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  • Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stronger Association between High Intensity Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health with Improved Assessment of the Full Intensity Range Using Accelerometry.2020In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 4, article id E1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved method of physical activity accelerometer data processing, involving a wider frequency filter than the most commonly used ActiGraph filter, has been shown to better capture variations in physical activity intensity in a lab setting. The aim of the study was to investigate how this improved measure of physical activity affected the relationship with markers of cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data and markers of cardiometabolic health from 725 adults from two samples, LIV 2013 and SCAPIS pilot, were analyzed. The accelerometer data was processed using both the original ActiGraph method with a low-pass cut-off at 1.6 Hz and the improved method with a low-pass cut-off at 10 Hz. The relationship between the physical activity intensity spectrum and a cardiometabolic health composite score was investigated using partial least squares regression. The strongest association between physical activity and cardiometabolic health was shifted towards higher intensities with the 10 Hz output compared to the ActiGraph method. In addition, the total explained variance was higher with the improved method. The 10 Hz output enables correctly measuring and interpreting high intensity physical activity and shows that physical activity at this intensity is stronger related to cardiometabolic health compared to the most commonly used ActiGraph method.

  • Wåhlin, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skillnader i självskattad kommunikation mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare samt dess korrelation till upplevd lagsammanhållning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & Frågeställning

    Denna studie undersöker huruvida kommunikationen skiljer sig mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare (N=140, NDam=69, NHerr=71) samt om det finns några

    korrelationer mellan kommunikation och den upplevda sammanhållningen mellan handbollsspelare. Frågeställningarna som prövas är :

    1) Finns det några skillnader mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare i hur deras interna kommunikation i laget upplevs?

    2a) Finns det någon korrelation mellan den interna kommunikationen och sammanhållningen hos handbollsspelare?

    2b) Om det finns en korrelation mellan kommunikationen och sammanhållningen, skiljer sig korrelationen mellan manliga och kvinnliga handbollsspelare?

    Metod

    Dataunderlaget i studien är framtaget genom en kvantitativ enkätstudie som är sammansatt av två validerade enkäter, Scale of Effective Communication in Team Sports – SECTS-2 och Group Environment Qusetionnaire – GEQ. SECTS-2 använder sig av fyra kommunikationsfaktorer (acceptans, distiktivitet, positiv konflikt och negativ konflikt) som kommer mätas mot GEQs fyra olika sammanhållningsfaktorer (individuell attraktion till det sociala i gruppen, individuella attraktionen till grupp-uppgiften, gruppens sociala integration och gruppens uppgifts integration).

    Resultat & Slutsats

    Det visar sig finnas en signifikant (p= 0.037) skillnad mellan hur dam- och herrhandbollsspelare kommunicerar samt en stark korrelation mellan flera aspekter av kommunikationen och den upplevda lagsammanhållningen. Resultatet tyder på att kommunikationen mellan handbollsspelare är viktig för en bra lagsammanhållning, vilket tidigare har visats viktigt för att prestera bra. Resultatet går i linje med tidigare studier som visat på ett tydligt samband mellan kommunikation och sammanhållning samt könsskillnader inom de olika kommunikationsfaktorerna. Denna studie är dock den första på handbollsspelare. Kommunikationspåverkan på lagsammanhållning är viktig att förstå både för spelare, tränare och ledare som jobbar med lagidrott.

  • Sjöholm, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Faiqi, Aisha
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En kvalitativ studie av kvinnliga elitfotboll- och ishockeyspelares påverkan av sociala medier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur idrottande kvinnor kan påverkas av socialamedier. För att uppfylla studiens syfte kommer följande frågor behandlas:

    1. Vad innebär sociala medier för kvinnliga ishockey- och fotbollsspelare?
    2. Vad innebär kroppsideal för kvinnor inom ishockey och fotboll?

    Metod

    Frågeställningarna har besvarats genom en kvalitativ ansats där intervjuer har genomförtsmed sex kvinnliga elitfotbolls- och ishockeyspelare. Intervjuerna har genomförtssemistrukturerat där skribenterna intervjuat varsin sport. De genomförda intervjuerna hartranskriberats ordagrant och innehåller därmed talspråk, vilket innebär att även citaten somanvänds i uppsatsen skrivits med talspråk. För att analysera intervjuerna har genusteorinanvänts.

    Resultat

    Resultatet som framkommer i studien är att många av de intervjuade upplever att socialamedier har ett stort inflytande på självbilden. När det kommer till kroppsideal är det tydligtbland de intervjuade att bilder som publiceras på sociala medier är starkt bidragande till hurde ser på sig själva då det sker en jämförelse med andra.

    Slutsats

    Sociala medier sätter sina spår bland elitidrottande kvinnor som i många fall har resulterat isjälvskadebeteenden. Detta då de jämfört sig själva med andra och på så sätt försökt påverkaden egna kroppen genom att träna mer och äta mindre. Fotbollsspelarna i vår studie var meraktiva med att publicera bilder medan ishockeyspelarna mest bläddrade i flödet. Denskillnaden är dock inte kopplad till sporten utan snarare till deras personligheter.

  • Anstrén, Ludwig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nauclér, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Den nya timplanen för Idrott och hälsa: En studie om idrottslärares undervisning och arbetsbelastning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how physical education teachers experience the effect and the upcoming effect of their teaching and workload due to the implementation of the new timetable from the autumn semester 2019.

    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 experience the effect of the new timetable in relation to their teaching?
    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 experience the effect of the new timetable on in relation to their workload?
    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 believe their work situation will look like when the complete timetable has been implemented?

    Method

    A qualitative method was chosen for conducting the study. Semi-structured interviews were chosen as method. In total, seven physical education teachers from three different schools in Stockholm City were interviewed, all of whom worked with physical education in grades 7–9. The respondents were selected through a convenience selection. The theories used were curriculum and frame factor theory.

    Results

    The results showed that the respondents’ possibility to convey their education has improved due to the new timetable. The respondents experienced that the workload was unchanged by the new timetable. However, there was a concern expressed by the respondents in terms of their upcoming work situation concerning facilities, budget, the wear on equipment and whether recruitments must happen to handle the new timetable.

    Conclusions

    The respondents' overall picture of the new timetable is positive, and they indicate that the extended teaching hours help the respondents´ to more easily help the students to reach the knowledge requirements. The extended teaching time together with the unchanged curriculum seems to have contributed to increased flexibility regarding the use of time. Nevertheless, there is some concern for the future. The new schedule will probably mean more wear and tear on equipment and some congestion in the teaching rooms as well as the premises adjacent to them. Time, material costs and facilities have been presented as the most important framework factors in the study. It is still unclear how the schools will successfully handle the extended teaching hours based on the conditions of the individual school.

