who participated in the study expressed a desire to somehow get a mix of co- and single gender education in the subject of sport and health. The majority of the students preferred single gender education, but on the question of the type of teaching they developed the most, the views differed. Some argued that single gender education is preferable, whileothers believe that co- gender education is the best.

    Conclusion

    What appeared in the study was that the majority of students prefer single gender education, and that they see this form of teaching as positive for their teaching and their development. At the same time, 3 out of 4 teachers find that a combination of co- and single gender education is preferable. The clear advantages of single gender education are that the girls get more peace and space to develop, while the disadvantages are that they at the same time lose the social aspects.

  • Westin, Jakob
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande: Finns det något samband?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och Frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen var att mäta sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande inom ett begränsat urval av gymnasieelever. Undersökningen syftade också till att mäta respondenternas psykiska välbefinnande, stillasittande och fysiska aktivitet samt att mäta sambandet mellan respondenternas stillasittande och psykiska välbefinnande.

    • Hur psykiskt välmående, stillasittande och fysiskt aktiva är respondenterna?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande?

    Metod

    Som metod för studien användes en kvantitativ metod med enkäter. Den byggde på färdiga frågor från Socialstyrelsen (2010) och WHO (2010) och gick ut till 86 respondenter i gymnasieålder. 82 godkända enkäter från respondenterna analyserades genom IBM SPSS Analytica för att mäta sambanden. I korrelationsanalysen användes Spearmans RhoRho för att undersöka samband. Undersökningen ägde rum på ett skolområde i Uppsala, Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att 42 procent av respondenterna utför mindre fysisk aktivitet än den rekommenderade dosen om 150 minuter i veckan. Resultatet visade också att 51 procent av respondenterna var stillasittande 10 timmar eller mer, varje dag. I välbefinnande-indexet fick 39 procent av respondenterna ett resultat som rekommenderade kontakt med vården.

    Samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande fick en positiv korrelationskoefficient på 0,443 (p=0,000), vilket tyder på att det finns ett moderat samband. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation.

    Slutsats

    Den studerade populationen rör sig mindre än genomsnittet i Sverige och sitter mer än genomsnittet i Sverige. Det finns ett tydligt moderat samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande, men det går inte att förkasta andra påverkansfaktorer. Min slutsats är att det krävs en vidare studie för att säkerställa sambandet mellan variablerna, där fler parametrar mäts och analyseras. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation., men det går inte att avfärda att dikotomiseringen av data påverkade resultatet.

  • Falgin Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The Acute Metabolic Response of Intermittent Hypoxic Resistance Exercise: A Cross-Over RCT2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim for this present study was to investigate the acute metabolic response from intermittent resistance exercise during hypoxia, with the following research questions: (1) Are blood levels of lactate and glucose different between hypoxia and normoxia? (2) Does hypoxia induce higher lactate accumulation and pH reduction in the human skeletal muscle? (3) Is there a relationship between plasma-, blood- and muscle lactate? Method Eight healthy males (30 ± 2 years) performed 6 sets of unilateral leg extension on each leg (75% of 1RM) with randomized normoxic (20,9% inspired 𝑂2) and normobaric hypoxic (12% inspired 𝑂2) conditions. A total of 5 muscle biopsies was extracted from m. Vastus Lateralis (pre-, post exercise, 90-, 180min and 24h post exercise) during both normoxia and hypoxia trials, separated by one week for all participants. Blood samples were repeatedly taken with 20 min intervals. Heart Rate (HR) and saturation (𝑆𝑝𝑂2) were measured by a pulsoximeter during resistance exercise. Results No significant main effect was observed for blood lactate and glucose levels as well as the muscle lactate accumulation and pH between normoxia and hypoxia. However, pH in muscle showed a trend between the conditions post exercise where hypoxia reached lower levels in total (P=0.08). Significant correlations were observed for blood- and plasma lactate, where hypoxia showed a stronger relationship than normoxia (r=0.98 compared to r=0.87). Equal findings for the correlation of muscle- and plasma lactate showed an even greater coefficient value for hypoxia compared to normoxia (r=0.860 compared to r=0.59). Conclusion Summarized data indicated that no significant difference between hypoxia and normoxia was evident. Nonetheless, tendencies illustrate that hypoxia may alter the metabolic response slightly. However, further research is needed to draw a conclusion between the conditions.

