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  • Hansson, Herman
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Nicklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftsliv i närmiljö: En kvalitativ studie om lärares möjligheter att undervisa i friluftsliv i en innerstadsskola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyze and discuss how physical education teachers in high school working in inner city areas in Stockholm experience possibilities to teach in outdoor education. The questions that are answered in this study are: How does the teachers relate to the core content for outdoor education in physical education for high school? As well as: What factors affect how outdoor education is designed?

    Method

    The study was conducted with qualitative interviews from five teachers in physical education in high school, all interviewed teachers are working in schools that are located in the center of Stockholm, all teachers follow the Swedish curriculum. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The questions in the interview guide addressed three areas, background issues, questions about how various factors affect outdoor education and issues concerning the approach that teachers have regarding five selected points from the curriculum of sport and health. The collected empirical data has been analyzed based on the curriculum of different arenas and frame factor theory.

    Results

    All teachers included the selected paragraphs from the central content in their outdoor education. Methods and choice of activities in outdoor education, however, differs among teachers. Different frame factors such as time, economy, cooperation, school location and size of group are the factors that have the greatest impact on how outdoor education is affected. These frame factors often have a negative impact, but described in some cases also lead to a positive impact on teaching.

    Conclusions

    The interviewed teachers carry out most of their outdoor education in the school area. The teachers interpret the concept of outdoor education and core content in different ways. This results in that the teachers selection of activities in some cases differ from each other. Frame factors that are affecting education are interdependent because there is often more than one of these factors that have their impact on the planning and implementation of lessons. 

  • Holm, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belin, Klas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    I den mån man kan försöker man individanpassa undervisningen: en studie om särskild begåvning i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to examine how teachers look for exceptionally gifted students in physical education and how the teachers work to develop them based on their qualities. The essay asks these questions:

    1. How do teachers define the concept of especially gifted pupils in physical education?
    2. How to teachers develop especially gifted students in physical education?

    Method: The method used is a qualitative interview method, six secondary school teachers in Stockholm were interviewed and the interviews were recorded and the teacher's statements were classified. The interviews were semi-structured with fully formulated main issues which were followed by supplementary questions.

    Results: Based on our interviews, we found that teachers have an uncertainty about the concept especially gifted and for that reason find it difficult to define what such a student is. Teachers define especially gifted pupils in physical education and health in four ways.

    1. An academically gifted pupil who is especially good in the theoretical part of the subject.
    2. A student which is particularly gifted in a specific branch or sport, such as soccer or dance.
    3. A pupil which is particularly gifted in all practical part which are performed in the subject.
    4. A particularly gifted student in the theoretical part as well as all the practical parts of the subject.

    Teacher's way to work with particularly gifted students are usually by giving them an extra teaching role in education. Another finding was that most teachers focus their feedback to the students who need help to cope with the subject that is not the particularly gifted ones

    Conclusions: The research and the interviewed teachers testify that there are several definitions of what a particularly gifted pupil can be defined as. There is no common approach to developing especially gifted pupils in physical education, however, there was a recurring response among the interviews that these students acted as assistant teachers in some classes.

  • Dahlström, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intresse för liv i rörelse: En studie av ungdomars motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiva och motiv att inte vara fysiskt aktiva2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och Frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka gymnasieungdomars motiv i form av motivområden för att vara fysiskt aktiva respektive för att inte vara fysiskt aktiva.

    Frågeställningarna var: (1) Vilka motivområden har stark anknytning till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv och (2) Finns det någon signifikant könsskillnad i något av motivområdena?

    Metod

    105 ungdomar (47 flickor och 58 pojkar) i åldern 16-22 år från en gymnasieskola i västra Stockholmsområdet besvarade två enkäter med påståenden om motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv. Motiven delades in i 11 motivområden och därefter genomfördes en deskriptiv analys i samband med elimineringen av extremvärden där man undersökte hur stark anknytning varje motivområde hade till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv. Ett Mann Whitney U test genomfördes för att undersöka om det fanns någon signifikant könsskillnad (p=0,05).

    Resultat

    Motivområdena Välbefinnande kortsiktigt, Välbefinnande långsiktigt, och Lugnande motiv hade stark anknytning till att vara fysiskt aktiv. Även om det inte förekom någon stark anknytning i något av motivområdena till att inte vara fysiskt aktiv, så hade Tidsrelaterade motiv starkast anknytning för både flickor och pojkar. Resultatet visade även att Tävlingsmotiv var ett starkare motiv för pojkarna än flickorna för att vara fysiskt aktiv (p=0.003) samt att Hälsorisker som motiv var ett starkare motiv för flickorna än pojkarna (p=0,041) för att inte vara fysiskt aktiv.

    Slutsats

    Resultatet i den här undersökningen gav indikationer att vissa motiv kan påverka varför gymnasieungdomar är fysiskt aktiva samt varför de inte är fysiskt aktiva, men resultaten löper stor risk för att bero på slumpen på grund av massignifikansproblematiken. Motiv till att inte vara fysiskt aktiv hade i samtliga fall lägre medianvärden än motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiv.

  • Björkman, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nordström, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hopp om högt betyg: En kvantitativ studie om elevuppskattade fysiska förmågors betydelse för slutbetyget i idrott och hälsa årskurs 92017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to establish whether the four self-rated quantifiable attributes speed, elasticity, strength and endurance correlate with the acquired grade for physical education in year 9 in the Swedish school. The following questions were predominant: Is the data from the self-formulated questions consistent with data from the CY-PSPP form? Is there a correlation to be found between any or some of the self-rated four attributes and the grade in physical education? Is there any difference between the above-mentioned self-rated physical abilities in how they correlate with the grade in physical education?

     

    Method

    The data presented in the study is based on answers from surveys from 233 high school students in Stockholm. The survey is constructed partly by the CY-PSPP method and partly from self-formulated questions. Data was processed in excel and the statistical program SPSS, where Spearman-correlations were calculated. The CY-PSPP variables were compared to variable data from self-formulated questions.

     

    Results

    The result of the comparison between the CY-PSPP form and the self-formulated questions show evident correlation. Based on the student answers, elasticity was the attribute that showed strongest correlation toward the grade, closely followed by speed and endurance. The strength attribute correlated significantly less with the grade than the other attributes. 

     

    Conclusions

    Data from the survey display a positive correlations between all of the attributes and grades in physical education. Anchored in Bourdieu’s terminology, it is hard to decide whether the attribute endurance can be ascribed to be a capital with respect to the grade in physical education, meanwhile, the attribute strength show few signs of being a capital in that sense. Some suggest that speed and elasticity to a wider extent than endurance can be regarded as a capital for high grades. 

  • Rundbom, Julia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Zetterström, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Det är det tjejerna vill ha": En studie om hur lärare arbetar med att bryta traditionella könsmönster2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and research questions: Research shows that there are still clear traditional gender patterns in physical education and teachers find it difficult to perceive and break them. The aim with the study is therefor to examine how teachers can work with breaking traditional gender patterns in physical education. The research questions are:

    • How do teachers in physical education perceive that traditional gender patterns are expressed during teaching?
    • What difficulties, from the teachers’ point of view, are there with breaking traditional gender patterns?
    • What tools do teachers use for breaking traditional gender patterns in physical education?

    Method: Three teachers have taken part in our study. We chose to do a qualitative study where three teachers were interviewed and two of them were observed. We observed the two teachers during three lessons each.

    Results: The teachers think that traditional gender patterns are being expressed for example through language, groupings and experiences from physical education. The teachers also expressed difficulties with breaking traditional gender patterns while teaching, e.g. that the time is not enough and that teachers don't have enough knowledge in terms of gender-related issues. The teachers consider that it is important to discuss gender-related issues. They believe that teachers should base the education on what the curriculum actually says. This means that teachers largely should abandon the traditional sports, and dare to challenge the traditional gender patterns that exist.  

    Conclusions: Teachers should work in a way that neutralizes the education, which means that teachers should abandon the traditional sports, focus more on health and create a good work- and dialogue climate where the students feel safe and dare to be themselves.  

  • Lauri, Julia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Stina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Om man själv inte tycker dans är roligt så är det svårt, eller så får man vara en bra skådespelare”: en didaktisk studie om hur lärare arbetar med dans i idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how teachers in secondary school work with dance in physical education and which didactic challenges of teaching that appear. The following three questions will help to answer the study’s aim.

    • What and why do teachers choose a specific content in dance?
    • How do teachers work with dance?
    • Which didactic challenges do teachers face in dance practice?

    Method

    We have used a qualitative method to be able to answer our aim and questions. Therefore, we have chosen to interview seven physical education teachers who work with dance in secondary school. We used a selection method called the snowball effect. The interview guide had semi structured interview questions to be able to control the conversation with eventually follow-up questions.