  • Käck, Anton
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sidén, Kalle
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Det ligger på läraren, att berätta för mig vad jag ska kunna”: En kvalitativ studie om elever på gymnasiet och deras syn av kunskapskraven i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim 

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how students viewed the knowledge requirements in Physical Education for upper secondary school and what content of the knowledge requirements that students perceived as difficult to understand. The purpose of this study was also to develop how students would like to change the knowledge requirements and the mediation of the knowledge requirements so that they became easier to understand.

    To this end, the following questions are asked:

    • How do students view the knowledge requirements in Physical Education?
    • Do students have suggestions on how to bring about knowledge requirements for the better?

    Method

    In this study, a qualitative approach has been used and the interview questions have been prepared based on a semi-structured structure.  The selection has been made with the basis that participants during the time of the interview read the subject Physical Education 1. In the study, both girls and boys (1 guy and 5 girls) have been interviewed at a secondary school in Stockholm. The participants correspond to the group targeted by the purpose and aim of this study. This paper will take the starting point in the casam theory.

    Results

    The clearest results shown by this study were (1) students are placing a great responsibility that the teacher can interpret the knowledge requirements in a good way and translate this into concrete lessons and (2) students state that they do not know what the knowledge requirements really Means. The students also argued that (3) their views on knowledge requirements could be clarified if these were repeated more often and preferably before start-ups.

    Conclusion

    Because these aforementioned findings have made, a change needs to be made in how knowledge of knowledge requirements is conveyed and that understanding of knowledge requirements must increase. The relationship is of great importance when it comes to what students have attitudes to the subject as they consider them to be the teacher's responsibility to communicate them successfully.

  • Pettersson, Nina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wärdig, Livia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och tränare i ett skadeförebyggande syfte: En kvalitativ studie riktad mot idrottsgymnasier och truppgymnastik på elitnivå2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om samarbete förekommer mellanspecialidrottslärare (RIG och NIU) och tränare i klubbar, samt undersöka hurspecialidrottslärare och tränare ser på förebyggande av idrottsskador hos elever påidrottsgymnasium med inriktning truppgymnastik. Frågeställningarna var: I vilken månförekommer samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och klubbtränare? Hur arbetarspecialidrottslärare och klubbtränare med skadeprevention?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats. Datainsamlingen gjordes genom en semistruktureradintervjuguide, vid behov tillämpades följdfrågor i intervjuerna. Analysen av den insamladedatan utfördes genom en tematisk innehållsanalys. Urvalet av intervjupersonerna bestod av trespecialidrottslärare och tre tränare som har lång erfarenhet av truppgymnastik på elitnivå.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att tidsbrist var en anledning till att samarbete förekommer i låg utsträckningmellan specialidrottslärare och tränare i truppgymnastik. Ur ett idealiskt perspektiv anserspecialidrottslärarna och tränarna att en kontinuerlig kommunikation skulle möjliggöra ettsamarbete kring träningsbelastning och skadeprevention. Samtliga deltagare arbetar medskadeprevention, en del av deltagarna menar att de försöker komplettera det som eleverna/gymnasterna går miste om på övriga träningar. Majoriteten av specialidrottslärarna ochtränarna arbetar aktivt med styrketräning som en form av skadeprevention vilket också utgören stor del av lektionerna/ träningarna.

    Slutsats

    Samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och tränare med elever/ gymnaster som studerar på RIGeller NIU förekommer i låg utsträckning. Med ett tätare samarbete kan ett arbete kringskadeprevention tillämpas i syfte att minska frekvensen av idrottsskador.

  • Öhling, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Reyes, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lever du som du lär ut?: En kvalitativ studie om lärares egna upplevelser gällande att vara fysiskt aktiva förebilder i ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in the Stockholm area, what contributes to the teachers in physical education current level of physical activity and whether the teachers perceived that they should be a role model for the students regarding physical activity at school and in their private life.

    1. What have contributed to the teachers in physical education current level of physical activity?
    2. What are the experiences of physical education teachers about being role models for the students regarding physical activity?
    3. What are the experiences of physical education teachers about being role models for the students at school and in their private life?

    Method

    The study used a qualitative approach and where based on six interviews that later were analyzed. The participants came from two different schools in the Stockholm area, five were interviewed face to face and one interview was conducted by telephone. The interviews were semi-structured and analyzed by theoretical thematic analysis with an inductive starting point. Notes was taken during the interviews meanwhile all was recorded to facilitate the later transcription. The study is based on the sociocultural learning theory.

    Results

    Five of six respondents were active and estimated that they reached FYSS recommendations about physical activity and daily exercise. The reason for their activity level came from both childhood experiences and socio-cultural factors and their own habitus. Teachers considered themselves to be an example to varying degrees and have a responsibility as a teacher to act and handle certain situations in a specific way. Many expressed that the teachers role and responsibility extended outside school hours and affected some choices even privately.

     Conclusions

    Being a teacher in physical education comes with a great responsibility and in our study it appears that the responsibility extends beyond working hours. Similarly in the study, from the teachers own experiences, it emerged how much importance teachers in physical education can have on students relationship to physical activity. Something you should consider and take advantage of when educating teachers in the future. If children actually do as adults do and not as they say, it may be a decisive factor for public health that teachers in physical education live as they teach.

  • Nilsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Ida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärares viljor, plikter, kunnande och möjligheter i relation till simning: En jämförande kvalitativ studie om idrottslärare i stad och landsbygds upplevelser kring simundervisning i årskurs 7-9.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine and compare how teachers of physical education and health (PEH) in grades 7-9 in urban and rural areas interpret, realize and perceive their possibilities to teach the unit of swimming based on the curriculum, for both students able and unable to swim.

    Research questions: How do PEH-teachers interpret and realize the unit of swimming based on knowledge requirements and the core content? How do PEH-teachers perceive their possibilities to teach the unit of swimming to students that able and unable to swim? What factors influence PEH-teachers’ possibilities to teach the unit of swimming?

    Method

    The study is qualitative and the method used is semi-structured interview. A convenience sample of seven teachers of PEH in grades 7-9 was made, of which four came from urban municipalities and three from a rural municipality. Gathered data was analyzed through curriculum theory, von Wright’s action theory with the determinants “wants”, “duties”, “abilities” and “possibilities”, and the frame factor theory.

