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  • Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Glitch i Idrottslandet: en kritiskkreativ undersökning av queeranden inom svensk idrott(svetenskap)2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant story in critical sports research is that sport is characterised by heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity norms. These norms are manifested in sexism, homophobia, homonegativity and racism which affect all athletes, regardless of identity. Although important, this is a story that risks reinforcing ideas of how all sport “is”. The thesis is a response to calls from feminist theorists and sport researchers who argue that we need to move away from a logic of negativity built into critical theory and instead put our analytical tools to the task of constructing alternative possible scenarios. The aim of the thesis is to explore what some major strands within contemporary feminist theory can accomplish in relation to dominating stories about gender, sexuality and scientific knowledge production in sport research. More specifically, I explore how the concepts of figuration and intra-action can open up for other possible sport (science) worlds.

    The thesis consists of a frame-story and four articles, which in turn are based on three substudies. In the first substudy I interviewed boys and men who engage with horses and in horse riding. By engaging in a sport, equestrianism, that in Sweden is dominated by girls/women and female coded, they transgress and challenge – glitch – ideas of how Real sports boys/men should be, live and act. The interview stories from this study are enacted in various ways in article I and IV. In the second substudy I interviewed elite athletes with experiences of living non-straight and who in that way glitch heteronormativity in sports (sometimes also homonormativity). These stories make up the heart of the figurations presented in article II. In the third substudy, I explored athletic bodies that, due to intersex variations, glitch the idea that the only way of being a body (in sport) is to be male or female. This analysis is presented in article III.

    The thesis is populated by horseguys who challenge stereotypical masculinity norms, sporting contexts that turn heteronormativity up-side-down and inside-out, athletic bodies that implode binary gender and a researcher I glitching a scientific (writing) genre. The figurations presented in the thesis open up for queering elsewheres, where engaging in sport can serve as a condition of possibility for same-sex attractions/relations and non-normative ways of being a boy/man, and where creative writing – in the form of fiction, poetry and genre mixing – can be used as a method of inquiry.

    Through the concept of intra-action, the thesis also makes visible that “matter matters”. Firstly, I show how engaging materially with horses allow and encourage boys/men to be less constrained by dominant gender norms – in other words, that human-horse relations are entangled with, and affect, boys’ and men’s doing of gender. Secondly, I make visible how athletic bodies “strike back” in relation to ideas of binary gender, glitching a dominant medico-scientific story (in sport) telling us that the only way of being a body is to be male or female. Thirdly, I enact – in form and content – how the researcher is always already entangled in scientific knowledge production.

  • Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska institutet.
    School-based obesity prevention for busy low-income families: Organisational and personal barriers and facilitators to implementation.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e0224512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little research has targeted multiple-level barriers and facilitators in school-based parental support programmes. This qualitative study aims to describe barriers and facilitators, at organisational and personal levels, that teachers and parents in disadvantaged settings in Sweden perceived as influencing the implementation of the Healthy School Start II (HSS II) intervention.

    METHODS: Data collection, analysis and interpretation were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 14 parents and ten teachers within the HSS II trial. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis in a deductive step using the three CFIR domains-inner and outer setting, and personal characteristics-followed by an inductive analysis.

    RESULTS: The theme 'being on the same page-getting burdened teachers and parents to work on common ground' was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to the structure of the schoolwork and curriculum, involvement from other staff and school management, the practical school workday, perception of high family needs but low parental interest, insufficient resources in the families, and teacher's personal knowledge, interests, and opinions about health and food. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived family needs and resources, parents' health knowledge, consensus about healthy behaviours and ability to cooperate, and school involvement in health issues and the intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions should facilitate parents' and teachers' work on common ground, with activities suitable for a stressful and burdensome workday and everyday life. This could be achieved by integrating evidence-based practices within school routines, and including activities that are practicable despite parents' stressful lives, and that increase parental consensus about promoting health. Strategies to increase involvement of parents in families with high needs are necessary. Also, this study suggests an expansion of the CFIR to capture the interface between different micro-level organisations, and account for several delivering/receiving organisations.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Hur stadens utformning lockar till cykling2020In: Transportforums abstraktsamling, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Jag har valt att fokusera på fyra övergripande faktorer som jag bedömer som avgörande viktiga för att stimulera till ökad cykling. Dessa är, utan att jag anger dem i prioritets-ordning: (1) kombinationsresor, (2) avståndsrelationer, (3) målpunkter, och (4) färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    Litteraturstudier.