     

    Results

    The study shows that teachers have used the cultural form of dance most of the time, mainly traditional Swedish folk dances, such as “Bugg” and “Waltz”. The teachers felt that they had to motivate more in dancing compared to other fields in the subject, because of old gender stereotypes and norms. The teacher’s interest for dancing, in combination with the student influence and individual adjustment and digital instruments, are important parts to be able to motivate the students for dance practice. The study shows the learning links together with the teachers’ assessment of the students and therefore the students’ grade got in focus instead of the specific learning. The teachers in our study pointed out that it’s in the interaction between teachers and students, and between students where the ability for learning increase the most.

     

    Conclusions

    The teachers didactic challenges are motivation and driving force for how they choose to work and which content they use in practice. The cultural dance form premiers in practice, while the expressive dance form barely exist based on the subject’s traditions. The teacher needs to be both positive and flexible. Student influence, individual adjustment and digital instruments are leading factors how to motivate students and therefore promote learnings. The learning is interpreted through students’ grades. The learning object is presented as unclear for both teachers and students. 

  • Hellström, John S
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Sportens celebriteter: Björn Borg och Ingemar Stenmark i svensk press2017In: Celebritetsskapande från Strindberg till Asllani / [ed] Torbjörn Forslid, Patrik Lundell, Anders Ohlsson, Tobias Olsson, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2017, 157-173 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Emil, Wallberg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Formativ Bedömning: En intervjustudie på hur och när lärare i idrott och hälsa bedömer formativt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers in physical education apply a formative assessment. We want from using two of the didactic questions "when" and "how" examine how physical education teacher use formative assessment, in the course "Idrott och hälsa 1" in upper secondary school, which includes 100 points. The following questions should help to answer the question:

    • When do teachers apply formative assessment in physical education?
    • How do teacher apply formative assessment in physical education?

    Method

    The object of study was investigated through interviewing teachers in physical education in upper secondary school, we conducted both individual interviews and group interviews. We sent mail to the 30th century, upper secondary school and received the reply of six teachers of physical education who we interviewed.

    Results

    What we can observe through the this study is that all the teachers who participated have a common understanding of formative assessment, formative assessment is a continuous process. The teachers in the study apply the formative assessment in everyday teaching through various methods such as feedback, reflection, self-assessment and peer assessment. In the formative assessment it is the application of feedback and individual development which is most important.

    Conclusions

    Several teachers suggest that the use of the formative assessment is the assessment method that works best in physical education. The teachers believe that it is the development and how students apply the knowledge is most important in the assessment. Something that is common to the interviewed teachers is that it is important that the purpose of lessons is clear to the students, this helps students take responsibility for their own learning.

  • Lindlöf, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Spejare, Aron
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Styrka, snabbhet och hoppförmåga: En korrelationsstudie på elitidrottande män och kvinnor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sprint ability and different types of strength and jump tests. To meet purpose the following questions were formulated: How does the acceleration sequence in sprint relate to strength tests? How does the acceleration sequence in sprint relate to jump tests? How does the maximum speed sequence in sprint relate to strength tests? How does the maximum speed sequence in sprint relate to jump tests?

    Method

    In total, 24 subjects participated in this study consisting of both women (n=21, age 21,5 ±2,5, height 170,3 ±6,3 cm, weight 68,5 ±6,3 kg) and men (n=3, age 18,7 ±0,2, height 177,3 ±4,9 cm, weight 72 ±9,0 kg). The participants represented the highest national level of their respective sports which were handball, team gymnastics and ice hockey. This study applied a quantitative method through a cross sectional analysis to determine the relationship between the acceleration (0-10 m) and maximum speed (20-30 m) phase in sprint with four different strength and jump test (1RM Squat, Squat Jump, CMJ and Standing Long Jump). Raw data was analyzed in the statistical analysis software SPSS where the Pearson’s correlation was applied to determine the relationships.

    Results

    All the aforementioned strength and jump tests showed a moderate statistically significant correlation with the maximum speed phase (20-30 m) during sprint, where the strongest correlation existed between Standing Long Jump and the maximum speed phase (r=-0,66, p=0,001). The acceleration phase (0-10 m) showed little to no statistically significant correlation to any of the strength or jump tests.

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that horizontal jumping can indicate an ability to generate maximum speed in sprint running. Therefore Standing Long Jump might offer an efficient alternative to gauge horizontal power in terms of sprint running at maximum speed. With the heterogeneous test population in mind, Standing Long Jump may be applied in conditions where testing of multiple athletes is required. Especially in team sports where different positional roles and tasks represent varying physical abilities or demands.

  • Ryhed, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Syreupptagningsförmåga vid fem-minuterspyramidtest gentemot maximalt test på löpband: en valideringsstudie hos äldre och yngre vuxna2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of the study was to investigate the results and correlation between oxygen uptake levels (VO2max) at five-minute pyramid test (5MPT) against maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2max) on a treadmill test, both measured by direct oxygen measurement, in elderly people over 65 years and younger adults aged 20-30 years.

    Method. A total of 36 people participated in the study, 17 elderly people aged between 65 to 85 years (9 women and 8 men) and 19 younger adults aged between 20 to 35 years (10 women and 9 men). The participants' oxygen uptake was measured twice during 5MPT and then compared with VO2max measured by a maximal treadmill test at one occasion. Thus a total of three measurements with direct oxygen measurement, via the breathing mask, during a maximum treadmill test and two separate tests of 5MPT with at least 48 hours between each test. The exhaled air was analyzed at 5MPT for all, through the wireless portable system Jaeger Oxycon Mobile and also during the test on treadmill for the test group with younger participants. The test group of older participants, got their exhaled air analyzed through a stationary on-line equipment Jaeger Oxycon Pro instead of the portable system which is a similar reliable method to measure VO2max. 5MPT is a five minute test where the subjects from floor level, with the highest possible speed, moves back and forth at a measured distance of 5.50 meter with a central staircase ramp, which is pyramid-shaped, with a maximum center height of 0.62 meters.

    Results. The main finding of the study was that there was a strong significant correlation (r = 0.99) between directly measured VO2max during a maximum treadmill test compared to oxygen uptake at 5MPT when both the elderly people and the younger adults were combined, measured in l·min–1.

    Conclusion. The study showed a strong significant correlation between directly measured VO2max at 5MPT and a maximal treadmill testing l·min–1 for older and younger adults. This indicates that 5MPT can be used as a reliable method for investigation and monitoring a person’s aerobic capacity. This finding may be of value because it shows that less expensive and easier methods can be used to measure a person's health in terms of aerobic capacity, which is important from several aspects of health at both the individual and society level.

  • Alfredsson, Tim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Selin, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Off-ice tester för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice: En korrelationsstudie av olika upprepade sprinttester2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka korrelationen mellan cykeltestet "repeated 5 second cycling sprint test" (R5sCST) samt off-ice testet 36 meter upprepade sprinter (OfI) mot on-ice testet 33 meter upprepade sprinter (OnI). Samtidigt vill vi se om R5sCST kan utvärdera skridskosnabbhet samt undersöka om OfI kan användas som en alternativ testmetod med samma syfte.

    De frågeställningar vi besvarar är,

    – Finns det en korrelation mellan R5sCST och OnI?

    - Finns det en korrelation mellan OfI och OnI?

    – Är R5sCST och OfI relevanta testmetoder för att utvärdera förmågan till upprepade sprinter on-ice?

    - Finns det andra testvärden som kan förutse snabbhet on-ice?

    Metod

    3 tester har genomförts, ett cykeltest (R5sCST), ett on-ice test (OnI) och ett off-ice test (OfI).

    Testerna genomfördes på Bosön och i Björkängshallen vid två olika tillfällen, det var 2 dagar mellan testtillfällena. Testtillfälle 1 genomfördes R5sCST och OfI på Bosön, testtillfälle 2 genomfördes OnI i Björkängshallen. 18 stycken ishockeyspelare på junior elitnivå testades.

    Försökspersonerna (FP) var mellan 16 och 18 år gamla och har en idrottslig bakgrund inom ishockey som motsvarar 11-13 år.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att såväl medelvärdena samt de högst uppmätta effekt värdena hos varje FP från R5sCST testet korrelerar med medel- och högsta värden på OnI. Studien visar även en starkare korrelation mellan OfI och OnI.

    Slutsats

    Efter genomförd studie kan det konstateras att R5sCST, trots att det inte efterliknar ishockeyns krav fullt ut i arbetstid/vilotid, är ett reliabelt test för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice. Det framkommer även i studien att OfI har större korrelationer till OnI än vad R5sCST har, vilket innebär att även OfI är ett högst reliabelt test för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice. Förutom större korrelationer så är även OfI mer lämpat för lag och föreningar att använda sig av då det är enklare att utföra och mindre kostsamt än R5sCST.