    Results

    The results of the study showed that the curriculum was interpreted and realized similarly, with focus to check the knowledge requirement “swim 200 metres, of which 50 metres are in the back position”). The respondents interpreted that the unit of swimming should have a more extensive content, but were limited due to external conditions. One respondent taught the unit of swimming more extensively and showed that the teacher as an actor also could be important in interpreting and realizing the curriculum. Two respondents utilized external instructors for students that were non-swimmers. The rest of the respondents taught nonswimming students themselves, but generally experienced constraints for these students to achieve the requirements, for example time, access to premises and economy. The respondent who felt satisfied with external conditions had access to a pool on the school area. Finally, the results showed that differences between urban and rural respondents were marginal.

    Conclusions

    Conclusively, interpretation and realization of the unit of swimming is largely affected by frame factors, but the teacher as an actor could also be an influencing factor, both for the regular teaching and for the teaching of non-swimmers. Furthermore, teaching the unit of swimming seems to be difficult regardless of working in an urban or rural municipality.

  • Essving, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kjetselberg, Eveline
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elevers deltagande på idrott- och hälsalektioner: En kvalitativ studie av lärare som undervisar på gymnasienivå2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions

    The aim of the study is to find out what physical education teachers in high school perceive about pupils’ absenteeism and non-participation in the subject of physical education. Also, what the teachers think the reasons might be for pupils not participating. Additionally, to search for what kind of strategies the teachers use to try to increase pupils’ participation and reduce absenteeism. The research questions of the study were created based on the aim.

    • What reasons do physical education teachers perceive there are for pupils not-participating in physical education lessons?
    • What reasons do physical education teachers perceive there are for pupils who are absent from physical education lessons?
    • What strategies do physical education teachers use in high school to prevent non-participation and absentees?

    Method

    A qualitative research method was used for the study and conducted with the help of six interviews, who was selected through convenience- and snowball sampling. The interview method was semi-structured. The participants were teachers who worked with physical education in high schools around Stockholm. In the study, Bourdieu’s theory was used to analyze what teachers perceive about pupils’ who were not-participating and were absent.

    Results

    Internal and external factors were the most common reasons for non-participation and absenteeism. The internal factors were lack of motivation, insecurity, and earlier experiences, and the external factors were the social environment and conditions. The teachers’ strategies to prevent these factors were to create social relations with the pupils, create better conditions and, to create practical solutions to the problem.

    Conclusion

    This study determined that teachers could have problems with non-participation and absenteeism and that the teachers worked with different strategies to prevent this. The findings could be understood through students’ experienced habitus, capital and what is valued in PE as a field. When acknowledging the problem and working to solve it, it can increase student participation, which means to give more pupils the chance to be physically active and to learn for life.

  • Mattsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ashley, Euan
    Stanford University.
    Montgomery, Darren
    Waggot, Daryl
    Individen i idrotten2019In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 14-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan urminnes tider har det varit känt att olika träningsupplägg fungerar bättre för vissa idrottare än för andra. Med modern datainsamling och analytiska tekniker kan vi integrera mätvärden från träning, prestation och resultat, samt subjektiva och biologiska markörer så att de från en sammantagen bild kan ge rekommendationer anpassade till den specifika individen. Detta gör att idrottarna inte bara kan träna, återhämta sig mer effektivt och prestera bättre, utan även undvika skador och sjukdomar.

    Artikeln belyser att många professionella team samlar in så mycket mätvärden att de lider av en ”data-tsunami”, och hur den senaste vetenskapen och analytiska metoder, inklusive AI och djupinlärning, kan optimera datainsamling och analys för att minimera skador och förbättra prestationen.

  • Al Djezani, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Baydono, Gabriel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan rörelse och dans utmana könsuppfattningar i idrott och hälsa-ämnet?: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur idrottslärare arbetar könsneutralt i momentet rörelse och dans2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to find out how physical education teachers work with gender neutralization within the subject movement and dance. The purpose is concretized in three issues:

    • How do physical education teachers break the gender norms in the moment movement and dance?
    • How do physical education teachers perceive students' views on gender norms in the momentum movement and dance?
    • How can the physical education teacher’s statements be understood from a feminist post-structuralist perspective?

    Method

    To achieve the purpose of the survey, a qualitative method was therefore selected in the form of semi-structured interviews. In this study we had choose to interview four high school teachers in physical education, in the Stockholm area. Based on the respondents' responses, the theme was formed. The theoretical starting point of this study was feminist post-structuralism.

    Results

    The results showed, according to PEH-teachers, that boys have a more negative attitude towards dancing compared to girls. The results also showed that some discourses on gender norms dominate the teachers' way of understanding gender and dance and their way of teaching dance in PE and health. The result also showed that as a teacher, the way of working needs to be formed based on that all students are individuals and to not focus on their gender and to have a gender-neutral way of working

    Conclusions

    The conclusion that can be drawn in this study is that interviewed PEH-teachers are working to strive for what they perceive to be a gender-neutral way of working in the movement and dance. The study shows that students are still shaped by society about what they think and think about dance. PEH-teachers believe that girls are more positively attuned to dance than boys. Discourses emerge that dance is still "girly" which leads to guys avoiding dance lessons.

  • Contreras, Aurora
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattström, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elever kontra lärare - Synen på formativ bedömning: En kvalitativ studie om hur elever uppfattar den formativa bedömning lärarna använder2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and questions

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the students felt that formative assessment was done in their teaching in sports and health as well as how they felt it would benefit their learning. The study also sought to find similarities and differences in students' and teachers' thoughts about how formative assessment is used.

    • To what extent do teachers use formative assessment in their teaching?
    • How do students feel that formative assessment is done in the teaching?
    • How do students think that formative assessment benefits their learning?

    Method

    We have chosen to use a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as a collection method. With the help of a convenience selection, five students and two teachers were selected. Both teachers work in high school. All interviews were conducted and processed and interpreted. Wiliam's five strategies for formative assessment and KASAM's three concepts were used as theoretical starting points in the analysis of the transcribed material.

    Results

    Our main results are that our interviewed teachers find formative assessment as new and difficult to avoid. What teachers choose to use within Wiliam's five strategies looks a little different. Most of our interviewees all believe that all strategies in formative assessment benefit their learning. The experience of how the formative assessment is used differs somewhat from teacher to student. On the whole, it can be stated that the students consider that feedback is dominant in the strategies we asked for, while one of our teachers believes that peer assessment is the one they use most.