    Resultat och slutsats

    Kombinationsresor. Rapporten ”Ökad cykelpendling, men hur? – en undersökning om stockholmares attityder till cykling” är utgiven av Utrednings- och statistikkontoret vid Stockholms stad. Av den framgår att stockholmarna skulle vilja kunna ta med cykeln på buss, tunnelbana eller pendeltåg, vilket naturligtvis ska ses mot bakgrund av att det handlar om en storstad med långa avstånd till många målpunkter.

    Vid vissa tider och vissa stationer kan man idag ta med sig cykeln på en del av pendeltågen i Stor-Stockholm. Men när det gäller tunnelbanan är det tvärstopp, till skillnad från i storstäder som Köpenhamn och Oslo.

    Avståndsrelationer. Efter andra världskriget genomförde L.M. Ericsson en resvaneundersökning bland alla anställda, och konstaterade att 60 % cyklade till arbetet. Med dagens regionförstoring blir man nyfiken på hur det kan te sig idag, och i vilken utsträckning avståndsrelationerna mellan bostad och arbete medger cykling till arbetet. Om det vet man ganska mycket när det gäller de som tar bilen till arbetet i Stor-Stockholm. Johansson och medarbetare (2017) kunde nämligen geokoda adresserna för bostad- och arbetsplatserna för c:a 350 000 bilister och därefter beräkna färdvägsavstånden och hur många som hade högst 30 minuters cykelfärd till arbetet. Det visade sig att c:a 111 000 bilister, dvs. ungefär 30 %, hade så korta avstånd. Med andra ord; potentialen till ökad cykling är mycket stor.

    Målpunkter. Det torde inte råda någon tvekan om att en blandstad är idealisk för cykling. Med det menar jag att t.ex. bostäder, arbetsplatser och affärer inte ligger i olika delar av staden, utan blandas. Detta skapar förutsättningar för både kortare avstånd mellan olika målpunkter, och en mer levande stad.

    Färdvägsmiljöer. Jag är uppvuxen mitt i Stockholms innerstad, och minns hur jag vid 12 års ålder fick cykla själv till vårt landställe som låg 16 km bort i Nacka. Idag skulle det vara en omöjlighet på grund av så mycket mer trafik. Ja det är till och med så att många av våra studenter på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan inte vågar cykla i Stor-Stockholm. Oftast visar det sig att de då kommer från landet eller mindre orter och städer.

    För att förstå vilka miljöfaktorer det är som är kritiska för att både skapa en trafikmässig otrygghet – trygghet respektive motverka – stimulera cykling har vi vid Forskningsgruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö vid GIH (www.gih.se/rhm) utvecklat färdvägsmiljöskalan ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale”. Vid min presentation kommer jag ge exempel på viktiga miljövariabler, men kan redan nu nämna att både grönska och skönhet har den verkan att de stimulerar till cykling.

    Summering. Det är viktigt att på olika sätt stimulera till ökad cykling. Stadsplaneringen behöver söka stöd i den framväxande kunskapen om cykling, hälsa och miljö när städer och olika kommunikationsmedel planeras, eller planeras om.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hoff, David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides2019In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 7, no 1-2, article id 100147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

  • Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • Girma Wondimu, Desalegn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien: Kartläggning av ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva hur barn- och ungdomsfotbollen är organiserad i Addis Abeba, Etiopien, med ett speciellt fokus på ungdomsfotbollen. Uppsatsen kommer att redovisa ledares, tränarnas och ungdomars beskrivning av ungdomsfotbollen. Frågeställningarna är: Hur beskriver tränare, ledare och ungdomar ungdomsfotbollens organisation samt dess hinder och möjligheter, i Addis Abeba Etiopien.