  • Holmqvist, Fernando
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Desport, Samuel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Olikheter i en likvärdig uttagning?: En analys av hur NIU-skolor förhåller sig till relativ ålderseffekt vid uttagningsprocessen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study is to examine how five teachers view talentidentification, how they execute the tryout process to elite academy schools and also how they relate to relative age effect(RAE) in the tryout process. The questions being answered in this study are: 1. How do the teachers view talentidentification? 2. How is the tryout process being performed and what difficulties do the teachers experience with the tryout process? 3. What knowledge do the teachers have in regards to RAE and how do they relate to RAE during the tryout process? Method The method being used is qualitative and is executed by performing semi-structured interviews. The purpose of our interviews is to examine how the teachers experience the tryout process and their approach when working with RAE. The reason for the explorative nature is because we have an area to survey and also gather deeper information about, in this case, RAE in relationship to the tryout process to elite academy schools. The selection consisted of five teachers (teacher 1, teacher 2, teacher 3, teacher 4 and teacher 5) that all had different experiences of working as a teacher and with elite academy school.

    Results The result showed that there are differences among teachers involved in individual sports in relation to teachers working with team sports, in regards to what kind of attributes a talent should possess. For the teachers, teacher 3 and teacher 4, which represented individual sports it appeared that sport specific knowledge was most important when identifying a talent. This identification can be performed at an early age. Teacher 1, 2 and 5 which represented team sports stressed the importance of the psychological skills that a talent must possess, in order to be identified as a talent. The result also showed that the tryouts is an equivocal process where the tryouts is executed differently depending on the sport and in some cases which school. In regards to difficulties with the tryout process and what the teachers valued similar responses were received. All teachers described the fear of eliminating someone who could possibly develop late and they all valued attributes as drive and dedication. All teachers also mention that they do not take RAE in consideration during the tryout process. Teachers 2 and 5 mention taking the physical development into consideration during the tryout process, however not which month a student applying is born.

    Conclusions This study brings up a problem that is very current due to the equivocality which is present during the tryout process to elite academy schools. The study also showed that the teachers had different opinions in regards to what talent is and how to identify it. The result showed that RAE is a rife phenomenon however it is not being taking into consideration during the tryout process to elite academy schools.     

  • Skogberg, Robira
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tjernström, Olivia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jag kan inte delta, jag har mens: en kvalitativ studie om hur lärare hanterar elever som väljer att inte delta på lektioner i idrott och hälsa på grund av menstruationsrelaterade orsaker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to examine how teachers in physical education manage students who choose to not participate in class because of menstruation-related causes. The study will answer the following questions.

    1. How do teachers react when the students announce that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?
    2. How do teachers communicate with students who announce that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?
    3. How do teachers act when the students have announced that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?

    In order to answer the questions, nine teachers in physical education at different upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, were chosen to conduct qualitative interviews with. The respondents were three men and six women.

    The teachers in the study stated that students inform them about their menstruation differently; some are more forthright and others approach the teachers more cautiously and whisper it to them. Common reactions among the interviewed teachers were either to act neutral or evaluate the student's credibility. What the teacher responds the student varies from relating to herself, respond with facts or just answer "okay". How the teacher act in this situation differs among the respondents. A common action was to try to get students involved in regular education in any way. Others sent the student for a walk or to the gym, but it was also common to give the student a theoretical task. One teacher also highlighted that the student has to sit on the side and learn the content from the bench.

    All teachers reported that they had no difficulties to handle the situation, but an interesting response was that they lack education in the area and want to have more knowledge. The conclusion is that there are several ways to deal with a student who does not want to attend classes because of menstruation-related causes. As a teacher in physical education, more education about menstruation and exercise is desired and this requires more research! 

  • Glas, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tekniska fel i handboll: Analys av svensk och dansk herr-elithandboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om tekniska fel har potentiell påverkan på framgång i handboll. Studiens frågeställningar var (1) Hur ser ett eventuellt samband ut mellan ett lags antal tekniska fel under en säsong och dess slutplacering i serietabellen? och (2) Vilken inverkan har ett lags aeroba förmåga på dess antal tekniska fel?

    Metod

    För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning så delades studien upp i två delar. Första delen ämnar besvara huruvida ett lags antal tekniska fel inverkar på ett lags slutplacering i serietabellen. För att besvara den frågan inhämtades data från samtliga matcher och serietabeller i högsta serierna i Sverige (Elitserien) och Danmark (Boxerligan) under säsongerna 2011/12-2015/16.  För att besvara den andra frågeställningen rekryterades tre lag från Elitserien 2015/16 för genomförande av konditionstester.

    Resultat

    2011-16 var medelvärdet för tekniska fel/lag/match i Elitserien 11,8 ± 1,2 och i Boxerligan 11,4 ± 1,2. Missade passningar står för 40-45%, av alla tekniska fel, och närmare en fjärdedel av alla tekniska fel genererar ett mål till motståndaren inom 10 sekunder. För både Elitserien (BF=1,221e+22, p<0,001) och Boxerligan (BF=1,032e+10, p<0,001) var det ett väldigt starkt samband mellan antal tekniska fel och matchens utgång. Antal tekniska fel/lag/match var kopplat till lagets placering i både Elitserien (starkt stöd, BF=52, p<0,001) och i Boxerligan (väldigt starkt stöd, BF=2658, p<0,001). Sambandet mellan tekniska fel och lag som tog sig till slutspel mot de som inte gjorde det gav ett starkt stöd för Elitserien (BF=3,2, p<0,01) och ett mycket starkt stöd i Boxerligan (BF=87, p<0,001). Det lag som hade högst konditionsvärde hade lägst antal tekniska fel, men endast svagt stöd (BF=1,5) fanns för detta samband.

    Slutsats

    Slutplacering i Elitserien och Boxerligan har ett starkt samband med det antal tekniska fel ett lag förorsakar i match. Ju färre antal tekniska fel desto större chans att nå slutspel sett över åren 2011-2016. Det finns ett svagt samband som stöd för att kondition samvarierar med antal tekniska fel.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Reflektioner och tal vid Lingbal1990In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 1, 29-31 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Blomqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sköld, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag tycker det ser jättebra ut": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur lärare tolkar ett kunskapskrav och bedömer elevers rörelseutförande2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this paper is to see how physical education and health (PEH) teachers in year 7-9 interpreters one knowledge requirement and from that assess students movement capability.

    • How do teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement, The student can participate in games, play and sports that comprises complex movements to different environments and varies and adapts their movements to some part/relatively well/well to the activity and to the context?
    • How do teachers in PEH assess students movement capability in reference to the knowledge requirement above, by three film sequences?

    Method

    This is a qualitative interview study and there where six teachers in physical education and health in year 7-9 that participated. To answer the aim of this paper the interview was divided into different parts. One part focused on the first question, how teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement. The next part focused on, how teachers in PEH assess movement, by three film sequences. To get a deeper understanding of the teachers interpretation and assessment have the transformation arena been applied on the first question and the realisation arena been applied to the second question.

    Results

    The teachers interpreted complex movements and the word, to some part, relatively well and well, with a big variation. Some interpretations are in line with the Swedish National Agency for Education assessment template, but many are not. The teachers described and assessed the film sequences differently. The teachers have described the same movement performance similarly and then assessed them differently, they have described it differently and then assessed it the same and finally they have described and assessed it differently.

    Conclusions

    The teachers interpreter both same and different in the transformation and realisation arena. The teachers have a harder time describing the words in the transformation arena then in the realisation arena, when they can see different movements. The descriptions and assessments between teachers differ a lot. Because of this we need to develop a technical language, more tools and education around assessment.

  • Spång, Elias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Spring, vi har bollen!: En kvantitativ undersökning om sambandet mellan högintensiva löpningar och bollinnehav i svensk elitfotboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om det finns samband mellan högintensiva löpningar och bollinnehav inom svensk elitfotboll. Denna information är viktig för hur en tränare bör lägga upp spelarnas träning, behövs anaerob effekt eller aerob kapacitet mest och vad bör prioriteras? Det framgår även i studier (Evangelos et al. 2014) att det är gemensamt för flertalet framgångsrika lag att de har ett högre bollinnehav än motståndarna. Det är därmed viktigt att undersöka vad som har en inverkan i bollinnehavet. Flertalet studier (Konefal et al. 2015; Bradley et al. & Ribeiro Da Mota et al. 2015) har presenterat att antalet löpmeter inte har betydelse för bollinnehavet, men potentiellt kan intensiteten på löpningar vara av betydelse. Studiens frågeställningar är således; Hur ser sambandet mellan löpmeter över 5,5 m/s och totalt antal löpmeter? Springer laget fler totalt antal löpmeter samt fler högintensiva löpmeter över 5,5 m/s när laget har över 50 % av bollinnehavet? Hur många procent av totalt antal löpmeter springer spelarna över 5,5 m/s i de matcher där de har mest respektive minst bollinnehav?

    Metod

    Till studien rekryterades ett lag i Sveriges högsta serie, Allsvenskan. Insamlingen av information genomfördes under våren 2016. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med GPS, i denna data framgick löpmeter under matchen och högintensiva löpmeter under matchen. Bollinnehav och resultat i matcherna samlades in via svenska fotbollsförbundets officiella hemsida.

    Resultat

    Studien upptäckte en statistiskt signifikant korrelation mellan antalet löpmeter och antalet högintensiva löpmeter under en fotbollsmatch (p = 0,001; r = 0,889). Mellan bollinnehav och högintensiva löpmeter upptäcktes ingen signifikant korrelation (p = 0,809; r = -0, 096). Kategoriserat när laget hade över 50 % bollinnehav och under 50 % bollinnehav upptäcktes ingen statistiskt signifikants mellan kategorierna.