    Conclusion

    There are some similarities and differences between the teachers, and what the students experience is used in teaching. However, it also turned out that most of the students feel that the strategies are used in one way or another, and it can in some way have an impact on learning.

  • Degerlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kalliolevo, Arttu
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsledarnas betydelse i föreningsidrotten: En kvalitativ studie om hur idrottsledare arbetar för att skapa en positiv idrottsmiljö2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of this study was to research how sports leaders organize their activities to get youngsters to stay in the club sports. To answer this, we have focused on examining how sports leaders create a positive sports environment. The specific purpose of the study was to examine the activities of football and wrestling leaders for children and young people in Stockholm. Our research questions are: - What are the similarities and differences between football and wrestling in how coaches organize a positive sporting activity? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they submit obstruction and opportunities in the creation of a positive sports environment? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they see the role and function of sport in society?

    Method

    The research methodology used in this study is the qualitative method of hermeneutics. The sample of respondents consisted of five coaches for children and youngsters, three of them were active in football and two in wrestling. The age range in the respondents' training groups were from seven to 18 years.

    Results

    The results show that, according to the sports leaders, the sport contributes to positive development both at the individual, group and community levels. According to the coaches, children learn skills that help them cope in social situations. The children learn to cooperate and work hard to achieve their goals. All the coaches agree that it is important to be responsive and to have constant communication with their adepts in creating a positive sports environment. In conclusion, a common belief among both wrestling and football coaches is that parents are an obstacle but that in some cases they can contribute to positive sports activities and that sports clubs need engaged parents.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion we can draw from this is that, as a coach, you must be responsive and genuinely interested in the sports of your adepts, both on the training ground and outside. It then leads to the creation of a positive sports environment that will have more people remaining in the club sport.

  • Jakobsen, Douglas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intelligence in Football: Conceptualizations, Developmental Methodologies and Behaviors2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In elite football (also known as soccer), practitioners are in constant pursuit of understanding essential performance parameters and how they can be developed. As every executed football action is governed by a decision, a player’s ability to make intelligent decisions during play is vitally important for success. This concept of a player’s “football intelligence” is complex and at times ambiguous for practitioners both at the elite and sub-elite level. The present work aims to provide some clarity regarding the phenomena of intelligence in football.

     

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 8 well-merited professional coaches from multiple countries were conducted, asking them three main questions; how do they conceptualize football intelligence? What developmental methodologies do they implement to address football intelligence, and in what practical behaviors do players manifest football intelligence? Responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methods.

     

    Results: The results give insight into what can be summarized as components of football intelligence, such as concepts of anticipation and information processing. Additionally, a number of different methodologies including functional training and pedagogical approaches to develop football intelligence emerged. Furthermore, some specific behaviors performed by intelligent players, such as information-seeking actions, were exemplified.

     

    Conclusions: Based on the results, a conceptual framework for better understanding the phenomena and potentially improving practical interactions with football intelligence are presented and discussed. Finally, practical recommendations for coaches and players are suggested, along with suggestions for further academic research.

  • Frykling, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norstad Habeish, Sofiän
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Föräldrars förväntningar på idrott och hälsa: En tolkande fenomenologisk studie av föräldrars upplevelse och betydelse av dagens ämne idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate parents’ experience of the meaning of physical education and health.

    Research questions:

    • How do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school experience the purpose of physical education and health?
    • What do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school describe that they should learn in physical education and health?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach where we interviewed six parents of children in elementary school. We searched for parents’ essence in the analyses with the help of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). 

    Results

    The results of the study show that parents’ experience the purpose of physical education and health (PEH) as physical health promoting for pupils which derives from a concern of children’s leisure time today. Physical activities are seen as means to create healthy bodies that protect children against diseases. Moreover, it is emphasized that PEH also has social benefits. Therefore, pupils shall participate in a variety of activities but also learn about the importance of a healthy lifestyle and to be physically active. In addition, this can help to stimulate a lifelong interest for physical activity throughout the lifespan. The subject should also contribute to pupils becoming more independent through accountability and by having demands and working independently with problem-based learning.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that parents’ experience the purpose of PEH as physical health promoting for pupils because of the concern for children’s inactivity in their leisure time, where the subject also through health promoting contributes to social benefit. PEH also stimulates, according to the parents, learning in other subjects in elementary school. Finally, the parents highlight that the subject develops more independent children and also prepares them for an adult life.

  • Frödeberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tollefors, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skillnad i effektutveckling mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare: Användandet av ett maximalt treminuterstest för att ta reda på maxeffekt, kritisk effekt och arbetskapacitet över den kritiska effekten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka critical power (CP) och om andelen av det totala arbetet som utförs över CP () skiljer sig mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare. Dvs förhållandet mellan den effekt som kan bibehållas under lång tid och den som maximalt kan produceras under de 150 första sekunderna vid ett tre minuters maxtest. Vidare syftar studien till att undersöka om CP, och maxeffekten (Pmax) kan förutsäga prestationen på 100 meter frisim och 400 meter löpning. Frågeställningarna som använts under studien är som följer: (i) Finns det en skillnad i andelen arbete som kan utföras ovanför CP () mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare? och (ii) Går det att via CP, och Pmax förutsäga prestationer på 100 m frisim och 400 m löpning? Hypotesen som användes under denna studie var att sprintlöpare har en större W´/W-kvot än sprintsimmare. Hypotesen bygger på tidigare forskning angående den totala energikostnaden vid sprintlöpning och sprintsimning (Duffield, Dawson & Goodman, 2005; Figueiredo, Zamparo, Sousa, Vilas-Boas & Fernandes, 2011)

    Metod

    För att beräkna CP, Pmax och använde vi oss av ett test där deltagarna, åtta löpare och åtta simmare, under tre minuter höll maximal intensitet vid varje given tidpunkt. Vid löpningen användes direkt effektmätning medan simtestet använde sig av kraftmätning som sedan omvandlas till effekt.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att simmarna hade en signifikant (p= <0,001) högre förmåga att utföra arbete över CP (ES=2,7) än löparna. Vår regressionmodell kan förklara 85% av årsbästat hos simmarna och Pmax verkar vara en mycket bra prediktor för resultat hos både simmar och löpare. Modellen bör dock tolkas med försiktighet då studien hade mycket få deltagare (n=8). 

