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  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hoff, David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides2019In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 7, no 1-2, article id 100147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

  • Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • Girma Wondimu, Desalegn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien: Kartläggning av ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]


    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva hur barn- och ungdomsfotbollen är organiserad i Addis Abeba, Etiopien, med ett speciellt fokus på ungdomsfotbollen. Uppsatsen kommer att redovisa ledares, tränarnas och ungdomars beskrivning av ungdomsfotbollen. Frågeställningarna är: Hur beskriver tränare, ledare och ungdomar ungdomsfotbollens organisation samt dess hinder och möjligheter, i Addis Abeba Etiopien.


    Både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod har använts. Studien genomfördes dels med intervjuer med sex personer där två tillhör fotbollsfederationen, en är från kommunen, två är ungdomstränare och en sportchef på en klubb i Etiopiens första liga, dels via en enkätundersökning med två ungdomslag i åldrarna  13–17 år.


    Resultatet av intervjuerna och enkäterna visar att endast viss begränsad organisation finns. För åldrarna 6–12 år finns i Addis Abeba eller i Etiopien ingen organisation likt exempelvis Sveriges statsstödda barn- och ungdomsverksamhet. I denna åldersgrupp görs enbart tillfälliga lösningar genom klubbarna och federationen, eller av barnen och ungdomarna själva genom spontanfotboll. För de lite äldre pojkarna, 13-15 år, finns skolfotboll  samt så kallade ”projekt”, men ingen organisation eller några fotbollsföreningar. Ungdomsfotbollen har många utmaningar. Det saknas resurser, utbildade tränare, lämpliga fotbollsplaner, materiel, utrustning, lokaler och träningstider. Det saknas också en tydlig policy hos Etiopiens och Addis Abebas fotbollsfederation som prioriterar ungdomsfotbollen och som visar hur den bör organiseras. Det finns dock stora möjligheter till förbättring. Enkäten visar att intresset och motivationen är stort. 


    Ungdomsfotbollen i Addis Abeba är organisatoriskt outvecklad och uppvisar brister i struktur, prioritering och långsiktighet. Detta behöver åtgärdas om man vill nå en hållbar ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien.  

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gun
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Almali, Leyli
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är hälsa för högstadieelever?: En intervjustudie om flickor och pojkar och deras uppfattning om begreppet hälsa i årskurs 92019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    The purpose of this survey is to investigate what students in grade 9 thinks what health is. How they relate to health in the subject physical education and what image they have on the subject.


    • What do students in grade 9 think about what they learn about the notion of health.
    • How do the teachers convey their knowledge to the students about health.
    • Do the students have a pathogen or a salutogenic perspective of health.


    To answer the questions the survey used a qulitative method with interviews. Six students from grade 9 and 3 teachers in physical education participated in the study. The interviews were semistructured because the content and questions were decided before hand but the follow up questions were adapted to the people that participated.


    The students perceived the notion of health in the subject differently. Some students connects the notion of health to different physical activities whilst some students thinks about nutrition as an important part of health. All the participating teachers used theory sessions to educate about health. However, the content could differ between the teachers. The image of what the students think about health is mainly from a salutogenic perspective. 5 of 6 students said they interpreted that they had a salutogenic perspective and only one person thought about health from a pathogen perspective.


    The students interpreted the notion of health differently. The teachers used theory sessions when they educated about health. Both students and teachers thought about health from mainly a salutogenic perspective.