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  • Lutula, Antonio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Resisted Sprint Training in Swimming: A Quasi-Experimental Study on Swedish National Level Swimmers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of resisted sprint training in swimming on maximal swimming velocity and performance characteristics. The aim was also to examine how maximal swimming velocity is related to maximal swim power and maximal dry-land power.

    Method

    Eighteen competitive national level swimmers (9 male and 9 female; age: 18.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass: 72 ± 8.3 kg, height: 177.2 ± 4.6 cm, mean ± SD) were recruited to this study. Subjects were assigned to either resisted sprint training (RST) or unresisted sprint training (UST). Sprint training was performed two times per week during 6 weeks as 8x15m with a 2min send-off interval. RST performed sprint training using individualized load corresponding 10% of maximum drag load (L10), UST performed sprint training with no added resistance. A test-battery including dry-land strength assessment; maximal strength (MxS) and explosive strength (ExS), a timed 25m front-crawl swim and in-water force-velocity profiling was performed prior and following the training intervention. Maximal swim power (Pmax), maximum drag load (F0), theoretical maximum velocity (v0) and slope of force-velocity curve (SFv) was computed though force-velocity profiling.

    Results

    No significant within group differences occurred in neither RST nor UST following the 6-week intervention period in: swimming velocity, MxS, ExS, Pmax, F0, v0, and SFv. Strong correlations were found between swimming velocity and MxS (r = 0.75), ExS (r =0.82) and Pmax (r = 0.92).

    Conclusion

    Resisted sprint training in swimming using L10 did in the present study not elicit any improvements in maximal swimming velocity or examined performance characteristics. Resisted sprint training does not appear to be a superior method of improving swimming performance compared to unresisted sprint training. MxS, ExS and Pmax can be used as robust predictors of swim performance, however only Pmax was found to be casually related to swimming velocity.

  • Rudner, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stegius, Madeleine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vilken inlärningsteori lämpar sig bäst?: en experimentell studie i idrottsundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate what effect the peer teaching model has in connection with sports education in comparison with the control group that exercises the direct instructional model And which of the learning theories has the greatest effect. Our hypothesis is that peer teaching is the learning theory that gives the best effect when learning skills abilities in basketball. The moment is about eye-hand motor skills in the form of basketball.

    Method: A pre- and post test that included 35 shots from the penalty shootout - 4.25m from the baseline was completed. The participants perform 5 exercises tries to then throw 30 tries in 3 blocks (10 tries / blocks). The tries were graded through a scoring system and documented. In total there were 6 occasions, one pre-test, 4 lessons in 60 minutes / lesson, where the group was randomly divided into two groups with a specific learning method per group and a post-test. The selection is based on a target population at grade 5 and uses a non-random selection with a comfort selection on the target population. In the study, a total of 28 students participated, half boys (n = 14) as girls (n = 14). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze any statistically significant interaction term. Thereafter, the main effect was examined for both factors and concluded with a post hoc test to understand any differences.

    Results: The results of the study show that the majority of test subjects in each group have improved their overall result from the first test case to the final result. However, there was not a sufficient change in the result to be able to discern any significant value in any of the groups. This is because the difference between pre- and post-test for the group with the direct instruction model showed no significance (p = 0.758) and the same applies to the group with peer feedback (p = 0.598).

    Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it is not clear which of the two pedagogical approaches is the most effective in delivering desired learning objectives and skills in teaching. By this we mean that there are still no significant measurements that compare different teaching methods and strategies that teachers can use to achieve competency-based results.

  • Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 18, article id E3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

  • Stigson, Helena
    et al.
    Åman, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway and Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Incidence of Acute Injuries among Licensed and Non-Licensed Cyclists using Insurance Registry Data2019In: 2019 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury / [ed] International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have examined acute injuries in competitive cycling or training as compared to other sports. By using nationwide insurance data including all injured cyclist registered in the Swedish Cycling Federation and all reported injuries during exercise race in Sweden, the objective was to examine acute injuries during competitive cycling or training for different types of cyclists. The injury incidence and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment were examined. All cyclists that were injured during 2008-2017 were included (n=1937).