    Slutsats

    I och med att detta understryks det anaeroba energisystemets avgörande betydelse för prestation, inte bara för sprintlöpare, utan även sprintsimmare, vilket öppnar för nya diskussioner av och modifieringar av träningsupplägg för dessa. Vidare kan testet med fördel användas vid testning av simmare och löpare på sprintdistanser och troligen även på såväl längre distanser som inom andra lokomotiva, kontinuerliga idrotter.

  • Zanteré, Andreaz
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fehrlund, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför väljer elever NIU som gymnasial utbildning?: En intervjustudie kring faktorerna bakom valet till NIU med inriktning handboll.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to investigate students' motives for choosing NIU education with a focus on handball. The questions the study answers are 1. How do the students describe what motivated them to choose NIU education? And 2. How can the students' choice of NIU with handball specialization be understood from a socio-cultural perspective?

    Method

    The study uses a qualitative interview method for first-year students who attend three different sports gymnasiums. The study took a phenomenological approach for understanding the students' experience of the choice of NIU. The study used focus groups with four students in each interview group. The first interview consisted of four guys, the second interview consisted of four girls and the third interview consisted of two guys and two girls. A hand-picked selection to represent the target group was made and the students who participated were randomly asked or selected by their teachers at the school. The interview style used was nondirective with semi-structured interviews to get different perceptions about students' choices for NIU. The study has a deductive approach and aims to get answers in depth.

    Results

    From a socio-cultural perspective, the study could present that the students who were considered most driven and took a longer step in elite practice in handball also have parents with a strong sports background. The parents were involved with all students throughout their upbringing in their practice and were supportive and motivating for the students. The parents provided the students with security and resources so that they could continue their sport. The results also show that the students had a strong internal motivation to practice handball at school to achieve the greatest success in the game. They saw NIU as an opportunity for elite investment and were even more motivated when they were in the school environment.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion is that the choice of NIU as a high school education is based on the students' socio-cultural background. All students have had a socio-economic situation that has given them the opportunity to practice what they find fun in their spare time. Their habitus has taken them into the sporting field and they have had great support from their parents in their choice of handball. As part of the parents' commitment to make the students feel good and to have the chance to invest in what they think is fun, has in itself given the students strong motivation to choose NIU with a focus on handball in high school.

  • Carlbom, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Malmstedt, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nytta eller nyttig?: Elev och kropp i särskolan åren 1946–20112020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine how the view of the pupil and the body is depicted in the curriculum for compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (“Särskolan”) in 1946–2011. Five research questions are used to fulfill the aim of the study:

    How is the pupil in “Särskolan” depicted in the different curriculums?

    How is the pupil viewed in the different curriculums for “Särskolan”?

    What is the view on the body in the different curriculums?

    How should the body be used and which qualities are supposed to be developed?

    If and how the view on the pupil and the body has changed over time? The last research question concern historical continuity and change for the study’s entire time frame (1946-2011).

    Method

    The method was a content analysis grounded in the hermeneutic field. To answer the research questions a coding scheme was utilized for analysis. The scheme connected the source material, theoretical framework and aim of the study. The theory applied was The Civilizing Process.

    Results

    The curriculum of 1946 and 1959 attempts to train the pupil to become normal. The pupil should be removed from the home and is not considered a citizen. Up until the curriculum of 1973 the view of the body was dualistic, with a split between body and soul. The curriculum of 1973 points toward a more humanistic view, where the pupil’s individual need is the basis for development. 1973 can also be seen as the turning point for the view of the pupil and the body in “Särskolan”. The curriculum depicts the body as a tool for achieving wellbeing. The curriculum for 1990 and 2011 shows that the home is given substantial responsibility for raising the pupil. Body and soul generate each other.

    Conclusions

    Both continuity and change is found in the curriculums for “Särskolan”. Society has been civilized and the view on normal and abnormal has changed alongside society. The pupil and the body has changed from 1946’s idea of normalizing the pupil through training to 2011’s idea of finding strength in differences. A continuity is found in the curriculums’ need to categorize people as “different”

  • Widerdal, Micael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Joel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommer du på lektionen?: lärares syn på och hantering av elevers frånvaro i idrottsämnet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze physical education (PE) teachers´ methods in handling, and attitudes towards, absent students. The study will answer the following questions:

    • How do PE teachers describe what is important and meaningful in teaching PE?
    • How do PE teachers explain the reasons behind students being absent and how can these reasons be understood?
    • What repertoire emerges when PE teachers talk about their coping strategies of absent students?

    Method

    A qualitative approach is used in order to elaborate and produce as profound insight as possible. By conducting eight semi-structured interviews data was collected and analyzed inductively. Convenient sampling was used to reach respondents whom all have experience of working with students in primary school geographically covering south-, mid-, and north of Sweden. The interviews were transcribed word-for-word prior to being analyzed. The theoretical framework used to interpret the result is based on Antonovsky´s Sense of Coherence and Bourdieu’s concepts of capital and habitus.

    Results

    All teachers emphasize the importance of a good teacher-student relationship and that a positive attitude towards PE is key in creating meaning. In addition, inclusion strategies are mentioned as important. Teachers with longer experience emphasize the importance of communicating with frequently absent students whereas teachers with shorter experience mention adjusting the level of difficulty according to students´ level of competence as a key factor in maintaining attendance.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion of this study is that the most common causes of student absenteeism are social relations, school setting, and mental ill-health among students. Another conclusion is that the length of the teachers´ work experience affects their view of absence. The present study also show that there are differences in how teachers handle student absenteeism. 

  • Johansson, Emilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norén, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Träning genom appar: En diskursanalys av normkonstruktion i träningsappar2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how training apps produce training connected to a wider set of norms in society. The questions that the essay are seeking to answer are:

    • What representations of the gender are made visible in the material? 
    • What requirements for the subject's being are linked to these representations?
    • In what way are materials and environments produced? 
    • What representations about body and exercise are left unproblematic?

    Method

    Three training apps were analyzed based on the methodological approach of discourse analysis. The empirical material critically examined and identified four themes of representations: gender, exercise and body ideal, exercise exercises, and material. The representations were analyzed on the basis of Foucault's theory of power and the concept of governmentality, which was then used in the discussion of the study's results.

    Results

    The results of the study shows that gender representations are co-constructed interacts with a specific normative training culture that primarily focuses on aesthetic aspects based on a prevailing societal epistemology. In this normative framework men work-out mainly for muscle building while women should get balanced bodies. The apps emphasize well-trained instructors and focus on the pathogenic approach by projecting the calorie burn based on a given goal that the app has developed without adapting to the user's individual goals. The training apps contain exercises that assort to prevailing traditional gender norms of society. The exercises performed by men are often advanced with technical names based on biceps exercises, while the women's exercises mainly contain the seat and leg muscles. The apps are designed based on external attributes that interact with the prevailing training culture. The training is performed by well-trained people in developed training clothes based on society's fashion in different gym-like environments.