  • Danielsson, Sebastian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological characteristics of sodium lactate infusion during resistance exercise2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies that utilized sodium lactate infusion did not use resistance exercise protocol or analyzed muscle biopsies, or performed sex specific analysis. Aim: We initiated a project where resistance exercise was performed with low and high levels of lactate, acquired by venous lactate infusion where the specific aim of this study was to investigate and chart the physiological characteristics of sodium lactate infusion during a bout of resistance exercise on whole group level and sexes separated Method: A randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over design was implemented where male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) subjects accustomed to resistance exercise visited the laboratory three times for preliminary testing and training familiarization. In the following two experimental trials subjects arrived in an overnight fasted state. A resting state muscle biopsy was extracted from m. vastus lateralis and repeated blood samples were initiated which followed by 20 minute of baseline infusion of either infusate in resting state at 0.05 mmol/kg/min infusion rate with additional bolus doses during subsequent exercise. Following a brief warm up, unilateral knee-extensions (6 x 8-10 reps at 75% of 1-RM) were performered with or without venous infusion of sodium lactate, with volume matched saline as control. Exercise load and volume were matched between trials. Four additional biopsies were extracted at post-exercise, recovery period, and 24-hour post-exercise. Results: Sodium lactate infusion vs saline infusion respectively during resistance exercise yielded significantly higher blood lactate with sodium lactate (6.78 ± 0.33 mmol/l vs 2.99 ± 0.17 mmol/l), plasma lactate (8.86 ± 0.39 mmol/l vs 4.39 ± 0.22 mmol/l), blood sodium (143 ± 0.4 mmol/l vs 142 ± 0.3 mmol/l), blood pH (7.42 ± 0.01 vs 7.34 ± 0.01), but lower blood potassium (3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l vs 4.2 ±  0.1 mmol/l), all  immediately following exercise. Sodium lactate infusion elicited main effect of trials and muscle lactate increased from baseline (8.5 ± 0.9 mmol·kg-1 dw vs 7.0 ± 0.6 mmol·kg-1 dw) to post-exercise (31.5 ± 2.8 mmol·kg-1 dw vs 26.9 ± 3.2 mmol·kg-1 dw) with sodium lactate and saline infusion respectively. Blood glucose, hemoglobin and muscle pH was not affected by sodium lactate infusion. Conclusions: Utilization of the sodium lactate infusion method during a bout of resistance exercise may be used as tool to effectively increase blood/plasma lactate and, to lesser extent, muscle content of lactate. However, a concomitant slightly alkalizing effect of blood likely will occur.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Blomberg, Helena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Governing Talent Selection through the Brain: Constructing Cognitive Executive Function as a Way of Predicting Sporting Success2019In: Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, ISSN 1751-1321, E-ISSN 1751-133X, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly central part of the scientific debate in sports has come to focus on how neuroscience can help to explain sports performance and development of expertise. In particular, the process of identifying young talents has been increasingly influencedby neuroscientific tests to identify future potential. It has been argued that instead of relying on coaches’ subjective assessments the process of selection should be based on general metrics of the brain through standardized testing. One key neurological functionhighlighted in the search for talent is cognitive executive functions. In the contemporary debate, studies of brain activity have suggested that children should undergo neuroscientific testing to determine the appropriate cognitive executive functions (CEF) for elite sports.This paper builds on previous work on the implications of a neuroscientific ontology in sports and Bruno Latour’s work onthe construction of scientific facts. Departing from discourse analysis,this paper studies the production and popularization of CEF as scientific facts. The findings illustrate how representations of brain activity are visualized and legitimized and how the out-of context tests are translated into facts about brain functions. The CEF test results are produced as inscriptions of undisputable facts, claiming that the results show prerequisites for sporting success.We argue that the mind-brain-behaviour relationship cannot be reduced to CEF tests and instead calls for a critical gaze on neuroscientific truth-claims and taken-for-granted facts in the area of sport.

  • Nowik, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tellström, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Orientering som friluftsliv?: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur lärare i idrott och hälsa talar om relationen mellan orientering och friluftsliv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and research questions

    The purpose of this study is to examine how physical education (PE) teachers from grades 7-9 view the relationship between orienteering and friluftsliv within their teaching. The study aims to answer the following questions:

    • How do PE teachers use orienteering and friluftsliv in their teaching?
    • Which geographical areas are used during lessons focusing on friluftsliv?
    • In what ways are these geographical areas being used by PE teachers?

    Method

    The data was collected through semi structured interviews which followed an interview guide. Seven PE teachers were interviewed, of which five teach came within the Stockholm area, one from Norrbotten and one from Södermanland. The teachers were selected through a convenient sample. The interviews were recorded, transcribed to text documents and thereafter analyzed by using a discourse analysis.

    Results

    The discourse analysis showed that the teachers view friluftsliv as a teaching area for physical activities. This was further explained by the teachers´ strive to organize the friluftsliv education using activities named by the curriculum. The teachers viewed these activities as preparations for other outdoor activities, such as longer hikes. The discourse around orienteering was that orienteering was an integrated part of friluftsliv. The open interpretation of the curriculum by the teachers led in some cases to activities being chosen without much reflection on their actual purpose. Furthermore, the empirical material showed that students did not know the purpose of certain activities, which affected their overall motivation for friluftsliv education. An important aspect for all teachers in this study is the geographical areas close to the school. Another aspect is the PE teachers´ desire for more cooperation with other school subjects. The PE teachers also expressed that they wanted a solution which could create more time for friluftsliv in their teaching, which would make it easier to organize meaningful activities.