    Slutsats

    Sammantaget visar studien att antalet högintensiva löpmeter påverkas av totalt antal löpmeter men att högintensiva löpmeter inte ensamt har ett samband med bollinnehav. 

  • Borg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Alla ska vara med!: även muslimska kvinnor i simning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    Aim:

    To investigate participation of muslim women in swimming education in secondary school subject sports and health.

    Questions:

    • Which experiences do women with a muslim background have of swimming education?
    • What obstacles or possibilities do women with a muslim background have for participation in swimming education?

    Method

    The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews. The interviews where conducted on acquaintances of acquaintances, whom all where women with a muslim background. Subsequently, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on a theoretical model consisting of categories related to the two issues in this study. Previous research where also used in the same way, which highlighted the area of this study.

    Results

    The result indicated that our participants had a positive experience of their swimming classes. The biggest factor to this positive experience however where the schools ability to organize separate classes to those who could not participate in the common ones. When a school did not organize separate classes, our participants generally face two options. Either not to participate and risk not getting a grade, or to challenge their principles and participate anyway, which could lead to bad experiences.

    Conclusions

    Separate classes where the key to participation amongst the participants in our study. There where both obstacles and possibilities affecting the degree of which separate classes where necessary and the participants were divided on the topic of who were responsible to adapt in the situation.

  • Ekdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundell, Philip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Allt vi gjorde på gympan handlade om att vara bäst": En diskursanalytisk studie av storstadspressens framställningar av skolämnet idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the metropolitan press representations of Physical education during the period 1 July 2015 - 30 June 2016. We raised the following questions, in order to fulfill the aim of the study: 1) Which – and what kind of terms are produced in connection with Physical education in the metropolitan press in the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016? 2) Which discourses emerges from these terms and which connections emerge in comparison to previously identified discourses? 3) What connections can be identified from the discourses and the analyzed articles, in regard to the author's profession, the quoted/referenced persons, the type of article and the designation of the school subject

    The chosen method of the study was discourse analysis. The source material was obtained from a database that gathers all printed press in Sweden. The collection was made through the use of keywords consisting of different designations for Physical education. Metropolitan Press is a categorization consisting of newspapers based in Stockholm, Malmo and Gothenburg. The collection, selection and analysis procedure was structured on the basis of five steps of categorization. The final selection of the study was 63 articles. The Discourse Theory was combined with the Agenda Setting Theory, whose starting point is that the agenda of the media reflects the agenda of the public.

    Terms produced in correlation with Physical education included among others the prevention of diseases, the benefit for other school subjects, the content of physical activity and sports in the subject and the content of bullying and exclusion caused by the setup of the subject. Based on these terms, four discourses could be identified: the Discourse of Movement and Activity (consisting of five sub-discourses), the Discourse of Exclusion, the Discourse of Diet and Wellbeing and the Discourse of Safety. The Discourse of Movement and Activity is the most frequent and regular discourse. Sports is the most common designation for Physical education.

    The conclusions of the study are the following: the public prioritize students' movement and physical activity as the most important mission of the subject, the subject is not considered to be an educational subject, the activity of the subject is assumed to consist of sports and other competitive activities, the subject is assumed to contribute to a culture in which masculine norm prevails, the competitive activities are considered to reproduce this culture, the activity of the subject is considered to aim for the strengthening of the society. There is a discrepancy between public interpretation and the purpose of the curriculums.

  • Melin, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “För att må bra måste du äta en balanserad kost och röra på dig. Så enkelt är det.”: en diskursanalys av läromedelsböcker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study set out to investigate how printed curriculum teaching materials depict health. The research questions are as follows: How is health described in the books? What perspectives on health do the books convey?

    Method

    Three (3) printed curriculum teaching books, based on the latest syllabus LGR/LGY11, were analysed from a critical discourse perspective. The identified discourses and perspectives were sorted, and then analysed using Antonovsky's health theory, but also Quennerstedt's elaboration on salutogenic and pathogenic health perspectives.

    Results

    All of the books were considered to retain, and convey, a pathogenic view on health. Some of the books displayed salutogenic approaches as well. The most conspicuous discourses appearing in the books were the stress-discourse and the physical activity-discourse. This may convey a one-sided picture of the books' content.

    Conclusions

    The most noticeable discourses appearing are the stress-discourse connected to psychological health and the physical activity-discourse. Regarding the perspectives on health, both salutogenic and pathogenic views appear where the dominating perspective is pathogenic. This is of relevance for practicing teachers, as they should scrutinise the materials used and provide different aspects and discussions where possible.

  • Gerby, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tuneld, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur är det att vara skadad truppgymnast?: En kvalitativ studie kring psykologiska faktorer i samband med rehabilitering och återgång till idrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda om det finns olika psykologiska faktorer som har påverkat och hjälpt i rehabiliteringen av en långvarig skada hos truppgymnaster. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de tiden som skadad ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv? samt Vad motiverar gymnasten att återgå till idrotten?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju elitgymnaster på hösta nationella nivå deltog i studien där alla hade varit skadade och borta från tävling minst 12 månader. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades. Analysen var deduktiv med self determination theory som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att kategorisera resultatet.                                                                                                   

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det som motiverar deltagarna att återgå till idrotten var de små framstegen, att rehabiliteringen ger resultat och att det går att utvecklas. Det hade även varit viktigt med socialt stöd under rehabiliteringen. Social support har bland annat kommit från tränare, lagkamrater, föräldrar och sjukgymnaster genom att de lyssnat, förklarat och försökt förstå den skadade. Under tiden som skadad har deltagarna i stor utsträckning förändrat sin syn på gymnastik på grund av skadan. De uppskattar idrotten mer och har fått en ökad förståelse. De känslor som deltagarna har tampats med mest med under tiden som skadad har varit frustration, ilska, bitterhet, vilsenhet, ångest, sorg, ledsamhet, oro, uppgivenhet och utanförskap.

    Slutsats

    Vad som hjälper en skadad idrottare att återgå till idrotten beror på individen. Det som visat sig gemensamt för flera av deltagarna har framförallt varit det sociala stödet, förmågan att kunna se de små framstegen i rehabiliteringen och att de identifierat sig med gymnastiken.

  • Åbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sharro, Jessy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag borde utnyttja deras kunskaper": En studie om lärares möte med nyanlända elever i undervisnigen i idrott och hälsa utifrån ett interkulturellt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of the study is to examine the challenges teachers in the subject sports and health is facing in their teaching with newly arrived students. To answer the aim of the study, we have chosen to be based on the following questions: How do teachers describe their work with newly-arrived student in the subject sports and health? -What educational tools do the teachers mention that they use in their work with newly arrived students? – What support do the teachers asks for in the work with newly arrived students?

    Method

    We have been collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews to examine teachers ' meeting with newly arrived students in the subject of sport and health. The selection has been strategically and consists of six physical education teachers who works with newly arrived students. The collected empirical data has been analyzed from an intercultural perspective using the analyses concepts normative, critical and innovative.

    Results

    The results shows that the teachers challenges is to mediate the subject's purpose, get the students to reflect, language difficulties, swimming and girls ' approach to sport and movement. Through educational tools, such as customization and alternative explanatory models do teachers make their teaching more comprehensible to students. All teacher mentions that they have not been prepared to teach newly arrived. They want a forum for exchange of experience with discussions between colleagues about the work of newly arrived students.

    Conclusions

    The challenges that the teachers testify is largely linked to the students ' past experiences and cultural values that permeate the school community both in Sweden and in the students' countries of origin. The teachers are positive and reflect an open-minded and curious approach to students ' diverse cultures. They are also try to use students ' experiences as teaching tools. There are examples of an intercultural approach in the teachers ' statements but in most cases teachers ' descriptions of their work methods stops at a depictions of cultural meetings.

  • Lessner, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Läroboken – en tillgång för paradigmskifte?: En kvalitativ diskursanalys av läroböcker i idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Research shows that questions about what, how and which knowledge should be taught in physical education appears unclear in practice. Previously identified discourses in the subject's practice is not always compatible with the knowledge of the mission. The purpose of this study is to analyze which discourses can be identified in the textbooks for the subject Physical Education, how the order of discourses manifests and the possible development of knowledge these discourses offer. Together it gives us an opportunity to discuss whether these textbooks are an appropriate tool to achieve change or if they reproduce traditional beliefs about the subject's character. To define the aim of this study we point out three questions to examine: Which subject discourses are expressed in the textbooks? How does the order of discourses in the textbooks looks like? What educational philosophical traditions can be linked to the identified discourses?

    The methodology of the study is discourse analysis. The empirical basis of the study consists of two textbooks which are published for 'idrott och hälsa 1 & 2'. An analyze scheme was designed to categorize the discourses expressed in the books. The initial processing of the material was made separately and then we came to a common interpretation framework of identified discourses. The subject discourses that are represented in the books were then analyzed based on regularity and relative dominance. Finally, the identified discourses were placed into education philosophical traditions to broaden the understanding of what type of knowledge the textbooks offer.

