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  • Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Tvåhundra år av dansk skolidrott: recension av boken Fra borgerdyd til kompetenceudvikling: Idrætten i latin- og gymnasieskolen gennem 200 år av Per Jørgensen (2014)2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 27 aprilArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Lövgren, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Begreppet hälsa i undervisning.: - En studie om idrottslärares arbete med och definiering av begreppet hälsa från det centrala innehållet ur Lgr 11, årskurs 7-9.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att studera hur idrottslärare för årskurser 7-9 definierar begreppet hälsa och hur de sedan arbetar med begreppet i sin undervisning utifrån stoffet gällande hälsa och livsstil för ämnet idrott och hälsa ur den nya läroplanen Lgr 11. Detta utifrån mina frågeställningar:

    1. Hur definierar pedagogerna begreppet hälsa i det centrala innehållet från idrott och hälsa gällande årskurs 7-9?

    2. Hur arbetar pedagogerna med begreppet hälsa i sin undervisning?

    Metod

    Studien har genomförts med hjälp av kvalitativ metod baserad på intervjuer med fyra verksamma idrottslärare inom fyra olika kommuner i Stockholm.

    Resultatet

    Resultatet av dessa intervjuer visar på en stor olikhet på definiering av begreppet hälsa, vilket kan kopplas till att begreppet är ett komplext och allomfattande begrepp. En pedagog sa att

    “det svåra är att leva som man lär. Att ha en bra balans i de grundläggande faktorerna: äta, sova, träna, socialt umgänge”. Pedagogerna upplevde en svårighet med att hitta bra forum för att

    examinera eleverna i momentet hälsa. Vad det gälde de fyra pedagogerna kan man utröna att de är negativt inställda att teoretisera innehållet, vad gäller hälsa, allt för mycket. Alla har en

    målsättning att så mycket som möjligt integrera begreppet i de praktiska momenten.

    Slutsats

    Studien visar vidare hur det personliga förhållningssättet till begreppet i högre grad styr hur pedagogerna arbetar med hälsa i sin undervisning än stoffet från den nya läroplanen.

    Pedagogerna betonar den fysiska aktiviteten och sambandet till att elever på individnivå kan uppnå god hälsa. Intervjuerna visar ändå på idrottslärarnas syn på hälsa som ett allomfattande

    begrepp och att god hälsa handlar likväl om psykiska och sociala faktorer.

  • Skurlic, Anel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Specialidrott, ett kunskapsämne eller?: - en studie om hur specialidrottslärare motiverar och bedriver sin undervisning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The study aims to examine how teachers background and experiences affect their teaching in special sports. Our questions are: What kind of sport and academic background and experience does the teachers have in special sports? How do teachers in special sports motivate their choices of teaching content? How do teachers use the curriculum and the core content in special sports?

     

    Method

    Qualitative interviews were used in the study. Five teachers in special physical sports were interviewed, three of whom are educated teachers. The studies participants are active in the nationally approved sports programs targeting team sports. The respondents were chosen strategically as teachers/trainers who are active in Stockholm was contacted. The principle of convenience was taken into consideration because of limited resources and the lack of time. Furthermore, some participants also came through a snowball selection when the time factor was taken into consideration. Pierre Bourdieus socio-cultural theory is underpinning the theoretical basis of the study.

     

    Results

    The results indicate that the respondents aspire to assume curricula when they justify and plan their teaching, at the same time the documents are experienced as complex and difficult to interpret and to apply. Furthermore, the result shows that the participants have a solid background in sports as private pursuit and management experience at a high national level.

     

    Conclusions

    Based on the results and discussion of the study it’s clear that the subject special sports don't have clear guidelines on how the teaching should be conducted, which may be due to a weak academic setting. The study shows that there is a battle in the field of special sports around how the education is conducted. Today there is two different players with different objectives in special sports. Furthermore, the result shows that the symbolic capital, in the form of education has an impact on how the subject is designed. Possession of a teacher education is found to be important to be able to interpret and understand the subjects curricula.

  • Williams, Markus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Modern expectations of the qualified strength and conditioning coach: A quantitative cross-sectional study on the factors of collegiate strength and conditioning coaches.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine current factors regarding strength and conditioning coaches at the collegiate level, furthermore to examine factors dependent on the level of sports.

    1. What was the educational background of strength and conditioning coaches at the collegiate level?

    2. What was the salary of strength and conditioning coaches at the collegiate level?

    3. How much relevant work experience did strength and conditioning coaches have at the collegiate level?

    4. What were the differences and similarities of strength and conditioning coaches’ factors dependent on collegiate division?

    Method

    The method was a cross-sectional study applying a survey to examine the study’s four previously mentioned issues. Coaches encompassing the inclusion criteria (e.g. seniority and professionalism) of the study were contacted for possible participation. The survey was sent to collegiate strength and conditioning coaches (n=225) whom were randomly chosen with equal amounts of potential samples from each division. The results were then analyzed using mode, mean, range and frequency.

    Results

    82 surveys were completed and returned (36 %). Three surveys were ineligible, therefore 79 surveys were used to produce the results. A Master’s degree (67.09 %) and CSCS certification (81.01 %) were recognized as common attributes among collegiate strength and conditioning coaches. Salary and relevant experience answers were fairly spread throughout all divisions. Differences in certifications were found as the SCCC was cited in higher frequency among Division I coaches (52.63 %) than the two lower divisions (≤26.67 %).

    Conclusions

    Both a master’s degree within a relevant field and a CSCS certification can be regarded as fundamental attributes of collegiate strength and conditioning coaches. Work experience and CSCCa certifications may be efficient predictors for salary and involvement in elite versus non-elite environments. The study’s results will aid aspiring collegiate strength and conditioning coaches in career development as well as employers in hiring processes.

  • Johansson Norell, Mathilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fem simtränares syn på idrottsutbildning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka hur fem svenska simtränare uppfattar betydelsen av idrottsutbildning i sitt arbete som tränare.

    • Hur upplevde simtränarna att idrottsutbildning var relevant för deras arbete?
    • Hur använde simtränarna de praktiska kunskaperna från idrottsutbildningen i arbetet?

     Metod

    Uppsatsen hade en kvalitativ ansats med intervjuer som metod. Empirin samlades in från fyra manliga och en kvinnlig simtränare som alla arbetar med simning på högsta nivå inom ungdoms-, junior- eller seniornivå. Tränarna behövde ha minst två års erfarenhet inom yrket, vara ansvariga för sin träningsgrupp samt genomfört minst en idrottsutbildning enligt uppsatsens definition.