    Conclusions

    This study has shown how these apps reproducing traditional norms that exist in the training culture and produce stereotypical ideas about training and body ideal and gender. Accordingly, the training exercises, the materials and the environments are based on traditional gender norms of society. Therefore, it is important to understand the difference between digital teacher resources and commercial apps in order to secure the quality of the education and to avoid changing the students self -perception. 

  • Karapidakis, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lubner, Leo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsans betydelse i ämnet idrott och hälsa: En studie om hur lärare uppfattar hälsouppdraget i ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to understand how teachers in the subject physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject's health assignment. The following issues will be addressed:

    1. How do teachers define and interpret the concept of health?
    2. How do teachers interpret and work with the subject's health assignment?
    3. What do teachers think about the subject's health assignment?

    Method

    To answer the study's purpose and issues, interviews were conducted based on a qualitative approach. The study consists of semi-structured interviews that have been conducted on six legitimate and active teachers in the subject of physical and health education, who are active in primary school. The study's theory is based on Antonovsky's health theory. The analysis process is done through a thematic analysis, while the interpretation is based on a hermeneutic approach to the material.

    Results

    The study's results indicate that teachers see health with a holistic perspective. However, teachers do not follow their own views on health in their health education, but instead adopt the health perspective they feel the curriculum has. The teachers' interpretation is that the syllabus wants to convey a physical health view where the focus is on combating ill health through physical activities. Therefore, they relate to health education with this physical approach while a holistic view of health remains in the background. However, the teachers say that they wish that the syllabus had a holistic view that they could use in their teaching, since they did not perceive the health work based on the syllabus's health view as meaningful.

    Conclusions

    Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how teachers in physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject of health education. The teachers perceive that the subject's health work must be designed according to a pathogenic approach to health, which the teachers follow. In particular, it highlights that the teachers experience the syllabus as difficult to interpret if it is to convey a holistic view of health. These insights, to the extent that they are examined more closely, may benefit the design and teaching of the subject.

  • Fredholm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engqvist, Christoffer
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet i skolan: En studie om implementering av fysisk aktivitet i grundskolan utöver ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation process of physical activity in addition to the topic of sport and health at four primary schools.

    The research issues were:

    • What is the school's incentive for increased physical activity?
    • What preparations were made by the school?
    • What type of activity is most prominent?
    • What role does evaluation play in the implementation process?
    • What are the decisive factors in an implementation process?

    Method: In the work, a qualitative approach was applied, and the empiricism has been gathered through interviews with four individuals who are in some way responsible for increasing physical activity at each school. The interviews have been of a semi-structured nature and analysed with the aid of Normalization Process Theory, which is a theory in implementation research.

    Results: The result shows that sedentary was the most common cause of the introduction of more physical activity and that in half the cases the directive came from the school management. The most common activity was linked to a classroom environment and was not scheduled. Everyone who participated in the study uses some form of evaluation and all state scheduling as a vital aspect of the implementation process.  

    Conclusion: The fact that school management was positive and supported the implementation was what distinguishes a successful implementation process against a less successful one, as they manage over scheduling and allocation of resources.

  • Kouru, Linette
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Olby, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Det är väl ett sådant ämne där det kan lysa igenom lite, lite tydligare”: en kvalitativ studie om könsmönster och heteronormativitet i idrott- och hälsaundervisningen2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim with this study was to examine gender patterns and heteronormativity in the school subject physical education and health from a teacher and student perspective.

    • How do the teachers work to counteract gender patterns in their physical and health education?
    • How do the students experience their teachers counteracting gender patterns in their physical and health education?
    • How can the teachers’ in physical and health education and the students’ experiences of gender patterns connect to heteronormativity in physical education?

    Method

    This study was performed with a qualitative method where openly directed interviews were used to find out how teachers and students experience gender patterns and heteronormativity in the subject physical and health education. Three teachers were interviewed individually and three interviews were performed with students in focus groups. All participants recieved a mail with information before the interviews, where they were informed how the study would be done and ethical considerations. The interviews were transcribed and analysis of the data was made by thematically categorizing the material.

    Results

    Every teacher in this study works to counteract gender patterns by using different didactic tools in their teaching, which is confirmed by the students. This could mean that they, for example, think about using an inclusive language. The students experience that there are expectations of them, based on gender and that heteronormativity can occur in the education, mainly in dance. The students also experience that there is a difference between teachers that are recently graduated and teachers that graduated a long time ago.

    Conclusions

    Even though teachers have an awareness of how they can work to counteract gender patterns and heteronormativity it seems that it is a challenge to apply it in practice. Students believe that both heteronormativity and gender patterns can occur in teaching, but still feel that teachers make concious choices to counteract this.

  • Tollefors, Sanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ankarstrand, Joar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad lär sig eleverna egentligen om psykisk hälsa?: En innehållsanalys av psykisk hälsa i gymnasiets läromedel2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine how mental health is portrayed in textbooks used in Swedish high schools. This was analysed from a salutogenic and pathogenic perspective.

    - How much is written about mental health in the different textbooks?

    - What is defined as mental health according to the textbooks, and is this described in a salutogenic or pathogenic way?

    - How is mental health portrayed in the textbooks, from a salutogenic and pathogenic perspective? 

    Method

    The method was a content analysis and analysed textbooks from the four high school subjects advanced sports, health pedagogy, psychology and physical education (and health). For the first question, a quantitative method where the percentage of pages concerning mental health were counted, was used.

    Results

    The analysis showed that the textbooks for physical education (and health) and advanced sports mentioned mental health on nine percent and eleven percent of pages respectively while the textbooks for health pedagogy and psychology mentioned it on 31 percent and 35 percent of pages respectively. All of the textbooks defined mental health as something that concerns the mind and thoughts. Self confidence, self image and self esteem were brought up as important aspects of mental health. Primarily stress, sleeping issues, anxiety, depression and eating disorders were mentioned. It was concluded that all four textbooks used both perspectives but in differing amounts. The psychology book was mainly pathogenic and the others were more salutogenic.

    Conclusions

    The space that mental health was given and the way it was portrayed in the different textbooks differed to a relatively high degree. Something that was common for the books was that both a salutogenic and a pathogenic perspective were used and that much focus was on mental illness rather than mental health. All of the books described mental health as a growing public health issue.