    Among the 2666 licensed cyclists the incidence of cyclists injured during training or competition was 44 per 1000 licensed cyclists per year. Focusing on participants in exercise races, the incidence was annually 1.5 injured cyclists per 1000 participants per year. The most commonly injured body region was the upper extremity (41%), followed by head and neck (18%). In total 9.4% of all injured cyclists sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, non-licensed participants in exercise races were slightly older, and the proportion of females were higher (30% vs. 16%), than among licensed cyclists. The injury incidence among the cyclists was high, and to maintain a healthy and physically active population it is important to make efforts to prevent injuries.

  • Christenson, Anne
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    “…or else I close my ears” How women with obesity want to be approached and treated regarding gestational weight management: A qualitative interview study.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of helping pregnant women maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive gestational weight gain is well recognized, but pregnant women do not always perceive communication about body weight as respectful or helpful. Furthermore, fear of inducing shame or guilt can prohibit some midwives from talking about body weight, especially if the woman has obesity. We aimed to explore what women of reproductive age with obesity regard to be the most important and relevant aspects when discussing gestational weight management. Methods: Qualitative interview study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews with 17 women of reproductive age (19–39 y) with obesity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Importance of obtaining vital medical information; 2) A wish to feel understood and treated with respect; 3) Midwives’ approach is crucial in sensitive key situations, which include bringing up the subject of body weight, weighing, providing weight-related information, coaching lifestyle modification, dealing with emotional reactions and ending a conversation. Conclusions: A majority of the interviewed women wished to receive information about risks about obesity and gestational weight gain, and recommendations on weight management. However, the risk of midwives offending someone by raising the topic may be increased if the pregnant woman believe that gestational weight gain is uncontrollable by the individual. Also, several situations during maternity care meetings can be stigmatizing and make women less receptive to advice or support. Women suggest that a good working alliance is likely to be achieved if midwives have knowledge about the causes of obesity, take interest in the patients’ background, have a non-judgmental approach and refrain from giving unsolicited advice. 

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2655-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims therefore to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

     

    Methods. On two different days, heart rate and oxygen uptake measurements were made during three submaximal (model 1) and a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 14 habitual walking commuters participated. The reproducibility, based on the regression equations from test and retest and using three levels of heart rate from the walking commuting was analyzed. Differences between the two models were also analyzed. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest for either model. However, some rather large individual differences were seen in both models. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two models in slopes, intercepts and r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate – oxygen uptake relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of heart rate which are representative for walking commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • Bengs, Dagny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitaktiva sprintkanotisternas rörelseutslag i axelleden under paddling på ergometer i relation till aktiv rörlighet mätt i axelleden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was a) to examine elite flatwater kayakers’ active range of motion (ARoM), b) to detect the extent of their ARoM they use in shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotations (ER) for right and left shoulder under kayaking and c) to examine the impact of how the range change during the racing speed (200, 500 and 1000 m). In addition, the aim was d) to describe competitive flatwater kayakers’ range of motion in the shoulder rotation under the three racing speeds.

    Method

    Eight elite sprint kayakers (four women and four men 22,5 ±3,8 year, 1.80 ±0,11m, 81 kg ±14 kg) participated in the study. The range of motion in shoulder joint rotations were measured with two different methods; ARoM was measured with a goniometer in a supine position and a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture measured under kayaking on a kayak ergometer. Data from a 3D motion capture analysis was collected with an optoelectronic system with 12 infrared cameras which captured the motion from markers attached on the participants under kayaking on 200, 500 and 100o m racing speed. The average value was analyzed from ten stroke cycles under every speed and the data was processed and the calculations were done with Visual3D and MATLAB.  