    Resultat

    Resultatet påvisade att dessa fem simtränare ansåg att idrottsutbildningen de genomfört var relevant för tränaryrket. De flesta kurserna i de olika utbildningarna kunde tränarna koppla till sitt tränarskap. Samtidigt fanns det förbättringspotential inom alla idrottsutbildningar som förekommit i uppsatsen. Simtränarna kunde ge konkreta exempel på hur de använde sig av idrottsutbildningarna de genomgått i sitt praktiska arbete, framförallt i säsongsplaneringen men även i tränings- och tävlingssituation. Samtidigt fanns vissa kurser i utbildningarna som inte användes överhuvudtaget.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatser kunde dras att idrottsutbildningen har varit relevant och kunde användas i praktiken av dessa fem simtränare. De hade använt respektive utbildning i både planerings- och träningssyfte. Dock ansåg samtliga fem intervjupersoner att det fanns förbättringsområden i den idrottsutbildning de genomgått.

  • Engström, Igor
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Segerlund, Martin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    I rörelse: En komparativ studie av nivå och mängd fysisk aktivitet hos elever på gymnasiesärskolan jämfört med gymnasieskolan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine and compare amount and level of physical activity during the school day, which also include a physical education lesson, among pupils in upper secondary school with and without mental retardation.

    Method: The target group of this study composed of six high school students from one class from special school and 45 students from four classes of first to third grade in the upper secondary school. In order to examine the amount and level of physical activity, the study used pedometers and heart rate monitors. The survey of this study lasted two whole school days which included physical education lessons. As for theoretical framework, this study presupposes from the concept physical activity which is divided into level and amount of physical activity. It will be analyzed with the concept moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)and the recommendation of health regarding steps taken per day.

    Results: The study showed that students from the special school and upper secondary school on average accumulated the same amount of steps during one school day. There was however a significant difference in how much of the total steps of the school day that was accumulated during the physical education lesson. For the students in the special school about 34 percent of the steps taken during the school day came from the physical education lesson and equal result for the students in upper secondary school was about 50 percent. There were also significant differences regarding the level of physical activity among the students during the lesson in physical education. Students in special school spent about 33 percent of the lesson in MVPA while the students in upper secondary school spent 70 percent of the lesson in MVPA.

    Conclusion: The result indicates that the students in special school overall have a more active schoolday beyond the lessons in physical education than the students in upper secondary school. This is because the results show that they have the same amount of steps during the whole school day, despite the fact that they have fewer steps than the students in upper secondary school during the lesson in physical education. Regarding the level of physical activity during the lesson in physical education the result showed significant difference between the study groups. The students in the special school spent less than half the time in MVPA compared with the students in upper secondary school. An explanation to that could be different lesson content or the complex of problems regarding intellectual disabilities.

  • Sahin, Soner
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrott och Hälsa: elever med behov av särskilt stöd2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers of physical education and health work deal with pupils who are in need of special support.

    Issues:

    • How do the teachers work with regard to special needs in physical education in their school?

    • What dilemmas may arise during the teaching of students with special needs?

    Method

    The method selected for the study was to conduct interviews with six teachers in physical education who work at different schools. The interviews were conducted individually with each teacher and were recorded on the phone. The study's issues were directly related to what teachers think about the difficulties that may arise with regard to pupils with special needs in physical education.

    Results

    The results indicate that the teachers do not have the conditions to organize the best form of education for their students. The teachers wished that they could have access to specialized education for students with special needs. The Teachers are aware that there are students who are in need of extra support. In spite of lack in adequate organization they try to adapt their teaching to any event that may occur during the teaching time and start. Students who are in need of special support do not have the ability to concentrate and the teaching environment does not affect them in a positive sense.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that there are obstacles and little interest for children in need of special support in physical education. Principals have the ultimate responsibility to organize and create the best opportunities for teachers and students who need special support. Schools should ensure to form a similar type of schooling for all children, including for children in need of special support.

  • Millischer, V
    et al.
    Erhardt, S
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Forsell, Y
    Lavebratt, C
    Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients2017In: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 13, 967-972 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans.

    Materials and methods: Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study.

    Results: No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed.

    Limitations: As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes.

    Conclusion: Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression.

  • Fischer, Madelene
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dricker fysiskt aktiva personer mer alkohol än fysiskt inaktiva personer?: En kvantitativ studie om yrkesverksamma vuxna och deras alkohol- och fysiska aktivets vanor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om det finns några skillnader mellan fysiskt aktiva personer och fysiskt inaktiva personer och deras alkoholkonsumtion samt att undersöka om det finns en skillnad mellan könen i deras alkoholkonsumtion och graden av fysisk aktivitet.

    Frågeställningar: Finns det en skillnad i fysiska aktivitets- och alkoholvanor mellan män och kvinnor? Finns det en skillnad i alkoholkonsumtion mellan de som är fysiskt aktiva och fysiskt inaktiva? Finns det ett samband mellan ålder och alkoholkonsumtion och ålder och graden av fysisk aktivitet?

    Metod: En enkätundersökning där redan beprövade och validerade enkäter användes i denna studie: IPAQ för att mäta graden av fysisk aktivitet och AUDIT för att mäta alkoholkonsumtion. Enkäterna delades ut på olika företag i Stockholm av författarna själva. De respondenter som fick en totalpoäng lika med eller över 600 MET (metabolic equivalent)kategoriserades att tillhöra den fysiskt aktiva gruppen. Män med en AUDIT-poäng lika med eller över 8 och kvinnor med en AUDIT-poäng lika med eller över 6 kategoriserades att tillhöra gruppen riskbrukskonsumenter av alkohol. Det var 150 personer som deltog i studien.

    Resultat: Resultaten visade att 88 % av samtliga respondenter tillhörde den aktiva gruppen (MET > 600 min/ vecka). Ingen signifikant skillnad sågs mellan män och kvinnor i aktivitetsnivå (p= 0,728). Det fanns en signifikant skillnad (p=0,014) mellan män och kvinnor och deras alkoholkonsumtion, män drack mer alkohol än kvinnor. Dock var det signifikant fler kvinnor än män som tillhörde riskgruppen för alkohol. Resultaten visade också att aktiva personer drack mer alkohol än inaktiva personer (p=0,026). Sambandet mellan ålder och alkoholkonsumtion visade att med stigande ålder dricker man mindre alkohol (r =-0,171,p=0,038). Sambandet mellan ålder och fysisk aktivitet visade att med stigande ålder tränar man mindre på hög intensitet (r=-0,342, p= 0,000). Ett positivt samband mellan ålder och antalet MET- minuter i promenader kunde hittas (r=0,23, p= 0,008).