  • Ljung, Michaela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter i klassrummet: En kvalitativ studie av insatser för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter i skolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to examine how teachers in physical education and health, natural sciences and social sciences pay attention and reason about the work with students with reading and writing disabilities. The four questions the study is based on are: 1. How do teachers in physical education and health, compared to other core subjects, pay attention to and work with reading- and writing disabilities? 2. What help do the students get from the school/teachers based on their disabilities? 3. How do the teachers work with reading and writing disabilities based on the curriculum? 4. Do the teachers make conscious choices of methods to support learning among students with reading and writing disabilities and how does this or these methods look?

    Method: The data collection method consisted of qualitative interviews of a semi-structured nature. The choice of schools and interviewed teachers was made through a convenience selection where accessibility of the teachers was crucial. The theoretical framework for this study has been based on curriculum theory and frame factor theory.

    Result: The results of the study shows a certain difference in how the teachers in the various subjects work to identify, pay attention and meet the needs of students with reading and writing difficulties. Based on the teachers’ answers you can see a clear pattern from the curriculum and frame factor theory that influence the teachers’ way of teaching, and the interaction between the teachers and the students. The design of the teaching, the students’ reaction influence the teachers who absorbs and revises. The teachers also use different methods, for instance through digital aids to promote learning among students with reading and writing difficulties.

    Conclusion: 

    The results of the study show a difference in how teachers in the different subjects work to identify, pay attention to and meet the needs of students with reading and writing difficulties. Based on the teachers’ answers there is a difference between the teachers in physical education and health and the other teachers in how they work on the transformation- and realization arena. Physical education and health teachers work more flexible with the students and the design of the teaching looks different compared to the teachers in the other subjects. The common denominator is that the teachers feel inadequate.

  • Gumm, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ledarskap i praktik: En etnografisk studie av fotbollstränare2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning - Studien undersöker hur tränare inom barn- och ungdomsfotbollen i Stockholm leder sina adepter i träning. Forskningsfrågorna lyder:

    • Vilka ledarskapsbeteenden tillämpar tränare inom barn- och ungdomsfotbollen under pågående träning?
    • Vilka typer av frågor använder tränarna och på vilka sätt utövas feedback/återkoppling?
    • Vilka praktiska ledarskapsbeteenden kan identifieras i olika teorier om ledarskap? 

    Metod - I detta arbete genomfördes en etnografisk observation av tio fotbollstränare i åtta olika pojklag mellan tio och 19 år. Både träningen och tränarens röst spelades in. Tränarnas beteenden summerades i en tematisk analys för att ta reda på mönster i ledarskapet.  

    Resultat - Resultaten visar fyra tematiska områden av tränarnas tillämpade ledarskap, nämligen tillämpning av frågor, tillämpning av feedback, gruppsamlingar och atmosfär. Frågor används i ledande syfte eller som öppna frågor medan feedback ges specifikt eller icke-specifikt. De tillämpade ledarbeteendena kan kategoriseras in i dem olika ledarskapsstilar i Full Range of Leadership modellen.

    Slutsats - Beroende på ledarbeteendenas kontext skiftar tränarna framför allt mellan transaktionellt och transformationellt ledarskap. 

    Abstract

    Aim – The study researches how coaches in child- and youth soccer in Stockholm lead their followers in practice. The research questions are: 

    • Which coaching behaviors do coaches apply in child and youth soccer practices?
    • Which types of questions do coaches use and how is feedback applied? 
    • Which practical leadership behaviors can be identified in leadership theory? 

    Method - The applied method is an ethnographic observation of ten coaches in their practices in eight boys’ football teams between ten and 19 years of age. Both practice and voice were recorded and subjected to a thematic analysis of behavioral patterns. 

    Results - The results show four themes of coaches’ applied leadership. These are application of questions, application of feedback, group gatherings and atmosphere. Questions are used in a leading fashion or as open questions, while the type of feedback is specific or non-specific. The applied leadership behaviors can be categorized in the Model of the Full Range of Leadership.

    Conclusion - Depending on the context of the behavior coaches vary especially between transactional and transformational leadership.

  • Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between participation in organised physical activity (PA), such as sport and exercise during leisure time, and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study was part of the school-based cross-sectional Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17. Data from 3477 adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were used in the analyses. Participation in organised PA and parental education were reported in questionnaires. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured through accelerometry during seven consecutive days.

    RESULTS: Adolescents who participated in organised PA had significantly higher total PA (14%, p<0.001), more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (eight minutes, p<0.001) and had less sedentary time (15 minutes, p<0.001). Those who participated in organised PA were more likely to reach recommended PA levels. Total PA and MVPA did not differ by parental education among those who participated in organised PA.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents who participated in organised PA were more physically active, less sedentary and more likely to reach PA recommendations than those who did not.

  • Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Siethoff, Lasse Ten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Aerobic capacity predict skeletal but not cardiac muscle damage after triathlon - the Iron(WO)man study.2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between aerobic capacity and biomarkers of skeletal- and cardiac muscle damage among amateur triathletes after a full distance Ironman. Men and women (N = 55) were recruited from local sport clubs. One month before an Ironman triathlon, they conducted a 20 m shuttle run test to determine aerobic capacity. Blood samples were taken immediately after finishing the triathlon, and analyzed for cardiac Troponin T (cTnT), Myosin heavy chain-a (MHC-a), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), Creatin Kinas (CK), and Myoglobin. Regression models examining the association between the biomarkers and aerobic capacity expressed in both relative terms (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) and absolute terms (LO2*min-1) controlled for weight were fitted. A total of 39 subjects (26% females) had complete data and were included in the analysis. No association between aerobic capacity and cardiac muscle damage was observed. For myoglobin, adding aerobic capacity (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) increased the adjusted r2 from 0.026 to 0.210 (F: 8.927, p = 0.005) and for CK the adjusted r2 increased from -0.015 to 0.267 (F: 13.778, p = 0.001). In the models where aerobic capacity was entered in absolute terms the adjusted r2 increased from 0.07 to 0.227 (F: 10.386, p = 0.003) for myoglobin and for CK from -0.029 to 0.281 (F: 15.215, p < 0.001). A negative association between aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle damage was seen but despite the well-known cardio-protective health effect of high aerobic fitness, no such association could be observed in this study.

  • Petersson, Alice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlund Hansson, Isabella
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det är deras värld: En intervjustudie om digitala verktyg och lärande i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school becomes more and more digitized after a decision from the Government of Sweden. However, digital tools should have a function for the pupils learning process.