    Conclusion

    The discourses connected to how the teachers talk about friluftsliv and orienteering shows that friluftsliv is mainly viewed as an area for physical activity. When discussing geographical areas close to the school, a discourse was created which highlighted the significance of this aspect, together with friluftsliv as a means of preparation for other outdoor activities. More cooperation with other subjects has potential to create more time for friluftsliv, making it easier to separate orienteering from this teaching area.

  • Herrick, Rosmarie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekten av passivt hängande som behandlingsmetod hos patienter med subacromial smärta: En kvasiexperimentell studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subacromial pain is one of the three most common causes of patients seeking help in primary care. A definition of subacromial pain is that it is a non-traumatic pain, usually located only in one shoulder, which creates pain in structures in and around the shoulder joint. The cause of subacromial pain is proposed to be multifactorial and the structures that may be involved are many. Conservative treatmens is the first choice when treating shoulder injuries, however, the evidence for which exercises are effective and how these should be dosed is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to measure the effect of passive hanging on shoulder mobility, function and pain in patients with subacromial pain. Questions: - Does passive hanging increase mobility and reduce pain in patients with subacromial pain? - Does passive hanging reduce the incidence of disturbed night sleep in patients with subacromial pain? - Does passive hanging improve shoulder function in patients with subacromial pain? Method: The study used a quasi-experimental design, which consisted of two measurement occasions. A measurement before the treatment and a measurement after the intervention, a so-called pretest - post-test design. All participants performed passively hanging from a pull-up bar for a total of seven minutes a day (three minutes in the morning and four minutes in the evening) during an eight-week period. The exercise was performed at 30 second intervals. The main data of the study is collected through the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score. A total of six patients completed the study. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score all six participants improved their mobility and shoulder function after eight weeks of passive hanging. The presence of disturbed night sleep and pain in ADL also decreased among all participants. Participants improved their painless mobility by 61 % at group level (p-value 0.028). Pain during activity decreased by 75 % at group level (p-value 0.027). The presence of disturbed night sleep decreased by 76 % at group level (p-value 0.027). And the participants shoulder function improved by 94 % at group level (p-value 0.028). Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that eight weeks of passive hanging can improve the mobility and shoulder function in patients with subacromial pain. The incidence of disturbed night sleep and pain in ADL also decreased in all participants after eight weeks of training. Despite low p-values and large differences at the individual level one cannot comment on significant differences or generalisability of the results due to low power and lack of control group.

  • Dupree, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Performance and knowledge related to the menstrual cycle within Swedish elite sports: From the athletes’ point of view2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim was to investigate Swedish elite athlete’s perceptions about the effects of the menstrual cycle on sports performance. The research questions applied was:

    1. How do elite athletes perceive the effects of the menstrual cycle on performance, and do they adjust training or competition accordingly?

    2. How do elite athletes perceive the knowledge and beliefs within the area, among their coaches?

    Method

    A cross-sectional study design was applied using an online questionnaire for data collection. The study group of interest were female Swedish elite athletes, from both team and individual sports. Teams and athletes defined as ‘elite athletes’ were contacted and offered participation. All data collected from the questionnaire was processed in IBM SPSS® where both descriptive and analytic statistics was performed. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the assumptions of normality for the data, Chi2-tests and Fisher’s exact test were used to examine relationships between variables in the sample and the statistical significance level for analysis was set at p ≤ 0.05.

    Results

    Both menstrual- and premenstrual symptoms (PMS) effected the athletes in the sample. The psychological PMS affected close to 70% of the sample in at least one aspect and the symptoms menstrual bleeding affected majority of the sample (82%). The phases were athletes perceived themselves perform the best and the worst were different, with majority of the sample perceiving their worst performance being close to bleeding. This may be an effect of the negative symptoms associated with the bleeding phase. Both coaches’ and athletes’ perceived knowledge were considerably low, as well as athletes’ possibilities to discuss menstrual problems with their coach.

    Conclusions

    Elite athletes perceive negative effects of the menstrual cycle and somewhat experience variations in performance throughout the cycle. The knowledge within the area, especially for people involved in female sports, needs to improve.

  • Milenkovic, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bergendahl, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Uppfattningar och strategier kring återhämtning: En kvalitativ studie om elitidrottande ishockeyspelande gymnasieelever2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent elite icehockey players’perceptions of recovery. To meet the purpose, the following questions were formulated: How does elite adolescent icehockey high school students perceive recovery? Which strategies for recovery emerge among elite adolescent icehockey high school students?

     

    Method

    The study applied a qualitative method and was executed by conducting semi-structured interviews. In total, six male subjects participated in this study. All of them were ice hockey players. The recruitment was made by a convenience sample and a handpicked selection by contacting the interviewed subject’s coach. The team played in the highest national league of their age-group which is considered as elite. A pilot study with two interviews was conducted to ensure the recording method and the interviewguide together with its reliability. A model for recovery was used as theoretical frame work.