    Slutsats: En slutsats som kan dras från denna studie är att personerna som uppnår rekommendationerna av fysisk aktivitet dricker mer alkohol än personerna som inte uppnår rekommendationerna av fysisk aktivitet. Resultaten visade också att män dricker mer alkohol än kvinnor men att det är signifikant fler kvinnor än män som kategoriserades som riskkonsumenter av alkohol. Resultaten kan inte ses som allmängiltiga eftersom att urvalet i denna studie inte var slumpmässigt eller tillräckligt stort.

  • Eade, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrott eller Hälsa?: en studie om hur läraren i idrott och hälsa arbetar med ämnet hälsa i sin undervisning.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and question

    The study aims to examine how physical education (PE) teachers teach health in school and how they assess health.

    • What is the physical education and health teachers own definition of health?
    • How does the teacher in physical education work to meet health targets?
    • How does the physical educator judge health in the subject physical education?
    • What do teachers in physical education thin is the optimal didactics of physical education?

    Method

    Four active PE teachers were interviewed. Two who taught in the inner city and two who taught in two suburbs of Stockholm.

    Results

    All teachers define health as a feeling of well-being in the biological and in the holistic field. The four interviewed teachers worked with physical education in ways that was beyond the traditional teaching and assessed the topic through discussion, theoretical and practical examinations, but also with their gut feeling.

    Conclusions

    The interviewed teachers believe that they need a clear definition of health to be able to teach the subject health but also to assess the pupil in the subject. The subject health in physical education need to have more space in the form of time to match the demands the school have from society, however, it requires a clearer didactics of the subject and an assessment support so that students can achieve the required goals.

     

     

     

     

  • Engstam, Josephine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och tarmstomi: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to investigate the experience of physical activity among people with intestinal stoma. The research questions were:

    • What is the level of physical activity among people with intestinal stoma?
    • Do people with intestinal stoma experience a change in physical activity after surgery?
    • What factors affect physical activity in people who have intestinal stoma?
    • What kind of information and follow-up on physical activity do people receive who have had intestinal stoma surgery?

    Method

    To answer the aim and research questions, a qualitative method of semi-structured interviews have been conducted. 12 people with intestinal stoma participated in the study and were recruited from three hospitals in Stockholm County using a non-random sample with astrategic selection. The participants were between 30 and 84 years old and were operated for at least three months before the time of the interview. The interviews were transcribed and then analysed by an inductive content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman (2004).

    Results

    The content analysis resulted in three main categories; the time before surgery, the time after the operation as well as information. The main results were 1) the participants had a high level of physical activity after the surgery. 2) The physical activity level of the participants was the same or slightly higher after the surgery. However some participants had made changes in their activity or the environment of where the activity took place. 3) The participants did not see the stoma as a barrier to physical activity more than in certain specific environments. Physical activity could however be affected by other illness- and surgery-related causes. 4)The participants had received information regarding physical activity in the direct postoperative stage but experienced a lack of information and follow-up at a later stage after surgery.

    Conclusions

    The results of the study indicate that a stoma does not need be a barrier for physical activity. Furthermore, the results show the importance of information and follow-up for people with stoma in order for them to be able to return to their preoperative level of physical activity.

  • Rudner, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Höglund, Rebecca
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan sprinttester i löpning på barmark och skridsko på is: En korrelationsstudie gjord på svenska damhockeyspelare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar Syftet är att undersöka om det föreligger något samband mellan 1RM i benböj och sprintlöpning på is kontra sambandet mellan sprintlöpning på barmark och 1RM i benböj för svenska damhockeyspelare i högsta serien SDHL.

    • Finns det något samband mellan maxstyrka i 1RM i benböj och sprinter på barmark (utanför isen) hos svenska damhockeyspelare?
    • Finns det något samband mellan maxstyrka i 1RM benböj och sprinter på is hos svenska damhockeyspelare?
    • Finns det något samband mellan sprintlöpning på barmark och skridskosprinter på is?

    Metod Testerna utfördes vi två tillfällen med en veckas mellanrum. Vid första tillfället utfördes testerna i benböj ned till ett djup där lårbenet var parallellt med underlaget. Startvikten var 70% av den förväntade maxvikten och testpersonen hade två försök på varje vikt. Vid andra tillfället utfördes 30 meter sprint på barmark och på is och där fotoceller användes för mätning av tid (Time-it - basic set, ELEIKO). Fotocellsparen placerades på ställningar med en höjd på 91cm från underlaget med 1,5 meter avstånd från varandra och testpersonerna startade 0,5 meter innan första fotocellerna och fick välja själva när de skulle starta. Testpersonerna utförde två sprinter vardera på barmark respektive is där det bästa resultatet sedan användes i analysen. Samtliga analyser genomfördes i programmet SPSS.

    Resultat Studien resulterade i medelhöga negativa korrelationskoefficienter erhölls mellan variablerna 1RM i benböj och 30 meter barmarkssprint (r= -0,548). Ett svagt positivt samband hittades mellan variablerna 1RM och sprint på is (r = 0,164). Det fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan de två variablerna och med 95 procent säkerhet skiljer sig minst ett av medelvärdena ifrån de andra på ett sätt som inte beror på slumpen. På T-testet var Sig.värdet 0,000 på samtliga parametrar samt differensen i medelvärdet översteg 0,050 vilket gör att det inte går att dra någon slutsats över en större population.

    Slutsats Med vår studie kunde vi se ett starkare samband mellan testpersonernas prestation i sprinten på barmark och ett maximalt lyft i benböj (r = -0,548) än vad vi kunde se mellan resultaten i sprint på is och benböjen (r = 0,164)

  • Bodén, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cykelintervaller som kompletterande träning för handbollsspelare på U16-nivå.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar Syftet med studien var att undersöka effekten av cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning för att förbättra prestationsförmågan hos manliga ungdomsspelare på elitnivå. Den frågeställning studien svarat på är om cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning har några effekter på den specifika prestationsförmågan.