    Results

    The elite kayakers’ average values and standard deviation (±) of ARoM in shoulder IR was 46°(±16°) and 39° (±10°) and in ER 75° (±13°) and 86° (±5°) for respective left and right side. All participants had decreased ARoM in shoulder IR. No significance difference in ARoM was detected for the sides (left/right) in neither IR nor ER (F=0.87, p=0.38).Either no significant differences were detected between the left and right side under kayaking in shoulder IR under racing speed (F= 0.63, p=0.45), however racing speed had a significant difference for range of motion in shoulder internal rotation (F=6.46. p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater range of motion. Shoulder ER was not affected neither on racing speed (F=3.59, p=0.94) or side (left/right) (F=1.76, p=0.23). Racing speed had a significant difference in the percentage the elite kayakers used of their maximal ARoM in shoulder IR during kayaking (F=6.48, p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater percentage used. The elite kayakers´ utilized a very small percentage of their ARoM in shoulder ER during paddling; 0-1%.  

    Conclusions

    No difference was detected between left and right side in shoulder rotation within elite kayakers, the result was independent of the racing speed. All elite kayakers´ had an obvious decreased range of motion in shoulder IR. The decreased IR is probably compensated by other structures in the shoulder/ scapula under kayaking, due to that elite kayakers’ use more than 100 % of their ARoM under kayaking. Earlier studies have showed that decreased IR in shoulder joint is a risk factor for injuries in kayakers. The results from this study can give valuable information for elite kayakers and their teams about what happens in the shoulder joint during paddling. They may use this information to recognize the importance of increasing the range of motion in shoulder IR, to be able to decrease any compensational movements in the shoulder joint and therefore reduce the risk of pain and injury under kayaking.

     

  • Holm, Lars
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dideriksen, Kasper
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Rie H
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Doessing, Simon
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bechshoeft, Rasmus L
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Højfeldt, Grith
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Reitelseder, Søren
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.2019In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 17, article id e14143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the methods to determine human in vivo protein-specific myofibrillar and collagenous connective tissue protein fractional synthesis and breakdown rates. We found that in human myofibrillar proteins, the protein-bound tracer disappearance method to determine the protein fractional breakdown rate (FBR) (via 2 H2 O ingestion, endogenous labeling of 2 H-alanine that is incorporated into proteins, and FBR quantified by its disappearance from these proteins) has a comparable intrasubject reproducibility (range: 0.09-53.5%) as the established direct-essential amino acid, here L-ring-13 C6 -phenylalanine, incorporation method to determine the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (range: 2.8-56.2%). Further, the determination of the protein breakdown in a protein structure with complex post-translational processing and maturation, exemplified by human tendon tissue, was not achieved in this experimentation, but more investigation is encouraged to reveal the possibility. Finally, we found that muscle protein FBR measured with an essential amino acid tracer prelabeling is inappropriate presumably because of significant and prolonged intracellular recycling, which also may become a significant limitation for determination of the myofibrillar FSR when repeated infusion trials are completed in the same participants.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Are health effects of cycling underestimated due to inaccurate estimates of the physical activity?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The enclosure is a summary of my perspectives as Discussant at the symposium: “Cycling and health in Europe and beyond – explaining and updating the evidence base” at the 10th HEPA Europe Health Enhancing Physical Activity Europe Conference at Southern University of Denmark in Odense, Denmark, August 28-30, 2019. Contributors to the symposium were Drs Adrian Bauman, Sylvia Titze, Niamph Murphy and Pekka Oja.

  • Blackwood, Sarah J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Isoproterenol enhances force production in mouse glycolytic and oxidative muscle via separate mechanisms.2019In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 471, no 10, p. 1305-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fight or flight is a biologic phenomenon that involves activation of β-adrenoceptors in skeletal muscle. However, how force generation is enhanced through adrenergic activation in different muscle types is not fully understood. We studied the effects of isoproterenol (ISO, β-receptor agonist) on force generation and energy metabolism in isolated mouse soleus (SOL, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, glycolytic) muscles. Muscles were stimulated with isometric tetanic contractions and analyzed for metabolites and phosphorylase activity. Under conditions of maximal force production, ISO enhanced force generation markedly more in SOL (22%) than in EDL (8%). Similarly, during a prolonged tetanic contraction (30 s for SOL and 10 s for EDL), ISO-enhanced the force × time integral more in SOL (25%) than in EDL (3%). ISO induced marked activation of phosphorylase in both muscles in the basal state, which was associated with glycogenolysis (less in SOL than in EDL), and in EDL only, a significant decrease (16%) in inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP turnover during sustained contractions (1 s EDL, 5 s SOL) was not affected by ISO in EDL, but essentially doubled in SOL. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, ISO has a minor effect on force generation in EDL that is associated with a decrease in Pi, whereas ISO has a marked effect on force generation in SOL that is associated with an increase in ATP turnover. Thus, phosphorylase functions as a phosphate trap in ISO-mediated force enhancement in EDL and as a catalyzer of ATP supply in SOL.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, article id 105799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