     

    Results

    The result showed that elite icehockey high school students primarily perceive recovery as a physical process. The importance of sleep, nutrition and muscle hypertrophy were the aspects that was primarily associated with recovery. All subjects expressed that they don’t monitor their training or recovery through various measuring instruments. Regarding strategies for recovery subjects mentioned various activities. The most mentioned strategy for recovery was sleep/rest, which all participants mentioned. In addition, nutrition was also included to strategies as five participants mentioned it.

     

    Conclusion

    The study´s conclusions, based on the chosen theoretical model, are that elite icehockey high school students primarily perceive recovery as a physical process where the muscles need to be recovered. The social and psychological processes of recovery is mentioned to a lesser extent. The most common strategies for recovery based on the study’s theoretical model was physical recovery among elite icehockey students which includes sleep/rest and nutrition. This indicates that the recovery process may be maladaptive, i.e. not enough in the three domains. The uncertainty regarding what recovery includes and how much it is noted should be taken into consideration in elite youth ice hockey.

  • Siggesson, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur affekterar fysiskt aktivtetsmönster och sömn mående dagen efter?: En kvantitativ studie om hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and issues

    The question in this study is: How does physical activity patterns and sleep affect mood on the next day? More exactly; examine how time in sedentary (SED), in light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on the day before, total sleep time (TST) and number of awakening (WASO) during the night before, affect positive and negative feelings and emotional experiences from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS).

    Material and method

    A total of 13 subjects (7 women, 6 men, mean age 53 years) were included. The study was a cross-over design. Each participant wore an accelerometer during a standardized run-in period before each test-day. The physical activity pattern was analyzed for time in SED, LIPA, MVPA during the day. Also, TST and WASO during the night was recoded. We thereafter analysed whether the physical activity pattern or sleep affected mood on the next day, measured with PANAS for positive and negative affect. The measurements took place on three repeated occasions. The data was analyzed by a linear regression, partly an unadjusted and one adjusted for right / left-handedness, gender, age and waistline. Significance level was set to 0,05.

    Results

    The main outcome was that physical activity patterns and sleep did not affect mood the following day. The relationships between the different measures of exposure was not significantly related to positive or negative feelings (PANAS). It was possible to see a significance difference between the gender, where men and women differed in positive affect in a fully adjusted regressions model that included TST. The results are important for those who advise on the effects of physical activity. Gender, age and waistline were also significant predictors of negative affect, in a fully adjusted model that included SED.

    Conclusions

    Possible explanations for the non-significant results were that the variation in physical activity was to small, that there were too few participants, that there was actually no connection and that confounders could affect the results.

  • Svensson, Mattias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Arbetspendling vid LM Ericsson år 1949 och 20192019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur en grupp anställda vid Ericsson i Kista pendlar till arbetet, hur långt avståndet är till arbetet och hur lång tid det skulle ta att cykla. Insamlade data kommer sedan att jämföras med svaren från undersökningen år 1949. Ett sekundärt syfte är att undersöka skillnader i arbetspendling med avseende på kön. Frågeställningar som besvaras i studien är: Vilket färdmedel används för pendling till arbetet och hur förändras det valet beroende på årstid? Är det någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnor gällande val av färdmedel? Hur långt avstånd uppskattar de anställda att de har till arbetet och hur stämmer det överens med det uppmätta avståndet? Hur lång tid uppskattar de anställda att det skulle ta att cykla till arbetet och hur lång tid är den beräknade cykeltiden?

    Metod: Studien inleddes med att fördjupa kunskapen inom Ericssons historia. Efter att ha letat efter validerade enkäter beslöts att göra en egen enkät. En elektronisk enkät skickades ut till omkring 400 personer via HR-avdelningen på Ericsson varav 121 anställda (51 % kvinnor) valde att svara. I enkäten besvarades frågor om ålder, kön, vanligaste färdsättet till arbetet och skattat avstånd till arbetet. Svaren användes sedan i två olika formler för att beräkna cykeltiden; D = T x 16.14 km/h x 0,763 x (1,604 - 0,0129 x A) för kvinnor och D = T x 20.76 km/h x 0,719 x (1,676 – 0,0147 x A) för män där (D= km), (T=timmar) och (A=ålder). För att räkna ut det exakta cykelavståndet mellan bostad och arbetsplats användes Gmap-pedometer.

    Resultat: Från att 60 % tog cykeln till arbetet år 1949 till att 9 % gjorde det år 2019, och 1 % som använde sig av ett motordrivet fordon till 40 %. Det är även färre personer som promenerar till arbetet 2019 (1,65 %) jämfört med 1949 (19 %). Inga signifikanta skillnader noterades (p>0,05) mellan kvinnor och män angående val av färdmedel. Medelavståndet till arbetet var 16,48 km och den beräknade cykeltiden var i medeltal 73 minuter.