    The result shows that nine different subject discourses identified. These are: Activity discourse, (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse, risk discourse, nature meeting discourse, the moralizing discipline discourse, socio-cultural discourse, empowerment discourse and gender divisions discourse. The discourses that get the most space in both books are those we term as the (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse and risk discourse. These are placed into the essentialist philosophy of education, which is not consistent with the constructionist curriculum. The result shows that physiology discourse and risk discourse has high status in the books. They are the most occurring discourses and figures both as superior and secondary discourses and are also well compatible with each other. However, the constructionist empowerment discourse is interpreted as a superior discourse in the books, giving the textbooks some legitimacy in relation to the curriculum. The constructionist socio-cultural discourse is completely marginalized to some minority parties of the empirical data.

    The conclusion is that the analyzed textbooks largely reproduce the reality that more practice-oriented studies shows. The textbooks are not an asset to the paradigm shift that we request, but depending on how the textbooks are used, teachers might have benefit of some of the content.

  • Jörmyr, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärare i idrott och hälsas upplevelse av sin egen psykosociala arbetsmiljö: Utifrån krav, kontroll och stödmodellen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out the physical education teachers' perception of their own psychosocial work environment on the basis of demands, control and social support. I want to find out what affects the PE teachers' psychosocial work and find out the factors that may obsticel or promote the psychosocial work environment. The study's two questions are as follows:

    • Which factors are the promotion of PE teachers' psychosocial work?
    • What factors obsticels the PE teachers' psychosocial work?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative perspective and has a semi-structured interview form to collect data. The sample consists of five physical education teachers who work in the City of Stockholm with grades 1-9. The result has been interpreted by the control, demands and support model for investigating how the employee perceives his own psychosocial work environment.

    Results

    Results of the study show that the teachers feel they have a great influence in their work, particularly on the subject of sport and health. All teachers also believe that they feel a great social support from colleagues and school management. All teachers had also wanted to have more contact with more people in school if possible. It shows, among other things, that all P.E teachers are visiting the staff room several times a day. All teachers feel stressed, even if not every day then at least once a week. It is rare that students creates this stress, but rather things around teaching. The work also affects leisure time in any way for all P.E teachers, where, among other things, has led to two of the teachers were sick of work-related causes such as stress.

    Conclusion

    To work as a P.E teacher means that no days are ever the same. The results of this study show that some days you feel a high social support, while other days lower. Control is something all P.E teacher in this paper feel in their profession, where they have the opportunity to influence their own work. The demands are reasonable but when you go deeper in their answers we find that stress is something they face every day, which can be directly harmful to one's overall health.

  • Wiiand, Tilda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lidholm, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Framgångsfaktorer på nationella idrottsutbildningar inom handboll: en kvalitativ studie av elevernas utvecklingsmiljö ur ett handbollslärarperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vad handbollslärare som undervisar i specialidrott på nationella idrottsutbildningar (NIU) inom handboll anser om sin påverkan på elevernas utveckling. För att uppnå uppsatsens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

    • Hur beskriver handbollslärarna utvecklingsmiljön på Sveriges NIUhandbollsgymnasium?
    • På vilket sätt finns Henriksens omarbetade framgångsfaktorer representerade i elevernas utvecklingsmiljö?

    Metod

    Handbollslärarnas syn på elevernas utvecklingsmiljö undersöks med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod. Insamlingen av data sker i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer där målet är att komma mer på djupet kring ämnet för att få svar på uppsatsens frågeställningar. Intervjuerna genomfördes via telefon för att kunna nå handbollslärare över hela landet. Urvalsgruppen bestod av fem manliga handbollslärare som är anställda vid olika NIU- handbollsgymnasier i Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet i uppsatsen visar en varierande utvecklingsmiljö. Elevantal, kommunikation mellan skola och klubb, avsaknad av förebilder är några av de bristfälliga områden som lärarna anser utvecklas. En stark idrottskultur har visats sig vara betydande för både skolan och kommunen gällande utvecklingsmiljön.

    Slutsatser

    Slutsatserna som kan dras av denna uppsats är att handbollslärare på NIUhandbollsgymnasium ser utvecklingsmiljön som framgångsrik, men de är överens om att det finns utvecklingsmöjligheter. De anser att framgångsfaktorerna förebilder och integrationsarbete med klubbtränare är bristfällig och bör prioriteras för att optimera elevernas utvecklingsmiljö.

  • Papachristou Thulin, Nicole
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Segura, Vanessa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärares syn på hur digitala hjälpmedel påverkar undervisningen samt bedömningsprocessen i idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions:

    The aim of this study was to examine how lower secondary school teachers in physical education work with digital tools in their teaching. The focus of the study includes if teachers believed that digital tools affect their teaching and the assessment process.

    1. How are digital tools used in teaching?

    2. What is the purpose of using digital tools?

    3. What advantages and disadvantages can digital tools in the teaching of physical education have according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    4. How can the assessment process be influenced by digital tools according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    Method:

    The study was carried out through qualitative interviews in which we interviewed five lower secondary school teachers who teach physical education and health, and use digital tools in their teaching.

    Results:

    The results showed that the inclusion of digital tools can have a positive impact on pupils' learning according to the surveyed teachers. Also, the assessment process was experienced to be simplified with the use of digital tools, mainly through video recording. 

  • Sandahl, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Finns det en framgångsmodell för OS?: Recension av boken "Success and Failure of Countries at the Olympic Games" av Danyel Reiche2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 7 februariArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla som är intresserade av idrott har förmodligen på något vis en relation till de olympiska spelen. Som den största och därmed främsta av alla idrottsevenemang, möjligen undantaget världsmästerskapen i fotboll, har de olympiska spelen analyserats sönder och samman ur ett antal olika perspektiv. Mindre är dock skrivet om en faktor som förmodligen funnits på näthinnan hos alla dem som följt Sveriges framgångar och motgångar i de olika evenemangen, nämligen: finns det en framgångsmodell för OS? Den frågan försöker Danyel Reiche svara på i Success and Failure of the Countries at the Olympic Games.

  • Fogelberg, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svärd, Linnea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Saknas hälsoperspektiv?: En kvantitativ studie om hälsoundervisningen i Idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study has been to investigate high school physical education teachers teaching in health in Physical Education and health (PEH). Two questions were designed to fulfill this purpose: 1. How do teachers plan their teaching in health? 2. What dimensions of health permeates their teaching approach and plan?

    Method

    The method used was a quantitative survey. A web-survey was designed with the web tool Google Forms. Teachers with at least one year of teaching experience in PEH at high school level was asked to participate. 77 out of 470 asked teachers chose to attend. The teachers were chosen through a strategic selection followed by a complementary selection. In order to systematize collected data Health Literacy (HL) was chosen as the study´s theoretical framework.

    Results

    The results of the study show that health education mainly is pervaded by a salutogenic perspective in which physical health has the greatest focus. The majority of them answered that they integrate health as an area of knowledge in their education. Psychological and social dimensions of health is less common. The teachers' view is that they are working to a high extent with theoretical and practical knowledge within health and also with individual development. Even though they also imply that they work with critical thinking and citizenship, this is to a more limited extent.

    Conclusions

    Teachers in high school work with physical health to a high extent in PEH and they integrate health within their teaching. Eventhough the study shows that the teachers work with critical thinking and society perspectives to a limited extent. These areas are considered to be important to reach a deeper knowledge, which pupils need to take responsibility for their health in the present and future. Therefore teaching contributes to shallow and unilateral perspectives of health. Consequently it is important that more perspectives are used. Furthermore the study concludes that the theory of HL can work as a framework in order to develop strategies for health education. A proven theory could contribute to the teachers' ability to form a more deepened health education.

  • Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David W.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with an exercise intervention in depressed adults2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, 10-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exercise is beneficial for depression, but less is known about its impact on post-intervention physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of this paper was to determine the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention influenced habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. Methods Accelerometer data was collected pre- and post-intervention from depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week intervention groups: light (n = 21), moderate (n = 25) and vigorous (n = 22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in time spent sedentary and in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); time accumulated in sedentary and MVPA bouts; and, number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time. Results Overall sedentary time decreased while light activity time increased across all intervention groups but not significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced MVPA minutes (−8.22, 95% CI: −16.44, −0.01), time in MVPA bouts (−8.44, 95% CI: −14.27, −2.62), and number of activity bouts (−0.43, 95% CI: −0.77, −0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced time in MVPA bouts (−6.27, 95% CI: −11.71, −0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (−6.07, 95% CI: −9.30, −2.84). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group. Conclusions The exercise intervention led to an increase in overall light physical activity and decrease in sedentary time, though neither change was statistically significant. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention groups was associated with reductions of time in MVPA bouts, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

  • Espejo Reveco, Simon Manuel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Torres Villagran, Cristobal Alexis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det livslånga lärandet: en studie om hur idrottslärare arbetar för att skapa ett bestående intresse hos elever för fysisk aktivitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to examine how physical education teachers work to create a permanent interest for physical activity among students and try to identify in which grade these teachers feel that physical education affect students will to be physically active. In our study we have two different questions. These questions are the following:

    • How do physical education teachers see the teaching as a way to create interest in lifelong learning in physical activity among students?
    • How do physical education teachers create preconditions that frame learning and interest in physical activity that can be implemented in leisure time?