    Metod En kvantitativ experimentell studie genomfördes med 13 manliga ungdomsspelare (fp) i handboll. Under 3 veckor fick fp genomföra cykelintervaller som komplement till ordinarie träning 2 gånger i veckan. Effekten av träningen kontrollerades genom förtest och eftertest där fp:s aeroba förmåga (Yo-Yo IR L1), anaeroba kapacitet (150 m shuttle run) samt anaeroba effekt (CMJ) testades. Utifrån resultaten vid förtesterna delades fp in i antingen cykelgrupp (CG) eller kontrollgrupp (KG). Indelning gjordes genom matchning av fp:s profil följt av lottning. CG genomförde 2 olika intervalltyper, 4 min intervaller och 30 sekunders intervaller med ökat antal set över tid. Efter 3 veckor, totalt 6 träningspass, fick samtliga fp återigen genomföra tester med identiskt testförfarande. Genom detta kunde skillnader i utveckling av delkapaciteter relevanta för handboll mellan grupperna utvärderas.

    Resultat CG förbättrade signifikant både sitt Yo-Yo IR L1 resultat (p≤0,05) samt resultatet i de tre 150 m shuttle run mätningarna (löpning 1, p=0,03; löpning 2, p<0,001; differens löpning 1 och 2, p<0,001). KG hade ingen förbättring i Yo-Yo IR L1 och bara en signifikant trend till förbättring i löpning 2 i 150 m shuttle run (p=0,08). Mellan grupperna förelåg dock inte några signifikanta skillnader. Det sågs ingen förändring i någon av grupperna vid eftertesterna av CMJ. 

    Slutsats Trots att CG förbättrade sig signifikant i såväl aeroba som anaeroba tester förelåg ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna vilket bland annat tros bero på för få fp samt för kort interventionstid. Resultatet indikerar dock att cykelträning kan vara av värde för handbollsspelare men vidare forskning på en större försöksgrupp och längre interventionstid behövs för att med säkerhet kunna dra några generella slutsatser gällande cykelträningens effektivitet för handbollsspelare.

  • Johansson, Alfred
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stenman, Mattias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En ungdomstränares interagerande med fotbollsspelare under träning: Ur ett motivations- och lärandeperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur en tränare i ett ungdomsakademilag bedrev fotbollsträning och interagerade med spelarna utifrån ett motivations- och inlärningsperspektiv. Detta ledde fram till följande frågeställningar:

    • Utifrån Self-Determination Theory, var tränaren i sitt interagerande med spelarna övervägande autonomistödjande eller kontrollerande?
    • Utifrån Achievement Goal Theory, var tränaren i sitt interagerande med spelarna övervägande uppgiftsorienterad eller ego-orienterad?
    • Hur stor del av fotbollsträningen var isolerad kontra funktionell?

    Metod

    I studien deltog en tränare för ett akademilag i fotboll. Tränaren var 30 år gammal och hade en avslutad kandidatexamen i idrott samt var innehavare av UEFA Advanced Level Diploma. Tränaren videofilmades och observerades i efterhand utifrån ACT (Assessment of Coaching Tone). Omfånget var 5 träningspass och tiden i isolerade kontra funktionella övningar klockades.

    Resultat

    Tränarens interageranden var 11% Autonomy supportive, 37% Neutral och 52% Controlling. Evaluation related feedback var 22% Mastery-oriented, 32% Neutral och 46% Ego-oriented.

    Övningsformerna var till 95% funktionellt uppbyggda och till 5% isolerade.

    Slutsats

    Utifrån Assessment of Coaching Tone verkar tränaren i sina interageranden med spelarna vara övervägande kontrollerande samt skapa ett resultatorienterat motivationsklimat. Utifrån Self-Determination Theory och Achievement Goal Theory försvårar sannolikt dessa interageranden spelarnas möjlighet att utveckla självbestämmande motivation. Övningsformerna är i hög grad funktionella vilket sannolikt ökar chansen för att spelarna kan utveckla en perceptuell-kognitiv förmåga som krävs för att nå elitnivå.

  • Hellqvist, Kim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Enström, Max
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Det kan vara bra men ändå tekniskt dåligt det är det som gör det svårt i bedömningen”: en studie om hur utbildade lärare bedömer praktiska färdigheter i specialidrott på NIU2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate and increase knowledge, and gain a deeper understanding of assessment in special sports.

    Questions: 

    1: How does educated teachers who teach in special sports at NIU assesses practical skills in handball and football? 

    2: How familiar and to what extent do educated teachers in special sport use assessment guides and topic plan?

     Method

    The study used a qualitative approach in the form of interviews. The interviews were conducted by a semi-structured interview guide. A total of six people were interviewed in the study. The data were processed and interpreted by two theoretical points, curriculum theory and Bourdieu's theory and the related concepts used to each theory.

    Results

    The results show that teachers are familiar with the curriculum, but think that it is unclear and vague. The teachers have read the assessment supports but does not use them. Further, it discusses the teachers on continuous assessment, and that is something all teachers working with. The teachers base their assessment of student achievement, but the teachers also mentions that the main purpose of the special physical education is that students should be given the opportunity to develop into that great athletes as possible in their sport.

    Conclusions

    The first conclusion is that teachers at NIU do not use assessment supports the extent of schooling certainly had hoped for, and in the sense pins assessment support its purpose. The second conclusion is that the assessment is ongoing and that the assessment is based on student performance. Students will have the opportunity to develop and are given feedback by the ongoing assessment, but the assessment is based on the results students are performing in their sport. 

  • Torrejón Egaña, Antonio
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lomani, Juma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Uppvärmningens betydelse för den upplevda prestationen: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie av två olika former av fotbollsuppvärmning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra två olika fotbollsuppvärmningar och hur de gynnar den upplevda prestationen. Studien har utgått från följande frågeställning:

    1. Gynnas den upplevda prestationen mest av traditionell uppvärmning med tre faser eller en uppvärmningsform som innehåller smålagsspel?

    Metod

    För att besvara frågeställningen har en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie med hjälp av enkätundersökning använts. Två olika uppvärmningsformer jämfördes utifrån trötthet, uppvärmningens innehåll, mental förberedelse och duration. Den ena uppvärmningsformen hade en längd på 15 minuter och bestod av en allmän del på sex minuter följd av smålagspel på nio aktiva minuter. Den andra uppvärmningsformen bestod av tre olika faser, aktiveringsfas, dynamisk rörlighet och grenspecifik fas. Denna uppvärmningsform pågick under 20 minuter och tiden fördelades jämt över de tre faserna.