    Slutsats: Studien visar att flera faktorer har förändrats mellan år 1949 och 2019. Avståndet till arbetet har blivit längre och fler människor väljer idag bilen som fortskaffningsmedel. Studien kan inte uttala sig om kausalitet. Intressant är att fördelningen mellan kvinnor och män i de olika kategorierna av färdmedel var mycket jämn.

  • Malmberg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mälberg, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Baksidan av filmning: En studie om gymnasieelevers negativa känslor och upplevelser av att bli filmade i skolämnet idrott och hälsa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to get a deeper understanding of why there are upper secondary school students who have negative emotions and experiences of being filmed in physical education. The purpose was also to find out how students with these negative emotions and experiences think that filming should be used in educational purposes. The research questions that guide the investigation are: 1) What negative emotions and experiences can filming bring out in students? 2) What factors, both inner and outer, can cause students to have negative emotions and experiences of being filmed? 3) What happens to students’ behavior according to themselves when being filmed during class? 4) How do students prefer the teacher to work with filming in physical education?

    Method: To address the research questions a mixed method research design has been used which contains a survey and semi-structured interviews of upper secondary school students. In total, 134 surveys where collected whereafter five interviews were executed. The surveys were analyzed descriptively and the interviews were analyzed through coding and thematisation based on the theory of reciprocal determinism.

    Results: The expressions for emotions and experiences that were used most frequently by the students in combination with them being filmed, were ”hard”, ”nervous” and ”uncomfortable”. Inner factors consisted of the students’ lack of capability and self-confidence in the specific activity, the pressure to perform and a main focus on filming rather than the task itself. Outer factors consisted of the way the teacher works with filming, how clear the purpose of filming is and the relation between the one that is being filmed and the people who are watching the film. The filming also seems to be able to affect behavior, including performance, both positively and negatively. It also appeared that the students prefer a certain influence on how the teacher should work with filming.

    Conclusions: There are students that have negative emotions and experiences and these seem to mainly be a consequence of students’ lack of ability within the specific activity that is being filmed. There also seems to exist a pressure to perform well in front of classmates and teachers. By allowing students to influence how filming is used, teachers seem to facilitate filming for the students. Students also seem to feel pressured to perform well in front of the camera, which according to themselves can affect their behavior. The theory of reciprocal determinism has proved to be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of what can cause negative emotions and experiences among students when being filmed in physical education.

  • Fransson, Alitze
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan coping och passion påverka risken att drabbas av en idrottsskada?: Ett psykologiskt perspektiv på idrottsskador inom artistisk gymnastik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur passion och copingresurser påverkar uppkomsten av såväl överbelastningsskador som traumatiska skador inom artistisk gymnastik. De specifika frågeställningarna var: - Finns det ett samband mellan självskattad passion, copingresurser och uppkomsten av överbelastningsskador och traumatiska skador inom artistisk gymnastik?   - Finns det skillnader i detta samband mellan män och kvinnor?

    Metod: I studien användes  en kvantitativ metod i form av en webbenkät. Krav för att delta var att gymnasten skulle ha fyllt 15 år samt träna artistisk gymnastik minst tre gånger under en vanlig vecka. Enkäten utgjordes av frågor kring skadehistorik, passion (Passion scale) och copingresurser (ACSI-28). Frågeställningen besvarades genom ett korrelationstest i SPSS där signifikansnivån p<.05 användes.   

    Resultat: Resultatet visade ett statistiskt signifikant samband mellan passion och överbelastningsskador hos män, samt för självförtroende och tävlingsmotivation till traumatiska skador hos män. Utöver detta syntes flertalet korrelationer som dock inte var statistiskt säkerställda. Bl.a. syntes  en korrelation mellan stärkta copingresurser och uppkomsten av såväl en överbelastningsskada  som traumatisk skada hos män. För kvinnor syntes bl.a. en korrelation mellan låga  copingresurser och uppkomsten av en traumatisk skada, samt stärkta copingresurser och uppkomsten av en överbelastningsskada.

    Slutsats: Studien visar på att hög tvångsmässig passion kan öka risken för överbelastningsskador hos män medan ett starkt självförtroende kan öka risken för att drabbas av en traumatisk skada hos män. De korrelationer som syntes visar indikationer på att både för höga och för låga copingresurser innebär en ökad risk att drabbas av en idrottsskada för både kvinnor och män.

  • Berlin, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Har astmamedicinen Salbutamol en prestationshöjande effekt på idrottare?: Testning av vältränade cyklister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera om astmamedicinen Salbutamol har en prestationshöjande effekt på cyklister och vilka bakomliggande fysiologiska faktorer som kan tänkas ha en inverkan på prestationsförmågan. Frågeställningarna i studien var som följer:

    Hur påverkar astmamedicinen Salbutamol vältränade cyklister och om den gör det, kommer prestationsformagan att öka? Samt, om Salbutamol har en prestationshöjande effekt, vilka kan de bakomliggande fysiologiska faktorerna vara

    Metod

    Data från fyra försöksperonser samlades in till denna studie. De fick cykla under varierande belastningar i cirka 2:30h där olika fysiologiska parametrar mättes, innan testets början och vid 90 minuter in testet fick de även andas in 800 mikrogram Salbutamol eller placebo for att sedan avsluta med ett intervalltest s.k Björntestet där de fick arbeta till utmattning. Studien genomfördes som en randomiserad dubbelblind cross- over studie där en experimentell metod användes för att svara på frågeställningarna.