  • Fainstein, Nina
    et al.
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Tyk, Reuven
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Touloumi, Olga
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Lagoudaki, Roza
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Goldberg, Yehuda
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Agranyoni, Oryan
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Navon-Venezia, Shiri
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grigoriadis, Nikolaos
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ben-Hur, Tamir
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Einstein, Ofira
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel..
    Exercise intensity-dependent immunomodulatory effects on encephalomyelitis.2019In: Annals of Clinical & Translational Neurology, ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1647-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the intensity-dependent effects of ET on the systemic immune system in EAE remain undefined.

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the systemic immune modulatory effects of moderate versus high-intensity ET protocols in protecting against development of EAE; (2) To investigate whether ET affects autoimmunity selectively, or causes general immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Healthy mice performed moderate or high-intensity treadmill running programs. Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE was utilized to examine ET effects specifically on the systemic immune system. Lymph node (LN)-T cells from trained versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE severity was assessed, by clinical assessment and histopathological analysis. LN-T cells derived from donor trained versus sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for proliferation assays by flow cytometry analysis and cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression using real-time PCR. T cell-dependent immune responses of trained versus sedentary mice to the nonautoantigen ovalbumin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli-induced acute peritonitis were examined.

    RESULTS: High-intensity training in healthy donor mice induced significantly greater inhibition than moderate-intensity training on proliferation and generation of encephalitogenic T cells in response to PLP-immunization, and on EAE severity upon their transfer into recipient mice. High-intensity training also inhibited LN-T cell proliferation in response to ovalbumin immunization. E. coli bacterial counts and dissemination were not affected by training.

    INTERPRETATION: High-intensity training induces superior effects in preventing autoimmunity in EAE, but does not alter immune responses to E. coli infection.

  • Livebrant, André
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En hållbar soldat: Rekryters fysiska förberedelser inför Grundläggande militär utbildning kopplat till muskuloskeletal skadeprevalens2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga rekryters fysiska förberedelser inför genomförandet av Grundläggande militär utbildning kopplat till skadeutfall under utbildningen. Detta kan bidra med information i ett försök att identifiera möjliga lösningar på den problematik med skadeutfall som finns i dagsläget.

    - Hur ser rekryters fysiska förberedelser ut inför GMU?

    - Vilka faktorer bidrar till att de fysiska förberedelserna ser ut som dom gör?

    - Finns det kopplingar mellan graden av fysiska förberedelser och prevalensen av muskuloskeletala skador hos rekryterna?

    - Finns det skillnader i skadeutfallen mellan män och kvinnor?

    Metod

    Kvantitativ enkätstudie utfördes på 100 rekryter från regementet Livgardet i Stockholm. Den gavs ut i pappersform och innehöll totalt 22 frågor. De svarande bestod av 71 män och 29 kvinnor mellan 18 och 35 år. Enkäten genomfördes efter avslutad Grundläggande militär utbildning (GMU), vilket är en 3 månader lång grundkurs som samtliga svenska soldater genomgår innan de utbildar sig mot en mer specifik befattning.

    Resultat

    65 % av rekryterna ökade sin träningsdos eller förändrade sina träningsvanor då de blev antagna till GMU. En tredjedel av de svarande uppgav att de fått för lite eller ingen information från Försvarsmakten om hur de fysiskt bör förbereda sig inför GMU. Prevalensen av skador korrelerade med hur vältränad individen var samt dess idrottsliga bakgrund. 40 % av deltagarna skadade sig under GMU. Av dessa uppgav en fjärdedel att skadan var så omfattande att den begränsade deras möjlighet att ta del av utbildningen.