    Metod

    Både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod har använts. Studien genomfördes dels med intervjuer med sex personer där två tillhör fotbollsfederationen, en är från kommunen, två är ungdomstränare och en sportchef på en klubb i Etiopiens första liga, dels via en enkätundersökning med två ungdomslag i åldrarna  13–17 år.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av intervjuerna och enkäterna visar att endast viss begränsad organisation finns. För åldrarna 6–12 år finns i Addis Abeba eller i Etiopien ingen organisation likt exempelvis Sveriges statsstödda barn- och ungdomsverksamhet. I denna åldersgrupp görs enbart tillfälliga lösningar genom klubbarna och federationen, eller av barnen och ungdomarna själva genom spontanfotboll. För de lite äldre pojkarna, 13-15 år, finns skolfotboll  samt så kallade ”projekt”, men ingen organisation eller några fotbollsföreningar. Ungdomsfotbollen har många utmaningar. Det saknas resurser, utbildade tränare, lämpliga fotbollsplaner, materiel, utrustning, lokaler och träningstider. Det saknas också en tydlig policy hos Etiopiens och Addis Abebas fotbollsfederation som prioriterar ungdomsfotbollen och som visar hur den bör organiseras. Det finns dock stora möjligheter till förbättring. Enkäten visar att intresset och motivationen är stort. 

    Slutsats

    Ungdomsfotbollen i Addis Abeba är organisatoriskt outvecklad och uppvisar brister i struktur, prioritering och långsiktighet. Detta behöver åtgärdas om man vill nå en hållbar ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien.  

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gun
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Almali, Leyli
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är hälsa för högstadieelever?: En intervjustudie om flickor och pojkar och deras uppfattning om begreppet hälsa i årskurs 92019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this survey is to investigate what students in grade 9 thinks what health is. How they relate to health in the subject physical education and what image they have on the subject.

    Questions

    • What do students in grade 9 think about what they learn about the notion of health.
    • How do the teachers convey their knowledge to the students about health.
    • Do the students have a pathogen or a salutogenic perspective of health.

    Method

    To answer the questions the survey used a qulitative method with interviews. Six students from grade 9 and 3 teachers in physical education participated in the study. The interviews were semistructured because the content and questions were decided before hand but the follow up questions were adapted to the people that participated.

    Results

    The students perceived the notion of health in the subject differently. Some students connects the notion of health to different physical activities whilst some students thinks about nutrition as an important part of health. All the participating teachers used theory sessions to educate about health. However, the content could differ between the teachers. The image of what the students think about health is mainly from a salutogenic perspective. 5 of 6 students said they interpreted that they had a salutogenic perspective and only one person thought about health from a pathogen perspective.

    Conclusions

    The students interpreted the notion of health differently. The teachers used theory sessions when they educated about health. Both students and teachers thought about health from mainly a salutogenic perspective.

  • Nilsson, Hampus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Makten och skolan: Debatten om skolan inför riksdagsvalet 20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to analyze how the parties in the Swedish parliament debated the matter of  the Swedish school prior to the 2014 election. The question for the survey was:

    • How did the parties debate school governance?

    • How did the parties debate grades and results?

    • How did the parties debate the question of independent schools?

    • How did the parties debate the role of teachers and the status of teacher profession?

    Method

    The empirical material consisted of 1) debating articles written by party leaders or school political spokesmen. 2) Swedish public service hearings with party leaders 3) party election programs. The method for analysis Arne Naess´ (1970) argumentative analysis described by Bergström och Boréus (2005) searching for thesis, pro- and contra arguments. The selection of the empirical material was made through hand picked selections. Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.

    Results

    The study showed that the Moderate party argued for shared responsibility between the state and the municipalities. The Centre party, the Social democrats, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Liberal party argued for a nationalization. The Liberal party argued for grades starting from grade 6 at the same time as arguing for written reviews giving a more descriptive picture of the pupil. The Social democrats, The Centre party and the Liberal party used PISA surveys supporting their argument in the question of grades. The Christian democrats were in favour of independent schools. Similarly, the Centre party argued for continued legislation allowing share-out for owners of independent schools. The Social democrats and the Left party argued for banning share-outs. The Social democrats, the Liberal party, the Green party argued for strengthening teachers ‘role and status primarily by raising teacher´s and increasing the time spent teaching while decreasing administrative work.

    Conclusions

    The Social democrats, The Liberal party, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Left party wanted nationalize the Swedish school. The Christian democrats, the Liberal party and the Centre party were in favour of share-outs while the Social democrats, the Green party and the Left party opposed share-outs. The Liberal party argued for grading pupils at a lower age. The Social democrats argued for the introduction of career opportunities which would lead to teachers being becoming more separated from their teaching assignments. The question of the school could not be divided into left or right wing politics.

    Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.