    Resultat

    Då tidsramen för denna studie var kort och vissa bortfall skedde erhölls endast data från fyra försöksperonser, vilket medförde en för låg statistisk power överlag. Den största skillnaden som kunde noteras var att det numeriskt skilde sig med 3–8% under testet när det kommer till hjärtfrekvens mellan placebo och aktiv substans, de högre värdena var noterade med aktiv substans (Salbutamol). Dock är dessa små skillnader inte statistiskt säkerställda på detta urval av försökspersoner. På resterande fysiologiska parametrar (lungfunktion, borg och VAS) kunde man inte hitta större skillnader mellan aktiv substans och placebo.

    Slutsats

    På grund av det låga deltagarantalet och tidsramen när studien behövde vara klar så är det svårt att säkerställa resultaten. Men om man tittar på de resultat som finns så verkar det inte finnas en prestationshöjande effekt på den aeroba sidan, vilket också är det som idrottsvärlden vill ha reda på då man associerar astma med andning och aerob förmåga.

  • Bäckström Westling, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Behovet av en lotsmottagning i en kommun i norra Sverige: en kvalitativ intervjuundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte. Undersökningens syfte var att undersöka behovet av en FaR-lotsmottagning i en kommun i södra Norrland. Syftet följs av flera frågeställningar men den primära frågeställningen är; om det fanns en enhet i kommunen som samlade upp patienter som förskrivits fysisk aktivitet på recept som tillhandahåller motiverande samtal och uppföljning, skulle förskrivarna ordinera fysisk aktivitet på recept mer frekvent?

    Metod. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod, och data samlades in med genom fyra stycken intervjuer med tre fysioterapeuter och en överläkare i kardiologi. Intervjuernas struktur grundar sig på en intervjuguide med totalt tjugotvå frågor. Den insamlade datan analyserades sedan genom tematisk innehållsanalys. Som ett komplement till intervjuerna genomfördes ett möte med två personer som är verksamma inom folkhälsa i Region Uppsala. 

    Resultat. Av totalt fyra respondenter var tre mycket positiva till både FaR som behandlingsmetod och att det skulle finnas en lotsmottagning i kommunen. Samtliga respondenter uppgav dock att det finns en viss ekonomisk problematik i förskrivningen. Resultatet visar också att utbildningen av FaR, både på arbetsplatserna och i yrkesutbildningarna är bristfällig och behöver utökas.

    Slutsats. Sammanfattningsvis har resultatet av undersökningen klarlagt ett behov av en uppsamlingsplats för patienter med FaR, och att förskrivande personal är positivt inställda till det

  • Börjesson, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Roos, Matilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Psykisk ohälsa hos kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld: i relation till fysisk aktivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om psykisk ohälsa var mindre förekommande hos fysiskt aktiva kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld, jämfört med ej fysiskt aktiva kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld. Frågeställningarna var; för grupperna fysiskt aktiva kvinnor och ej fysiskt aktiva kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld skiljde sig (1) grad och symtom av Post traumatiskt stress syndrom (PTSD)? (2) grad och symtom av depression? (3) grad och symtom av stress?

    Metod

    Urvalet var 97 kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld. Kvinnojourer kontaktades via mail och stödgrupper för våld i nära relationer kontaktades på Facebook. Data samlades in via en digital anonym enkät som innefattade tre validerade enkäter; PCL-5 för PTSD, MADRS-S för depression och PSS-10 för stress, samt fem egenkonstruerade frågor och två utav Socialstyrelsens indikatorfrågor om fysisk aktivitet. Grupperna fysiskt aktiva och ej fysiskt aktiva analyserades. Graden av PTSD, depression och stress utvärderades ifrån totalpoängen på PCL-5, MADRS-S och PSS-10. Symtomen utvärderades utifrån de enskilda frågorna.

    Resultat

    Medelvärdet på PCL-5 för fysiskt aktiva var 39.3, och 44.9 för ej fysiskt aktiva (p=0.14). Medelvärdet på MADRS-S var 20.2 för fysiskt aktiva, och 22.1 för ej fysiskt aktiva (p=0.43). Båda medelvärdena klassades som “hög sannolikhet för egentlig depression om tillståndet varat mer än två veckor” enligt gränsvärden. Medelvärdet för fysiskt aktiva på PSS-10 var 22.1, och 23 för ej fysiskt aktiva (p=0.53). Tre symtom visade signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna, mindre symtom rapporterades av de fysiskt aktiva kvinnorna. Symtomen för PTSD var; “problem att minnas den stressfulla upplevelsen” (p=<0.02) och “förlust av intresse i aktiviteter som du brukade njuta av” (p=<0.05). För stress var symtomet; “känt att du var oförmögen att kontrollera de viktiga sakerna i ditt liv” (p=<0.05).