    Resultat

    Studien visade på en positiv signifikant skillnad gällande durationen, dock upptäcktes ingen signifikant skillnad gällande trötthet, uppvärmningsinnehåll eller mentalförberedelse.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen som kan dras av denna studie är att en traditionell uppvärmningsform på 20 minuter inte ger en signifikant bättre upplevd prestationseffekt jämfört med en uppvärmningsform på 15 minuter innehållande smålagsspel. Även tidigare studier Chaáre et al. (2015) och Tillar & Heimburg (2016) har visat liknande resultat. Dessa resultat var dock baserade på mätning av den fysiska prestationen som sprint och hopphöjd och inte den upplevda prestationen. Vår studie tyder på att 15 minuters uppvärmning är fördelaktig då de resterande fem minuter kan användas för träna andra taktiska eller tekniska färdigheter och således inte slösa bort träningstiden (ibid).

  • Carlström, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Modiér, Matilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Den som man har en relation med, den bråkar man inte med": en kvalitativ studie om idrott- och hälsalärares syn på konflikter och konflikthantering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate physical education teachers’ views on conflicts and conflict resolution work in elementary school. The focus is on conflicts between teachers and student.

    • How do teachers experience conflicts between themselves and students?
    • Are any prevention strategies used? If so, how?
    • Do teachers use any strategies in particular for conflict resolutions? If so, which ones? 
    • Are any follow-ups used when conflicts have occurred? If so, how?

    Qualitative and semi-structured interviews were used to answer the aim and research questions for this study. The sample was conducted in two ways: through a strategic convenient sample and a bound random sample. Six physical education teachers in the Stockholm region were interviewed. The result analysis was conducted through a thematical analysis, and the results have as well been correlated to Cohen’s conflict pyramid.

    The interviewed teachers experienced a rare number of conflicts with students. The majority of the teachers used methods to prevent the occurrence of conflicts. The most commonly used procedures were collaboration amongst colleagues and efficient leadership. Plenty of strategies for conflict resolution were used by the teachers, where communication, mediation and relationship creation were the most occurring. Conflict follow-ups were rarely utilized by the teachers. However, when used, it was through individual conversations with the student, the care-taker or through collegial follow-ups.

    The study shows that the teachers’ views on conflict are partly divided, where the negative interpretation dominated. In spite of the negative view, the greater part of the teachers perceived their conflict strategies as constructive. The teachers’ views on conflict resolution methods, corresponds well with the order of precedence of the levels in Cohen’s conflict pyramid. 

  • Berggren, André
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Serrander, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Vad gör du nu?”: En studie om hur lärare i idrott och hälsa arbetar med formativ bedömning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to, from a cultural perspective, investigate if and how four highschool teachers in physical education use formative assessment in their teaching. The studyalso aims to determine factors that promotes and prevents the use of formative assessment.

    1) How does the purpose of the lesson present itself, and in which way is it related tolearning?

    2) When, and in what way does the teacher use any of the five key strategies within formativeassessment?

    3) What factors promotes the use of formative assessment?

    Method

    A qualitative study was implemented by observing the video recorded footage of four highschools physical education teachers from four different schools. During the observations thefive key strategies within formative assessemnt were used for data analysis. The observationsmade visible how the teachers work with formative assessment in their teaching.

    Results

    The observations showed that the teaching from a learning point of view is not as meaningful,if the teachers do not clarify the learning objectives for them. The teachers make the purposeclear in different ways, either at the beginning of the lesson, during the lesson, at the end ofthe lesson or not at all. The results also showed that teachers do not use formative assessmentconsciously. This leads to the situations, when teachers use some of the key strategies informative assessment, occurs sporadically and occasionally during lessons. It was alsoestablished that key factors that promote the use of formative assessment is that the teacherhas a purpose with the lesson that is made clear to the students, the lesson structure, thestudents become active in their own learning and how grouping takes place.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion of the study is that teachers do not consciously use formative assessment intheir teaching. Though it occurred that they subconsciously included some parts of theformative assessment.When they unintentionally used formative assessment it occurred that the lessons was moremeaningful for the students and the learning situations occurred more frequently.

  • Tiainen, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Upplevd ansträngning under fysisk aktivitet: Påverkan av en lågkolhydratdiet2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Aim

    Currently, the carbohydrate-restricted diet is a very popular method to achieve weight loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a low carbohydrate diet on perceived exertion during exercise compared to a high carbohydrate diet. The questions were: Are the ratings of perceived exertion during exercise higher after practicing a low carbohydrate diet compared to a high carbohydrate diet? Can any differences be observed in perceived exertion on Borg’s RPE-scale and CR 100 scale? Can any differences be observed in heart rate, blood glucose and blood lactate? It was hypothesized that perceived exertion during exercise would be higher after practicing a low carbohydrate diet.

    Method

    Six subjects performed a 45-minute cycling exercise at 60-65 % of maximal heart rate after consuming a non-carbohydrate-restricted diet for four days. The cycling exercise was repeated after consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet for the four nest days. During both tests perceived exertion and heart rate where registered. Blood glucose and blood lactate were measured in capillary blood samples.

    Results

    The participant’s intakes of carbohydrates were significant lower during the second phase of the study. Blood glucose was also significant lower during the second test. Ratings of perceived exertion were not significantly different between the two tests; neither were there any significant differences in heart rate or blood lactate.

    Conclusions

    A carbohydrate-restricted diet (87 grams of carbohydrates a day) has no significant effect on perceived exertion during a 45-min cycling exercise at 60-65 % of maximal heart rate. The findings cannot comment on the effects of eating fewer carbohydrates, for example 20-30 grams per day according to Atkin’s, or performing the cycling exercise at a higher intensity, on perceived exertion. 

  • Lutula, Antonio
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorvaldsson, Kevin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur utförs ett step-test i simning med hög reliabilitet?: En kvantitativ studie som fördjupar sig i Pansolds step-testprotokoll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka reliabiliteten i Pansolds step-testprotokoll i simning. Följandefrågeställningar har använts i denna uppsats:

    • Håller Pansolds step-testprotokoll hög reliabilitet gällande erhållen laktattröskel?
    • Håller Pansolds step-testprotokoll hög reliabilitet gällande uppmätt simtid?
    • Skiljer sig den digitala- och analoga mätningen av hjärtfrekvensen?
    • Hur väl kan simmare kontrollera sin hastighet utifrån uppsatta måltider?