    Method

    The study had a qualitative approach where interviews were chosen as the main instrument. The present study took place in Stockholm, where five qualified physical education teachers were interviewed in different communities of the city. Two of the teachers were also educated in other school subject.

    Results

    Almost everyone work with a broad of activities with differences in the content. They have everything between ballgame to activities that prepare them for the “reality”. There were also some teachers who emphasized the importance to cooperate with other teachers for the purpose to mediate a lifelong learning towards physical activity. Most of the teachers experienced that communication among students, the active collaboration between teacher/student and formative assessment played a big role in the learning process.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of the study is that many of the teachers are not working consciously to promote a lifelong learning for physical activity for the students. With that said, we still want to emphasize that their efforts and strategies applied in teaching can promote an interest in physical activity in leisure time also in the long term.       

  • Kaldoyo, Patricia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Aphram, Petra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motivation till ämnet idrott och hälsa: en studie om motivation ur gymnasielevers perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how high school students will be motivated of in physical education. The questions for this study look at how students experience that following factors affect their motivation:

    • Performance
    • Grades
    • Feedback
    • Interaction
    • Teacher

    Method

    In this qualitative interview study, six students participated in the age of 18-19. An interview guide based on Self determination theory was used to answer the questions of the study. The participants were randomly selected from a convenience sample and come from two different high schools in the Stockholm area.

    Result

    The participants in this study considered that feedback was important to get from their teachers because they felt seen and thus more motivated. The interaction of both teachers and students were considered to be important for promoting motivation. Grades were considered an important factor in motivating them to participate and want to get good grades. Most of the students did not see performance as something that motivated them. Most students agreed that teachers have a big impact on their motivation.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of this study have concluded that the following factors: performance, grades, feedback, interaction and teacher affect students' motivation to physical education. These factors have an impact on students' internal and external motivation. Our conclusion is that the various factors have an impact on students' motivation and all of these have an important role in how students will experience physical education.

  • Dahlin, Michell
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lomas, Alex
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Styrketräning eller plyometrisk träning?: Effekterna av två olika typer av träningsprogram på unga fotbollsspelare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka effektiviteten av två olika träningsinterventioner, plyometrisk träning och styrketräning, på unga elitfotbollsspelares sprinttid, hopphöjd, drop jump index (DJI), riktningsförändringsförmåga (COD) samt effektutveckling i knäböjshopp (SJ). Studiens frågeställning var: Ger interventionsperioderna några effekter på ungdomsfotbollsspelares sprintförmåga (0-5 m, 0-10 m och 0-15 m), COD, hopphöjd och index i DJI samt effektutveckling i SJ?

    Metod

    24 stycken unga manliga fotbollsspelare deltog i en träningsintervention under 4 veckor. Deltagarna lottades in och tränade i tre olika grupper: Plyometrigrupp (PG), Styrkegrupp (SG) och Kontrollgrupp (KG). Träningarna bedrevs två gånger i veckan innan ordinarie fotbollsträning. PG och SG följde ett träningsupplägg som var vetenskapligt förankrat. För- och eftertester genomfördes för att undersöka träningsprogrammens effekt. Testerna som utfördes var sprint, drop jump (DJ), knäböjshopp (SJ) och riktningsförändringsförmåga (COD).

    Resultat

    PG och SG fick signifikanta förbättringar i DJI (p = 0,033 respektive p = 0,003). PG fick även signifikant (p = 0,006) ökning i effektutveckling medan SG endast visade på tendens (p = 0,073). PG visade även på en tendens till förbättring i 0-5 m (p = 0,097) och 0-15 m (p = 0,059). KG påvisade en tendens till förbättrat resultat i DJI (p = 0,072).

    Slutsats

    Studien visar att både ett fyra veckors plyometriskt träningsprogram och ett styrketräningsprogram kan utveckla fysiska egenskaper hos unga fotbollsspelare. Det plyometriska träningsprogrammet visade sig vara mest effektivt. Ytterligare forskning krävs där fler träningsmetoder undersöks under en längre träningsintervention för att skapa en större medvetenhet kring träningsmetoders påverkan på unga fotbollsspelare.

  • Olsson, Joanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Swedish Elite Swimmers Blood Glucose Levels During Recovery: A Descriptive Study Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to form a descriptive picture of Swedish national elite (SNLE) swimmers blood glucose (BG) levels in relation to their nutritional intake. 

    - Do SNLE swimmers have BG level in a normal range of ≥3.9 mmol/L when measured during a six-day period?

    - Is there a relationship between the SNLE swimmers blood glucose levels and how often or when they eat, and how they perceive their workout effort?

    Method

    Four test subjects, three females and one male, were recruited based on their competitive level, National Championship qualifying cut, geographical location, in Stockholm, and amount of swimming workouts completed weekly, seven on average. The test subjects wore a Continuous Glucose Monitor for a week and in addition a brief meal journal and perceived effort (ranking) of each workout was recorded. The data gathered was analyzed based on three main variables; time spent LOW (blood glucose level below 3.9mmol/L), amount of meals, and ranking.

    Results

    This study found that three out of four test subjects had occurrences of a LOW during the week. The test subjects spent on average 1.75 ±1.26 days with a LOW, the average time spent with a LOW per day was 37.3 ±29.7 minutes, the average amount during the whole week was 224 ±177 minutes, and the percent of the whole week spent with a LOW was 2.59 ±0.02%. In addition to this a correlation was found between (total) time spent LOW and (total) amount of meals with an R-value of 0.99, an R2 of 0.979, and P-value of 0.044.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that three test subjects spent time with a LOW and indicates similar results should be found in the general population of SNLE swimmers, however, this is definitely in need of further research. The results also indicated that there is a relationship between the amount of meals ingested and the BG level over the full six-day period but not on a daily basis. A regression analysis between (total) time spent LOW and (total) number of meals showed correlations with statistical significance, however, there was too small of a data sample (N=4) to draw conclusions based from this. This study forms a descriptive picture of the situation, which could serve as a platform for further research in this field, and give a first glance at the possible potential use of CGM systems within the sports nutrition field. 

  • Bergqvist, Linnea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Objectively measured physical activity in three-year-old children: Associations with BMI, gender and parental socioeconomic status2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe levels and patterns of three-year-old children´s physical activity. Furthermore, to investigate if there were any weight status-, gender- and parental SES differences in three-year-old children’s physical activity levels, using objective and subjective measurements from Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project (Early STOPP).

    Methods

    Data from 93 children, three years of age, included in the Early STOPP study was used. Children wore an actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for at least four consecutive days including one weekend day. Average activity in counts per minute (CPM), time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed (5 s epoch) and used to examine differences between gender, weight status (ISOBMI according to Cole et al) and socioeconomic status (SES). For this reason an index measuring SES was created using subjective data; parental reported information on living conditions and background characteristics, from the Early STOPP study. Differences between weekdays and weekend days was also examined.   

    Results

    The result showed neither any differences in PA between gender nor weight status and no differences between SES-groups. There was a difference in PA levels between weekdays and weekend days and a difference in PA between housing types. The children spent more time being active on weekdays and children living in apartments were more active than children living in villas. Children spent approximately 67% of their time being sedentary and an average of 12,5 minutes in MVPA.

    Conclusion

    The study concludes that PA-levels in children three years of age are low. There was a difference between housings, suggesting that parents/guardians play an important role in young children’s PA. However more research is needed to fully understand the PA-behavior of young children and their parents. The absence of PA differences between genders implies that gender differences later in childhood is an effect of social structures rather than innate differences. Objectively measured PA on children at this age is rare and therefore this study contributes to the knowledge regarding young children’s PA-behavior. Furthermore there is also a need to establish agreed upon definitions for SES and of thresholds to use when examining PA with accelerometer.

  • Querat, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hjärtrytmsvariabilitet och quarterbackprestation: En kvantitativ undersökning av sambandet mellan mätvärdet hjärtrytmsvariabilitet och kastprecision2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning

    Hjärtrytmsvariabilitet (HRV) är oscillationer i hjärtfrekvensen, dvs. ett mått på hur tiden mellan hjärtslagen varierar slag-för-slag. Litteraturen pekar på samband mellan hög HRV och prestationsförmåga i domäner som IQ-test och pistolskytte, men begränsad forskning har gjorts på sambandet mellan HRV och mer fysiskt krävande prestationsdomäner.

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka mätningar i hjärttrytmsvariabilitets förmåga att förutspå quarterbackprestation inom domänen prickskytte. Arbetet kretsar kring frågeställningarna:

     Finns det en korrelation mellan HRV och quarterbackprestation?