    Slutsats

    Graden av PTSD, depression och stress skiljde sig inte hos fysiskt aktiva kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld, jämfört med ej fysiskt aktiva kvinnor som erfarit intimt partnervåld. P-värdet var 0.14 på PCL-5, två frågor hade signifikant skillnad och skillnaden mellan medelvärdena var större än MADRS-S och PSS-10. Den psykiska sjukdom som var närmast att påvisa signifikant skillnad var PTSD, där fysiskt aktiva hade lägre medelvärde.

  • Röja, Julia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Förändring av självskattad fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos personer med FaR® som deltagit i motiverande samtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar Syftet med studien var att undersöka förändring av självskattad fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos personer med Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR®) som deltagit i lotssamtal vid Friskvårdslotsmottagningen på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm. Frågeställningarna var: ”Har det skett en förändring av fysisk aktivitetsnivå mellan baslinje och uppföljning efter 6 månader?”, ”Finns det en skillnad mellan män och kvinnor vad gäller förändring av fysisk aktivitetsnivå mellan baslinje och uppföljning efter 6 månader?” samt ”Finns det ett samband mellan tilltro till den egna förmågan (self-efficacy) vid baslinje och förändring av fysisk aktivitetsnivå?”.    

    Metod Om förskrivaren av FaR® ansåg att patienten behövde ytterligare stöd för att bli mer fysiskt aktiv och/eller behövde hjälp med att hitta en lämplig fysisk aktivitet kunde lotsning på GIH erbjudas. Personer med FaR® som mellan år 2014 och år 2018 deltagit i minst ett lotssamtal (n = 187) inkluderades i studien [65 % kvinnor, medelålder 54,5 (21-81) år]. Lotsmottagningen bemannades under perioden av hälsopedagogstudenter och examinerade hälsopedagoger. Fyra lotssamtal erbjöds. Det första lotssamtalet genomfördes på GIH och de tre uppföljningssamtalen per telefon efter 1-, 3 och 6 månader. Motiverande samtal användes som samtalsmetod. Utgångspunkten var den skriftliga ordinationen om fysisk aktivitet men inga restriktioner fanns kring samtal om andra levnadsvanor. Självrapporterad fysisk aktivitet för variablerna vardagsmotion och fysisk träning samt tilltro till den egna förmågan samlades in genom frågeformulär. En sammanslagning gjordes av de två variablerna vardagsmotion och fysisk träning vilket genererade ett svar i aktivitetsminuter (total fysisk aktivitet). Vid uppföljning efter 6 månader var det ett externt bortfall på 71 % (n = 133). En intention-to-treat analys gjordes där Last observation carried forward (LOCF) användes som metod. Utöver LOCF gjordes en per-protocol analys (PP) för förändring av fysisk aktivitetsnivå mellan baslinje och uppföljning efter 6 månader (n = 54). Statistiskt signifikant när P < 0,05.

    Resultat LOCF, liksom PP-analysen, visade en ökning av aktivitetsminuter från baslinje till uppföljning efter 6 månader (P < 0,001 respektive P = 0,001). Vidare sågs att förändringen av aktivitetsminuter var större hos kvinnor (P = 0,004). LOCF visade inget samband mellan tilltro till den egna förmågan vid baslinje och förändring av aktivitetsminuter (R2 = 0,004, B = -0,123, P = 0,43).

    Slutsats Resultatet i denna studie tyder på att populationen som kommer till lotsmottagningen ökar sin självskattade fysiska aktivitetsnivå. Vald metod för att analysera bortfall, LOCF, kan dock medföra bias och resultatet bör således tolkas med försiktighet.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Talangurval och att prognostisera framtida potential2019In: Ikaros: tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 11-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I de urvalsprocesser som bl.a. ungdomsidrottens präglas av betonas försöker man identifiera unga begåvningar. Men vad menar man egentligen med begreppet talang?  Vilken roll spelar begreppet i hur vi ser på urvalsprocesser och deras legitimitet? 

  • Sjöblom, Paul
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vem är det som styr egentligen? Svensk kommunal idrottspolitik 1985–2017: en fallstudie av Stockholms stad2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 51-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who's in charge?