    Metod

    Försökspersonerna var åtta till antalet, fyra män och fyra kvinnor i åldern 19,8 ± 3,6 år och innehavande av minst 650 FINA-poäng. Pansolds step-testprotokoll genomfördes i form av ett test-retest med 48 timmars mellanrum. Vid genomförandet av testet utfördes laktat- och hjärtfrekvensmätningar samt tidtagning av försökspersonerna. Variationen för laktattröskeln mellan de två testtillfällena analyserades för att undersöka testets reliabilitet. Försökspersonernas förmåga att kontrollera sin hastighet utifrån uppsatta måltider granskades. Hjärtfrekvensen mättes digitalt med Freelap Pro Coach samt analogt under tio sekunder för att undersöka om de två mätmetoderna genererade olika resultat.

    Resultat

    Det är en relativt stor differens i antal hjärtslag/minut mellan en analog och digital mätning av hjärtfrekvens då differensen låg på 8.86 slag. Av de sex försökspersoner som genomförde hela studien förbättrade fem sin förmåga att kontrollera sin hastighet utifrån uppsatta måltider. Alla försökspersoner uppvisade en variation i uppmätt laktattröskel mellan de två testen, med en beräknad variationskoefficient på 14.7%. Försökspersonernas CV% för tiden och uppsatta måltider var 4.0% vid test 1 och 3.3% vid test 2.

    Slutsats

    Pansolds step-testprotokoll bör standardiseras ytterligare då en god standardisering ökar möjligheten för reliabla testresultat. Vid utförandet av step-tester rekommenderas en digital mätning av hjärtfrekvensen eftersom att denna tros vara mest tillförlitlig. Reliabla resultat kan erhållas vid genomförandet av Pansolds step-testprotokoll. Testet ställer dock stora krav på simmares förmåga att kontrollera sin hastighet då detta tycks spela en avgörande roll i hur vida en reliabel laktattröskel kan uppmätas.

  • Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johnson, Urban
    Stenling, Andreas
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, 27-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

  • Emanuelsson, Rebecka
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är hopptester på mark relevant för konståkare?: Korrelation mellan maximala vertikalhopp på mark och tekniska hopp på is hos konståkare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan hopptiden på mark och hopptiden i det tekniska hoppet Flip på is för konståkare. Det sekundära syftet är att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan hopptiden i tekniska hopp på is och antal år i idrotten samt ålder.

    • Finns det en korrelation mellan countermovement jump med armar (CMJa) på mark och tekniska hoppet Flip på is hos konståkare?
    • Finns det en korrelation mellan hopptiden i Flip och antal år i idrotten samt ålder?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ metod användes för att få fram försökspersonernas hopptid på is och mark. 11 stycken konståkare medverkade i studien, 6 kvinnor och 5 män (20,9 ± 3,1 år). Försökspersonerna var skadefria, friska och hade fyllt 15 år. Ett krav för deltagande var att försökspersonerna utövat idrotten i minst åtta år samt att de kunde utföra en enkel Flip. Vid själva testtillfället fick försökspersonerna börja med att utföra tre stycken enkel Flip på is medan deras hopp filmades. Försökspersonerna fick sedan utföra tre stycken CMJ(a) där deras hopptid registrerades med hjälp av Ivarjump system.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar på att det inte finns något samband i hopptiden mellan CMJ(a) och Flip(r = 0,17, p= 0,602 ). Det fanns inte heller något samband mellan hopptiden i Flip och ålder. Däremot påvisar resultatet att det finns en korrelation mellan hopptiden i Flip och antal år i idrotten (r = 0,821, p = 0,02).

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen med studien är att det inte finns något samband mellan hopptid på mark och på is. Forskningsläget är fortfarande relativt litet område och fler studier behöver göras. Flertal studier menar att maximalstyrka i ben korrelerar med hopphöjden på mark men eftersom det inte finns en korrelation mellan hopptiden på mark och is behöver det göras mer studier som undersöker sambandet mellan maximalstyrka och hopptid på is. Resultatet visade även på att sambandet mellan antal år i idrotten (erfarenhet) och hopphöjd på is var stor. De tekniska färdigheterna verkar vara den dominerande faktorn för att kunna utnyttja benstyrkan i hoppen

  • Hansson, Herman
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Nicklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftsliv i närmiljö: En kvalitativ studie om lärares möjligheter att undervisa i friluftsliv i en innerstadsskola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyze and discuss how physical education teachers in high school working in inner city areas in Stockholm experience possibilities to teach in outdoor education. The questions that are answered in this study are: How does the teachers relate to the core content for outdoor education in physical education for high school? As well as: What factors affect how outdoor education is designed?

    Method

    The study was conducted with qualitative interviews from five teachers in physical education in high school, all interviewed teachers are working in schools that are located in the center of Stockholm, all teachers follow the Swedish curriculum. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The questions in the interview guide addressed three areas, background issues, questions about how various factors affect outdoor education and issues concerning the approach that teachers have regarding five selected points from the curriculum of sport and health. The collected empirical data has been analyzed based on the curriculum of different arenas and frame factor theory.

    Results

    All teachers included the selected paragraphs from the central content in their outdoor education. Methods and choice of activities in outdoor education, however, differs among teachers. Different frame factors such as time, economy, cooperation, school location and size of group are the factors that have the greatest impact on how outdoor education is affected. These frame factors often have a negative impact, but described in some cases also lead to a positive impact on teaching.

    Conclusions

    The interviewed teachers carry out most of their outdoor education in the school area. The teachers interpret the concept of outdoor education and core content in different ways. This results in that the teachers selection of activities in some cases differ from each other. Frame factors that are affecting education are interdependent because there is often more than one of these factors that have their impact on the planning and implementation of lessons. 

  • Holm, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belin, Klas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    I den mån man kan försöker man individanpassa undervisningen: en studie om särskild begåvning i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to examine how teachers look for exceptionally gifted students in physical education and how the teachers work to develop them based on their qualities. The essay asks these questions:

    1. How do teachers define the concept of especially gifted pupils in physical education?
    2. How to teachers develop especially gifted students in physical education?

    Method: The method used is a qualitative interview method, six secondary school teachers in Stockholm were interviewed and the interviews were recorded and the teacher's statements were classified. The interviews were semi-structured with fully formulated main issues which were followed by supplementary questions.

    Results: Based on our interviews, we found that teachers have an uncertainty about the concept especially gifted and for that reason find it difficult to define what such a student is. Teachers define especially gifted pupils in physical education and health in four ways.

    1. An academically gifted pupil who is especially good in the theoretical part of the subject.
    2. A student which is particularly gifted in a specific branch or sport, such as soccer or dance.
    3. A pupil which is particularly gifted in all practical part which are performed in the subject.
    4. A particularly gifted student in the theoretical part as well as all the practical parts of the subject.