     Orsakar musik en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i resultaten?

    Metod

    Under två testtillfällen fick försökspersoner (n=7, ålder: 16-22) genomgå ett prickskyttetest bestående av 30 kast på måltavla (⌀=50cm) på 7,5m avstånd. Före prickskyttetestet gjordes en 3 minuters HRV-mätning före och efter standardiserad uppvärmning. Uppvärmningen bestod av löpning och kast (10-15 min). Korrelationsanalyser gjordes mellan prickskytteresultat och värden för HRV från de 4 mätningarna.

    Resultat

    Korrelationsanalysen Pearson Correlation visade ett negativt samband mellan två uppmätta HRV-värden efter uppvärmning och kastprestation (r=-0,828, p=0,022 respektive r=-0,914, p=0,004).

    Slutsats

    Resultaten visar att det finns en korrelation mellan HRV och quarterbackprestation, strax före test. Dessa resultat talar eventuellt för att HRV går att användas som en metod för att mäta spelares grad av beredskap, men en mer omfattande studie med fler försökspersoner krävs för att med säkerhet kunna bedöma sambandet mellan HRV och kastprecision hos quarterbacks.

  • Piech, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Grants, Juris
    Cherenkov, Dmitriy
    Gatatulin, Alexey
    Smaliakou, Dzmitry
    Lindberg, Ulf
    Family Influence On Sport Activity Patterns During Early Adolescence: A Comparative Approach2016In: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912, Vol. 7, no 2, 3-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of research is to examine and describe young individuals who participate in extended sport education program. The main focus concerns family influences on the development of the investigated youngsters´ sportive patterns. Data were collected through online and paper (whenever appropriate) questionnaires (elite sport training in secondary higher education – models of success in sport with pupils from a selection of sport schools in respective countries). Coaches from sports schools representing all participating countries (Poland, Sweden, Latvia, Russia and Belarus) were interviewed. The results indicate that the influence of parents and physical education teachers on the decision to join a sport club and to continue sport career is rather low. Main reasons behind joining a sport club are: the desire to become an athlete, sport idols, and the subjects’ own will. Staying in a sport club and pursuing a career is also determined by previous achievements in the field and good coaches. The parents´ past engagement in psychical activities was not systematic. The subjects consider local sport facilities and a number of accessible sport clubs and sports coaches to be of high importance at the early stage of their engagement in sport.

  • Manselin, Tom A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Södergård, Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lindholm, Peter
    Karolinska institutet.
    Aerobic efficiency is associated with the improvement in maximal power output during acute hyperoxia.2017In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 5, no 2, e13119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between aerobic efficiency during cycling exercise and the increase in physical performance with acute hyperoxic exposure (FiO2 ~31%) (HOX) and also tested the hypothesis that fat oxidation could be increased by acute hyperoxia. Fourteen males and four females were recruited for two sessions, where they exercised for 2 × 10 min at 100 W to determine efficiency. HOX and normoxia (NOX) were administered randomly on both occasions to account for differences in nitrogen exchange. Thereafter, a progressive ramp test was performed to determine VO2max and maximal power output (Wmax). After 30 min rest, workload was set to 80% of maximal power output (Wmax) for a time to exhaustion test (TTE). At 100W gross efficiency was reduced from 19.4% during NOX to 18.9% during HOX (P ≤ 0.0001). HOX increased fat oxidation at 100 W by 52% from 3.41 kcal min(-1) to 5.17 kcal min(-1) (P ≤ 0.0001) with a corresponding reduction in carbohydrate oxidation. Wmax increased by 2.4% from 388.8 (±82.1) during NOX to 397.8 (±83.5) during HOX (P ≤ 0.0001). SaO2 was higher in HOX both at the end of the maximal exercise test and TTE. Subjects with a high level of efficiency in NOX had a larger improvement in Wmax with HOX, in agreement with the hypothesis that an optimum level of efficiency exists that maximizes power production. No association between mitochondrial excess capacity and endurance performance was found; increases in oxygen supply seemed to increase maximal aerobic power production and maintain/increase endurance capacity at the same relative workload.

  • Kristiansson, Beata
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    30 minuter högintensiv idrott, räcker det?: en studie om gymnasieelevers syreupptagningsförmåga2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om 30 minuters högintensiv träning kan förbättra syreupptagningsförmågan (VO2-max) i större utsträckning än vid en lektion som tillbringas i måttlig till kraftig fysisk aktivitet (MVPA).

    Frågeställningar

    1. Vilka elever visar störst förändring i VO2-max?

    2. Är det tillräckligt att träna högintensiv träning två gånger i veckan under en 6 veckors period för att se en förbättrad VO2-max?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes under en 6 veckors period med gymnasieelever som valt fotboll som profilidrott. Gruppen bestod av 11 elever, 9 pojkar och 2 flickor, i åldrarna 16–18 år som under studien delades in i två grupper. Den ena gruppen fortsatte med ordinarie undervisning i profilidrotten, medan den andra gruppen utförde högintensiv träning under 30 minuter. Alla elever startade med att utföra två tester av VO2-max, Beep-test samt Ekblom-Bak test. Båda testerna har färdiga testprotokoll och tar hänsyn till kön och ålder. Eleverna som valde att utöva den högintensiva träningen under tidsperioden på 6 veckor utförde två högintensiva pass i veckan. Ett av dessa var förkoreograferat av Les Mills som är ett världsledande företag inom gruppträning. Studien avslutades med nya VO2-max tester som utfördes med samtliga elever för att sedan sammanställa ett resultat 

    Resultat

    Eleverna som utförde den högintensiva träningen förbättrade VO2-max med 4 % enligt Beep-testet efter en 6 veckors period i jämförelse med eleverna som fortsatte med ordinarie undervisning som försämrade VO2-max med 6 %. De som visade högst procentuell förbättring var flickorna som deltog i studien med en ökning av VO2-max med 7 %. Ekblom-Bak testet visade inga signifikanta skillnader i någon av grupperna.

    Slutsats

    Högintensiv träning kan enligt studien ha en positiv inverkan på gymnasieelevers VO2-max i större utsträckning än vid ordinarie undervisning inom ramen för MVPA. 

  • Dupree, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motivation i varje zon?: En studie av motivationens och tränarbeteendens påverkan hos elever på elitishockeygymnasier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka tränarbeteenden som föredras av elever på svenska elitishockeygymnasier samt att få en inblick hur motivationen är hos dessa elever. 

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur uppfattar eleverna olika tränarbeteenden?

    2. Hur ser motivationen ut hos eleverna?

    3. Finns det några skillnader mellan könen i dessa två variabler?

    4. Finns det några skillnader mellan de olika spelpositionerna inom ishockey?

    5. Finns det ett samband mellan specifika tränarbeteenden och viss motivationstyp?

    Metod: Deltagare i denna kvantitativa studie var elever på landets elitishockeygymnasier som fyllt 18 år. Undersökningen genomfördes i form av en webb-enkät i Google Forms. Enkäten har bestått av två redan färdiga enkäter, Leadership Scale for Sports och Sport Motivation Scale-II. Enkäten har skickats till de ansvariga för respektive elitishockeygymnasium i landet som sedan förmedlat enkäten vidare till eleverna. Resultatet från enkäten har bearbetats i statistikprogrammet SPSS version 24 där T-test, korrelationer, one-way ANOVA samt Cronbach’s alfa har genomförts. 

    Resultat: Autokratiskt beteende var det minst uppskattade beteenden och positiv feedback det mest uppskattade.  Den motivationstyp som förekom i högst grad hos undersökningsgruppen var inre motivation och i lägst grad förekom amotivation. En statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan könen i föredragna tränarbeteenden visades, då kvinnorna i högre grad föredrog demokratiskt beteende jämfört med männen. Mellan de olika positionerna fanns det statistisk signifikant skillnad inom amotivation, där målvakterna visade mer amotivation än backarna. Samband av medel-styrka kunde ses mellan inre motivation och träning/instruktion samt positiv feedback, men även mellan extern reglering och träning/instruktion. Fler samband med låg styrka kunde påvisas.

    Slutsats: De mest föredragna tränarbeteendena samt motivationstyperna har påvisats. Även skillnader och samband har framkommit. En viktig slutsats är att de undersökta variablerna hänger ihop och har en stor påverkan på varandra, då idrottarnas motivation påverkar tränarens beteende, samtidigt som tränarens beteende påverkar idrottarnas motivation.

  • Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Almström, Peter
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Markstedt, Anders
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impacts of air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, 55-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people’s home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 minute bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in more than 111 000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.

    Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 µg m-3 decrease in NOx, this corresponds to more than 449 (95% CI: 340 - 558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172 - 617) and 185 (95% CI: 158 - 209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Kempe Bergman, Matthis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Gör idrotten som Idrotten vill?: Barn- och ungdomsidrottens utformning i retorik och praktik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om idrottsrörelsens policydokument Idrotten vill och dess väg från visionär retorik, beslutad i styrelserum och på stämmor, till praktisk handling när idéerna ska realiseras av tränare i lokala föreningar. Riktlinjerna har i stort sett varit desamma under de 20 år som gått sedan beslutet om Idrotten vill togs. Forskning visar dock att riktlinjerna inte alltid är normgivande, och att idrotten inte självklart gör som Idrotten vill. Kunskap saknas om i vilken utsträckning  föreningsledare och tränare känner till idrottsrörelsens övergripande riktlinjer samt varför andemeningen i Idrotten vill inte är vägledande i alla sammanhang.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka i vilken mån centralt formulerade idéer i Idrotten vill har fått genomslag på lokal nivå där barn- och ungdomsidrotten utformas och utövas. Ytterligare ett syfte är att studera tränares erfarenhet av hur riktlinjerna följs, samt att analysera vilka övergripande idéer som det verkar vara svårast att tillämpa. Följande frågor är centrala: I vilken utsträckning har idrottsföreningar egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott och vad utmärker dessa? Vad känner tränare till om de övergripande idéerna i Idrotten vill, och vad anser de om idéernas genomslag? Vilka idéer verkar svårast att tillämpa och hur legitimerar tränare sina ställningstaganden i relation till dessa idéer? Förhoppningen är att resultaten ska tillföra ny och värdefull kunskap om hur arbeta för att öka kännedomen om och tillämpningen av Idrotten vill kan ske.

    En utgångspunkt är att resultatet av riktlinjernas genomslag har att göra med vad tränare känner till om de övergripande idéerna, vilka faktiska möjligheter de har att praktisera och konkretisera riktlinjerna och av enskilda ledares uppfattningar om hur och varför barn ska idrotta. För att besvara frågorna har flera metoder använts och olika urval av ledare har skett enligt följande: en kartläggning av policydokument och tillhörande riktlinjer från 100 slumpvis utvalda föreningar i alpin skidåkning, fotboll, ishockey, konståkning och tennis, intervjuer med 15 tränare från både bredd- och elitinriktade föreningar i ovan nämnda idrotter samt enkätsvar från 466 tränare i ett 40-tal idrotter från föreningar i 13 distriktsförbund.

    Resultaten visar att drygt hälften av föreningarna har utformat egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott. Riktlinjerna varierar dock stort i omfattning och vad de innebär är sällan konkretiserat. Även om ett fåtal tränare känner till Idrotten vill som dokument betraktat, verkar merparten vara bekanta med de övergripande idéerna. En majoritet av tränarna anser också att riktlinjerna mestadels är vägledande vid utformningen av idrott för unga, särskilt då de själva är ansvariga. Däremot sympatiserar inte alla tränare med alla riktlinjer. Särskilt frågan som rör värdet av tidiga satsningar och selektion kontra en mer lekfull inriktning med mindre fokus på tävlingsresultat delar tränarkåren. Frågan engagerar och väcker känslor. Tränarna är eniga om att det gäller att hålla de ungas idrottsintresse vid liv – men hur det ska ske finns det skilda uppfattningar om.

  • Svennberg, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Grading in physical education2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis the aim is to investigate different aspects of what teachers value when grading in Swedish physical education (PE) and to analyses how sociological background factors impact students’ grades. Grades in PE have included aspects other than those prescribed in the grading criteria, for instance motivation and effort. Teachers sometimes find their value-setting difficult to articulate and refer to a “gut feeling”. In order to explore both explicit and implicit forms of value-setting, the Repertory Grid interview technique is employed.

    The thesis includes four sub-studies, three interview studies with Swedish PE teachers and a fourth study based on registry data from the Swedish National Agency for Education. The data of all students leaving nine-year compulsory school in 2014 (n=95317) is analysed to explore how sociological background factors, such as migration background, parents’ education, school provider and gender, affect PE grades.

    The results reveal aspects of grading that are not detectable in the official description of the grading assignment and highlight problems that teachers need to address when grading. Four themes are discerned in the teachers’ grading practices: motivation, knowledge, confidence and social skills. The implementation of a new national curriculum with specified knowledge requirements seems to improve the alignment with the national criteria, but there is still a gap between policy and practice. The knowledge requirements for movement are often interpreted as performances in competitive sports, even if the teachers try to find other interpretations. The odds ratio for getting a higher grade in PE is greater for the variables migration background and parents’ education than for the other investigated variables. The concepts formulated by Bernstein are applied to explore the relations between teachers’ grading practices and cultural and political influences and to discuss how the tensions between different interests could affect teachers’ grading.

    The conclusion is that the gap between policy and practice confirmed in this study is related to tensions between the interests and purposes of different agents, all of whom strive to influence steering documents and practice. Cultural and political influences need to be considered and facilitate discussions about how to understand which knowledge is valued in PE and who has better possibilities to assimilate it.

  • Hallquist, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Tranaeus Fitzgerald, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Responsibility for child and adolescent's psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries2016In: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, ISSN 2288-176X, Vol. 12, no 6, 589-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communica-tion as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordi-nator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibili-ty for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be com-municated to participants who are involved in children’s and adoles-cent’s sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.

  • Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes?: A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach.2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 4, 314-326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences before, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant's experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event, the aftermath, recovery and reflection on the event, sampling of new avenues, enlightenment, and career rebirth. The findings reinforce the high demands placed upon elite coaches, the subsequent threats to physical and mental well-being, and the importance of having robust psychological skills and suitable social support to cope with these demands. Implications for preparing and supporting coaches for successful career transition are discussed.

  • Kellgren, Henrik
    Cure of inflammation of the lungs by the manual treatment1876Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Dollevoet, Kim
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Allt vi gör är lite fejk känns det som…": En kvalitativ intervjustudie med nio högstadieelever kring friluftslivsundervisning och bedömning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this qualitative study is to examine outdoor education and the assessment of knowledge within outdoor education at a high school. 

    • What are students perceptions of outdoor education in high school?
    • What are students perceptions of assessment in outdoor education in high school?

    Method

    This study consists of three qualitative group interviews with a total of nine high school students, three students from year 8 and six students from year 9. The interviews are semi-structured and covers three areas which contain questions about students' definition of outdoor activities, students' perceptions of outdoor education and students' perceptions of the assessment within outdoor education. The interviews were recorded and transcribed after which an analysis could be done.

    Result

    Students define outdoor education similar to the swedish national definition from Friluftsgruppen and being outdoors in the nature is very important. The students find it hard to remember what kind of task where include in their outdoor education, but the parts orientation and ice skating are the most common. Furthermore, they sometimes met CPR, lifesaving and swimming, but not to the same extent. Most students say that assessment in orientation is done by how students perform on different tracks. The assessment within ice skating is somewhat unclear, and is not as common.  Students give suggestions to develop the assessment and require thereby a more clear structure around the assessment in outdoor education. Students report that they should know what is required of them and that they should get a better idea of what they need to do to achieve a certain grade.

    Conclusions

    How teachers work with the curriculum is, based on the students perceptions, analyzed with help of the ”läroplansteori” which stands for the formulation, transformation and realisation of the curriculum. The curriculum-goals are discussed and the fact that there is a lack of education around planning, realize and organization of outdoor education is established. This study shows that development within outdoor education is required, but how and in what form is hard to say with only these results. The knowledge of assessment within outdoor education is insufficient. More research is needed to get a better view of how teachers work with the curriculum and that kind of support they need to develop their work with assessment within outdoor education

  • Källvant, Lovisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att klargöra, dela och förstå lärandemålen och framgångskriterierna i idrott och hälsa: en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av idrottsdidaktiska böcker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka hur nyckelstrategin ”att klargöra, dela och förstå lärandemålen och framgångskriterierna” beskrivs i idrottsdidaktisk litteratur. Följande frågeställning syftar till att uppfylla syftet: Hur skildras nyckelstrategin i de idrottsdidaktiska böckerna? Den övergripande frågeställningen förtydligas med följande frågor: 1) Nämns nyckelstrategin explicit i texterna? 2) Finns det spår av nyckelstrategin i texterna?

    Metod

    För att uppfylla syftet och besvara frågeställningarna analyserades fyra idrottsdidaktiska böcker med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Insamlandet av relevant material har gjorts manuellt utifrån ett antal kodningsprinciper. Efter insamlandet av data kodades materialet och sorterades in i teman.

    Resultat

    Analysen visar att nyckelstrategin inte nämns explicit i någon av texterna, däremot finns det spår av nyckelstrategin i texterna. Dessa spår förmedlar i princip samma innehåll som nyckelstrategin. Dock är det tveksamt om läsare kommer att förstå detta som viktiga aspekter eller veta hur de ska arbeta med detta som lärare då det relevanta innehållet inte har en framträdande roll i böckerna.

    Slutsats

    Det verkar fortfarande, även fast uppdaterade böcker inom ämnet nyligen publicerats, finnas en brist på information om bedömning för lärande och nyckelstrategin ifråga i den här typen av böcker. Det finns ett behov av mer forskning om hur vi kan arbeta med bedömning för lärande inom ämnet och även ett behov av att detta förmedlas till lärare i ämnet.