    Slutsats

    En bakgrund präglad av hög fysisk aktivitet under flertalet år minskar risken för skada under GMU. Anpassad träning under 1-6 månader tycks inte kunna påverka skadeutfallet. Givet detta bör Försvarsmakten ge rekryten mer tid för individuell träning, ställa tydligare krav på fysik förmåga kopplat till specifik tjänst och åtgärda den kunskapsbrist kring relevant träning inför GMU, som studien har identifierat.

  • Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Op 't Roodt, Jos
    Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands..
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults - the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study.2019In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

    METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

    RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

    CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

  • Körting, Clara
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schlippe, Marius
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petersson, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pennati, Gaia Valentina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Zhao, Kangqiao
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In vivo muscle morphology comparison in post-stroke survivors using ultrasonography and diffusion tensor imaging.2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 11836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle architecture significantly influences the performance capacity of a muscle. A DTI-based method has been recently considered as a new reference standard to validate measurement of muscle structure in vivo. This study sought to quantify muscle architecture parameters such as fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (tm) in post-stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to quantitatively compare the differences with 2D ultrasonography (US) and DTI. Muscle fascicles were reconstructed to examine the anatomy of the medial gastrocnemius, posterior soleus and tibialis anterior in seven stroke survivors using US- and DTI-based techniques, respectively. By aligning the US and DTI coordinate system, DTI reconstructed muscle fascicles at the same scanning plane of the US data can be identified. The architecture parameters estimated based on two imaging modalities were further compared. Significant differences were observed for PA and tm between two methods. Although mean FL was not significantly different, there were considerable intra-individual differences in FL and PA. On the individual level, parameters measured by US agreed poorly with those from DTI in both deep and superficial muscles. The significant differences in muscle parameters we observed suggested that the DTI-based method seems to be a better method to quantify muscle architecture parameters which can provide important information for treatment planning and to personalize a computational muscle model.

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Exempel på integrering av idrott och biologi1986In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 4, p. 29-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Tesch, Per
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bodybuilding: Effekter och skaderisker1982In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 79, no 24, p. 2355-2357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity, Health and Sustainable Development: Perspectives on the Role of Green Areas2005In: Forests, trees, and human health and well-being: proceedings / [ed] Dr. Christos Th. Gallis, Thessaloniki, Greece: SIOKIS Medical and Scientific Publishers , 2005, 1, p. 223-228Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Mereman, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Uppfattad skaderisk hos friidrottare på landslagsnivå: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Recent studies of Swedish track and field athletes have shown that there is a substantial risk of injury. None of these studies have investigated the potential role of how athletes perceive their injury risk, and how it may play a part in the occurrence and prevention of sport injures. The aim of the study was to explore how Swedish track and field athletes perceive their injury risk, and examine the potential correlation with prior injury experience using a quantitative design.

    Method

    The sample comprised 69 Swedish junior elite track and field athletes. The athletes filled out a two-part online questionnaire. The first part requested relevant personal information including gender, track and field event and previous injuries in the past 12 months; the second part consisted of "The Perception of Risk of Injury Scale", but modified accordingly to the targeted sport. For the statistical analysis, the R version 3.5.2 software was used and the results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's non-parametric test.

    Results

    52 out of the 69 athletes in the study reported at least one injury during the past 12 months, and the most commonly reported period of time lost due to injury was between eight and 28 days. Non-significant results (p=0,095) were found between gender and perceived injury risk. If an athlete reported more than one injury in the past 12 months, they perceived their re-injury risk (p<0,025) to be higher. Significant results were found between perceived injury risk and the severity of the injury (p<0,006), with a negative correlation (r=-0,32). When the severity of the injury increased, the tendency of perceived injury risk decreased.

    Conclusions

    A history of previous injury has a small correlation to perceived injury risk. This study comes one step closer to understanding the potential impact of perceived risk of injury on occurrence of actual injury. With this knowledge, it may be possible to reduce the negative perceptions concerning re-injury in athletes with higher perceptions of injury risk. Finally, awareness of reinjury should be increased among athletes with a history of severe injury.