    Teacher's way to work with particularly gifted students are usually by giving them an extra teaching role in education. Another finding was that most teachers focus their feedback to the students who need help to cope with the subject that is not the particularly gifted ones

    Conclusions: The research and the interviewed teachers testify that there are several definitions of what a particularly gifted pupil can be defined as. There is no common approach to developing especially gifted pupils in physical education, however, there was a recurring response among the interviews that these students acted as assistant teachers in some classes.

  • Dahlström, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intresse för liv i rörelse: En studie av ungdomars motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiva och motiv att inte vara fysiskt aktiva2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och Frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka gymnasieungdomars motiv i form av motivområden för att vara fysiskt aktiva respektive för att inte vara fysiskt aktiva.

    Frågeställningarna var: (1) Vilka motivområden har stark anknytning till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv och (2) Finns det någon signifikant könsskillnad i något av motivområdena?

    Metod

    105 ungdomar (47 flickor och 58 pojkar) i åldern 16-22 år från en gymnasieskola i västra Stockholmsområdet besvarade två enkäter med påståenden om motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv. Motiven delades in i 11 motivområden och därefter genomfördes en deskriptiv analys i samband med elimineringen av extremvärden där man undersökte hur stark anknytning varje motivområde hade till att vara fysiskt aktiv respektive inte vara fysiskt aktiv. Ett Mann Whitney U test genomfördes för att undersöka om det fanns någon signifikant könsskillnad (p=0,05).

    Resultat

    Motivområdena Välbefinnande kortsiktigt, Välbefinnande långsiktigt, och Lugnande motiv hade stark anknytning till att vara fysiskt aktiv. Även om det inte förekom någon stark anknytning i något av motivområdena till att inte vara fysiskt aktiv, så hade Tidsrelaterade motiv starkast anknytning för både flickor och pojkar. Resultatet visade även att Tävlingsmotiv var ett starkare motiv för pojkarna än flickorna för att vara fysiskt aktiv (p=0.003) samt att Hälsorisker som motiv var ett starkare motiv för flickorna än pojkarna (p=0,041) för att inte vara fysiskt aktiv.

    Slutsats

    Resultatet i den här undersökningen gav indikationer att vissa motiv kan påverka varför gymnasieungdomar är fysiskt aktiva samt varför de inte är fysiskt aktiva, men resultaten löper stor risk för att bero på slumpen på grund av massignifikansproblematiken. Motiv till att inte vara fysiskt aktiv hade i samtliga fall lägre medianvärden än motiv till att vara fysiskt aktiv.

  • Björkman, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nordström, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hopp om högt betyg: En kvantitativ studie om elevuppskattade fysiska förmågors betydelse för slutbetyget i idrott och hälsa årskurs 92017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to establish whether the four self-rated quantifiable attributes speed, elasticity, strength and endurance correlate with the acquired grade for physical education in year 9 in the Swedish school. The following questions were predominant: Is the data from the self-formulated questions consistent with data from the CY-PSPP form? Is there a correlation to be found between any or some of the self-rated four attributes and the grade in physical education? Is there any difference between the above-mentioned self-rated physical abilities in how they correlate with the grade in physical education?

     

    Method

    The data presented in the study is based on answers from surveys from 233 high school students in Stockholm. The survey is constructed partly by the CY-PSPP method and partly from self-formulated questions. Data was processed in excel and the statistical program SPSS, where Spearman-correlations were calculated. The CY-PSPP variables were compared to variable data from self-formulated questions.

     

    Results

    The result of the comparison between the CY-PSPP form and the self-formulated questions show evident correlation. Based on the student answers, elasticity was the attribute that showed strongest correlation toward the grade, closely followed by speed and endurance. The strength attribute correlated significantly less with the grade than the other attributes. 

     

    Conclusions

    Data from the survey display a positive correlations between all of the attributes and grades in physical education. Anchored in Bourdieu’s terminology, it is hard to decide whether the attribute endurance can be ascribed to be a capital with respect to the grade in physical education, meanwhile, the attribute strength show few signs of being a capital in that sense. Some suggest that speed and elasticity to a wider extent than endurance can be regarded as a capital for high grades. 

  • Rundbom, Julia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Zetterström, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Det är det tjejerna vill ha": En studie om hur lärare arbetar med att bryta traditionella könsmönster2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and research questions: Research shows that there are still clear traditional gender patterns in physical education and teachers find it difficult to perceive and break them. The aim with the study is therefor to examine how teachers can work with breaking traditional gender patterns in physical education. The research questions are:

    • How do teachers in physical education perceive that traditional gender patterns are expressed during teaching?
    • What difficulties, from the teachers’ point of view, are there with breaking traditional gender patterns?
    • What tools do teachers use for breaking traditional gender patterns in physical education?

    Method: Three teachers have taken part in our study. We chose to do a qualitative study where three teachers were interviewed and two of them were observed. We observed the two teachers during three lessons each.

    Results: The teachers think that traditional gender patterns are being expressed for example through language, groupings and experiences from physical education. The teachers also expressed difficulties with breaking traditional gender patterns while teaching, e.g. that the time is not enough and that teachers don't have enough knowledge in terms of gender-related issues. The teachers consider that it is important to discuss gender-related issues. They believe that teachers should base the education on what the curriculum actually says. This means that teachers largely should abandon the traditional sports, and dare to challenge the traditional gender patterns that exist.  

    Conclusions: Teachers should work in a way that neutralizes the education, which means that teachers should abandon the traditional sports, focus more on health and create a good work- and dialogue climate where the students feel safe and dare to be themselves.  

  • Lauri, Julia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Stina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Om man själv inte tycker dans är roligt så är det svårt, eller så får man vara en bra skådespelare”: en didaktisk studie om hur lärare arbetar med dans i idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how teachers in secondary school work with dance in physical education and which didactic challenges of teaching that appear. The following three questions will help to answer the study’s aim.

    • What and why do teachers choose a specific content in dance?
    • How do teachers work with dance?
    • Which didactic challenges do teachers face in dance practice?

    Method

    We have used a qualitative method to be able to answer our aim and questions. Therefore, we have chosen to interview seven physical education teachers who work with dance in secondary school. We used a selection method called the snowball effect. The interview guide had semi structured interview questions to be able to control the conversation with eventually follow-up questions.