    Sport policies in Swedish municipalities 1985–2017 – a case study of Stockholm city

    The aim of this study is to analyse the distribution of public sport resources throughout time on the local level – and its consequences. In focus is the concept of governance, namely the stakeholder's capacity to affect to such extent that long-term effects are achieved. The method used is a case study of Stockholm city, the capital municipality in Sweden, where the material consists of meeting minutes and decision protocols from the public sports authority, contemporary literature and recorded and transcribed interviews with representatives of politics and public administration. The analytical approach starts within historical and political science-theories and research on governing. Three forms of governing are scrutinized: hierarchic governing, discursive governing and interactive governing. The investigated period is 1985-2017. It is a period with significant upheavals in the Swedish society, especially regarding the development of sports and public administration. The survey of the governing forms and practices indicates, that alot of different types have been used for a long time working parallel as a complement to each other rather than succeeding (replacing) each other. Primary results regarding the accomplished sport politics, are in the first place that the allowance of public funds to sports has increased during the 2000s. Secondly that the resources are mainly distributed in mainly the same ways (channels) as before and that there are mainly the same physical activities, organizations and social groups as previously which are favoured – while others in comparison are disadvantaged. This is a fact in spite of that the politicians sincequite a long time are fully aware of which groups have been neglected when it comes to physical activities, what kind of new desires citizens have today, and that there are many new initiatives time and again to bring about a change. The conclusion reads that the structural elements economy, tradition and culture have influenced the shaping of sports policy after 1985 more than individual stakeholders and their articulated interests and expressed values.

  • Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Becoming horseboy(s) - human-horse relations and intersectionality in equiscapes2019In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 408-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leisure studies have given scant regard to human-animal relations and intersectionality. In this paper, I respond to calls for research analysing leisure as a complex, multispecies phenomenon by exploring human-horse relations and intersectionality in boy's/men's equestrian stories through the concept of intra-activity and creative analytical writing. Thinking and writing through intra-activity brings insights into the co-constitution of humans and horses, as well as the entanglement of other power relations and social categories. The paper illustrates that becoming horseboy(s) is a process of material-discursive intra-activity where boys/men, by transcending the human-animal divide simultaneously transcend the female-male/masculine-feminine divide. Thus, engaging materially with horses can allow and encourage boys/men to be less constrained by dominant gender discourses. The paper also illustrates the importance of studying gender, not as a separate or primary category of privilege or inequality, but as one that is entangled with race, class, sexuality, age and other animals. I finally argue that bringing horses, as well as discourses, into discussions of the enactment of gender in leisure landscapes offers a productive site for elaborating the much-debated question, posed by feminist posthumanists, of the agency of matter.

  • Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and epidemiology (BIPS), Bremen, Germany.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of Frequency Filtering on Intensity and Noise in Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 9, article id E2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In objective physical activity (PA) measurements, applying wider frequency filters than the most commonly used ActiGraph (AG) filter may be beneficial when processing accelerometry data. However, the vulnerability of wider filters to noise has not been investigated previously. This study explored the effect of wider frequency filters on measurements of PA, sedentary behavior (SED), and capturing of noise. Apart from the standard AG band-pass filter (0.29-1.63 Hz), modified filters with low-pass component cutoffs at 4 Hz, 10 Hz, or removed were analyzed. Calibrations against energy expenditure were performed with lab data from children and adults to generate filter-specific intensity cut-points. Free-living accelerometer data from children and adults were processed using the different filters and intensity cut-points. There was a contribution of acceleration related to PA at frequencies up to 10 Hz. The contribution was more pronounced at moderate and vigorous PA levels, although additional acceleration also occurred at SED. The classification discrepancy between AG and the wider filters was small at SED (1-2%) but very large at the highest intensities (>90%). The present study suggests an optimal low-pass frequency filter with a cutoff at 10 Hz to include all acceleration relevant to PA with minimal effect of noise.

  • Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, J
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, A
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, G
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, P
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors.

    METHODS: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005-2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used.

    RESULTS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66-2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27-1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87-2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02-1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47-1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70-4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53-1.35).

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex.

  • Gustavsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Öjhagen, Johannes
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppsideal på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasielevers syn på kroppsideal på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intention and questions

    The intention of the study is to investigate the ideal body that upper secondary school students come across in social media. The study also aims to inquire students experiences on how the subject of physical education and health takes discussing in body images and ideal in social media. From the purpose of the study, these questions formulations are presented.

    • Which types of bodies are exposed in social media according to the students?
    • Do the exposure from social media affect the student own body image linked to physical training, if yes, in what way?
    • Do the students experience the exposure of physical training and body image in social medias are adapted and worked on in the pedagogy subject of physical education and health?

    Method

    Three focus group interviews were implemented on secondary school students in the district of Stockholm. The interviews have been analysed through a thematic analysis and the results have been categorised according to pre-arranged themes.

    Results

    The interviews illuminated that the exposure of images of the ideal body in social media effects youths to a great extent and can lead to consequences. Further on this seems to be a subject that is not discussed or dealt with in school, particularly not in the subject of physical education and health even though it is a part of the curriculum.

    Conclusion

    In the study it seems to emerge that social media is transmitting a body image that seems far away from how your own body appears. An unachievable ideal is created where conceptions and attitudes to the bodies that does not look like the ideal effects youths which in worst cases can lead to very damaging consequences. This seems particularly to be something that is not of high priority in school and there is definitely a gap to fill since it is a part of the curriculum in both elementary and upper secondary school.