    Aim The purpose of this study is to investigate, problematise and analyse how teachers work with digital tools in physical education at the Swedish upper secondary school and how it contributes to the pupils learning. In this study we have asked following: What digital tools are used and how are they used by the surveyed teachers in physical eduaction? How does the surveyed teachers deem that the tools contribute to the pupils learning? and According to the surveyed teachers, what are the advantages and disadvantages with digital tools in physical education in relationship to learning?

    Method The study is based on a sociocultural perspective and have a qualitative approach, where seven teachers have been interviewed in a hand-picked selection. The analyse was done using a thematic color coding.

    Results The result shows strikingly positive attitudes and arguments for the use of digital tools in physical education. For example, to show a video clip can contribute to increase the pupils movement ability and heart rate trackers can help the pupils to understand physiology. A challenge can be to deal with technical malfunctions, and also that some tools distract the pupils from the lesson.  

    Conclusion The conclusion is that digital tools can contribute to the pupils learning process if the teacher who use it have good skills and does it correctly. Also that pupils need to understand that digital tools should be used for teaching purposes and not for spending time on other funnier things on their phones.

  • Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology, Berlin, Germany..
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden..
    Bielak, Allison A M
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gow, Alan J
    Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards an active and happy retirement? Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition.2020In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

  • Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education. Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning. Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

  • Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

  • Moberg, Mathias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Trötthet inom alpin skidåkning på elitnivå: "Monitorering över en intensifierad träningsperiod"2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att identifiera och observera trötthet inom alpin skidåkning samt hur den utvecklas under en träningsperiod. Vidare kommer det undersökas om det primärt är perifer, central eller mental trötthet som utvecklas och om de samverkar med varandra.

    Frågeställning 1: Påverkas alpina elitskidåkare av trötthet och hinner de återhämta sig mellan träningspassen under en period på fem dagar?

    Frågeställning 2: Finns det något samband mellan åkarnas mentala och muskulära trötthet?

     

    Metod

    Detta är en kvantitativ experimentell studie som undersökte hur alpina elitskidåkare påverkades av trötthet under en träningsperiod på fem dagar. I studien deltog sex manliga alpina elitskidåkare som genomförde två skidpass per dag. Före och efter respektive skidpass testades deltagarnas reaktionsförmåga, Squat Jump, Repeated Counter Movement Jump samt upplevda mentala och fysiska status för att identifiera eventuell mental och muskulär trötthet.

     

    Resultat

    Studien resulterade i en signifikant utvecklad mental trötthet (P<0.05) under träningsperioden medan inga muskulära trötthetseffekter kunde identifieras. Åkarna återhämtade sig muskulärt mellan passen medan mental trötthet inte återgick till normala nivåer. Det fanns inget samband mellan åkarnas mentala och muskulär trötthet medan sambandet mellan muskulär och mental trötthet korrelerade starkt (r=0.9).

     

    Slutsats

    Studien resulterade i en primärt utvecklad mental trötthet under perioden medan muskulär trötthet inte påvisades. Därav är det mental trötthet som främst påverkar alpina elitskidåkare medan perifer och central trötthet är något som åkarna verkar återhämtar sig från mellan pass. Eftersom det inte fanns något samband mellan muskulär och mental trötthet beror den utvecklade tröttheten inte på fysiologiska utan på psykologiska faktorer. Den utvecklade mentala tröttheten kan då istället ha berott på den totala träningstiden alpinisterna utsattes för under perioden eller på för höga respektive för låga stressnivåer vilket kan orsaka en ökad mental trötthet hos idrottare.

  • Dronsfield, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andrén Bahnson, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belastningsskador bland unga fotbollsspelare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om ungdomar riskerar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador på grund utav sitt idrottande. Studiens frågeställningar är:

    1. Tenderar ungdomar som multi-idrottar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador i större utsträckning än ungdomar som har valt att tidigt specialisera sig på en idrott?

    2. Finns det ett samband mellan mängd idrottstimmar i veckan som ungdomar utövar och deras självrapporterade skadefrekvens?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvantitativ ansats med enkät som metod. Vårt urval är begränsat till pojkar i åldrarna 12–14. Fotbollsklubbar inom Stockholmsområdet har valts ut för deltagande. Målsättningen var att samla in 200 enkätsvar genom att besöka fotbollslag på deras träningar, efter bortfall fick vi in totalt 126 svar. Vetenskapsrådets fyra krav för samhällsvetenskaplig forskning har legat till grund för de etiska övervägandena för utformningen av denna studie.

    Resultat

    Studien ger inga signifikanta svar men resultaten visar att fler multi-idrottare skadar sig i större utsträckning än de som specialiserar sig. De ådrar sig fler belastningsskador och har fler skadedagar. Å andra sidan råkar de som specialiserar sig ut för fler traumatiska skador.

    Slutsats

    Det finns tendenser att multi-idrottare ådrar sig belastningsskador i något högre grad än de som specialiserar sig. Det finns också en tendens att träningsvolym korrelerar med skadefrekvens.

  • Dreber, Helena
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital and Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Health-Related Quality of Life 5 Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Young (18-25 Years) Versus Older (≥ 26 Years) Adults: a Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry Study.2019In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To compare changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young (18-25 years) versus older (≥ 26 years) adults up to 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

    METHODS: Data on Short Form-36 (SF-36) and obesity-related problems scale (OP) at baseline and 1, 2, and 5 years after RYGB were extracted from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. Within-group changes and the effect of age group on 5-year changes in SF-36 and OP were analyzed. Effects sizes (ESs) were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 2542 young and 12,425 older adults were included at baseline, and 138 young (20.7% of those eligible) and 1021 older (31.8%) adults were followed-up 5 years post-RYGB. At this time, average to large improvements (ES ≥ 0.5) were observed in physical functioning, physical component score and OP in young adults, and in physical functioning, role physical, general health, physical component score, and OP in older adults (all, p ≤ 0.001). Both age groups displayed negligible to weak (ES < 0.5) or no improvements in mental HRQoL (all, p < 0.55). Older adults displayed greater 5-year improvements than their young counterparts in role physical, general health, vitality, social functioning, physical component score, and obesity-related problems scale (all, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both young and older adults displayed improvements in OP and physical HRQoL 5 years post-RYGB compared to baseline, while mental HRQoL did not improve to the same extent. Greater HRQoL-improvements could be expected in older patients why future research on HRQoL post-RYGB should stratify data on age groups.