     

    Results

    The study shows that teachers have used the cultural form of dance most of the time, mainly traditional Swedish folk dances, such as “Bugg” and “Waltz”. The teachers felt that they had to motivate more in dancing compared to other fields in the subject, because of old gender stereotypes and norms. The teacher’s interest for dancing, in combination with the student influence and individual adjustment and digital instruments, are important parts to be able to motivate the students for dance practice. The study shows the learning links together with the teachers’ assessment of the students and therefore the students’ grade got in focus instead of the specific learning. The teachers in our study pointed out that it’s in the interaction between teachers and students, and between students where the ability for learning increase the most.

     

    Conclusions

    The teachers didactic challenges are motivation and driving force for how they choose to work and which content they use in practice. The cultural dance form premiers in practice, while the expressive dance form barely exist based on the subject’s traditions. The teacher needs to be both positive and flexible. Student influence, individual adjustment and digital instruments are leading factors how to motivate students and therefore promote learnings. The learning is interpreted through students’ grades. The learning object is presented as unclear for both teachers and students. 

  • Hellström, John S
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Sportens celebriteter: Björn Borg och Ingemar Stenmark i svensk press2017In: Celebritetsskapande från Strindberg till Asllani / [ed] Torbjörn Forslid, Patrik Lundell, Anders Ohlsson, Tobias Olsson, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2017, 157-173 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Emil, Wallberg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Formativ Bedömning: En intervjustudie på hur och när lärare i idrott och hälsa bedömer formativt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers in physical education apply a formative assessment. We want from using two of the didactic questions "when" and "how" examine how physical education teacher use formative assessment, in the course "Idrott och hälsa 1" in upper secondary school, which includes 100 points. The following questions should help to answer the question:

    • When do teachers apply formative assessment in physical education?
    • How do teacher apply formative assessment in physical education?

    Method

    The object of study was investigated through interviewing teachers in physical education in upper secondary school, we conducted both individual interviews and group interviews. We sent mail to the 30th century, upper secondary school and received the reply of six teachers of physical education who we interviewed.

    Results

    What we can observe through the this study is that all the teachers who participated have a common understanding of formative assessment, formative assessment is a continuous process. The teachers in the study apply the formative assessment in everyday teaching through various methods such as feedback, reflection, self-assessment and peer assessment. In the formative assessment it is the application of feedback and individual development which is most important.

    Conclusions

    Several teachers suggest that the use of the formative assessment is the assessment method that works best in physical education. The teachers believe that it is the development and how students apply the knowledge is most important in the assessment. Something that is common to the interviewed teachers is that it is important that the purpose of lessons is clear to the students, this helps students take responsibility for their own learning.

  • Lindlöf, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Spejare, Aron
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Styrka, snabbhet och hoppförmåga: En korrelationsstudie på elitidrottande män och kvinnor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sprint ability and different types of strength and jump tests. To meet purpose the following questions were formulated: How does the acceleration sequence in sprint relate to strength tests? How does the acceleration sequence in sprint relate to jump tests? How does the maximum speed sequence in sprint relate to strength tests? How does the maximum speed sequence in sprint relate to jump tests?

    Method

    In total, 24 subjects participated in this study consisting of both women (n=21, age 21,5 ±2,5, height 170,3 ±6,3 cm, weight 68,5 ±6,3 kg) and men (n=3, age 18,7 ±0,2, height 177,3 ±4,9 cm, weight 72 ±9,0 kg). The participants represented the highest national level of their respective sports which were handball, team gymnastics and ice hockey. This study applied a quantitative method through a cross sectional analysis to determine the relationship between the acceleration (0-10 m) and maximum speed (20-30 m) phase in sprint with four different strength and jump test (1RM Squat, Squat Jump, CMJ and Standing Long Jump). Raw data was analyzed in the statistical analysis software SPSS where the Pearson’s correlation was applied to determine the relationships.

    Results

    All the aforementioned strength and jump tests showed a moderate statistically significant correlation with the maximum speed phase (20-30 m) during sprint, where the strongest correlation existed between Standing Long Jump and the maximum speed phase (r=-0,66, p=0,001). The acceleration phase (0-10 m) showed little to no statistically significant correlation to any of the strength or jump tests.

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that horizontal jumping can indicate an ability to generate maximum speed in sprint running. Therefore Standing Long Jump might offer an efficient alternative to gauge horizontal power in terms of sprint running at maximum speed. With the heterogeneous test population in mind, Standing Long Jump may be applied in conditions where testing of multiple athletes is required. Especially in team sports where different positional roles and tasks represent varying physical abilities or demands.

  • Ryhed, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Syreupptagningsförmåga vid fem-minuterspyramidtest gentemot maximalt test på löpband: en valideringsstudie hos äldre och yngre vuxna2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of the study was to investigate the results and correlation between oxygen uptake levels (VO2max) at five-minute pyramid test (5MPT) against maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2max) on a treadmill test, both measured by direct oxygen measurement, in elderly people over 65 years and younger adults aged 20-30 years.

    Method. A total of 36 people participated in the study, 17 elderly people aged between 65 to 85 years (9 women and 8 men) and 19 younger adults aged between 20 to 35 years (10 women and 9 men). The participants' oxygen uptake was measured twice during 5MPT and then compared with VO2max measured by a maximal treadmill test at one occasion. Thus a total of three measurements with direct oxygen measurement, via the breathing mask, during a maximum treadmill test and two separate tests of 5MPT with at least 48 hours between each test. The exhaled air was analyzed at 5MPT for all, through the wireless portable system Jaeger Oxycon Mobile and also during the test on treadmill for the test group with younger participants. The test group of older participants, got their exhaled air analyzed through a stationary on-line equipment Jaeger Oxycon Pro instead of the portable system which is a similar reliable method to measure VO2max. 5MPT is a five minute test where the subjects from floor level, with the highest possible speed, moves back and forth at a measured distance of 5.50 meter with a central staircase ramp, which is pyramid-shaped, with a maximum center height of 0.62 meters.

    Results. The main finding of the study was that there was a strong significant correlation (r = 0.99) between directly measured VO2max during a maximum treadmill test compared to oxygen uptake at 5MPT when both the elderly people and the younger adults were combined, measured in l·min–1.

    Conclusion. The study showed a strong significant correlation between directly measured VO2max at 5MPT and a maximal treadmill testing l·min–1 for older and younger adults. This indicates that 5MPT can be used as a reliable method for investigation and monitoring a person’s aerobic capacity. This finding may be of value because it shows that less expensive and easier methods can be used to measure a person's health in terms of aerobic capacity, which is important from several aspects of health at both the individual and society level.

  • Alfredsson, Tim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Selin, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Off-ice tester för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice: En korrelationsstudie av olika upprepade sprinttester2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka korrelationen mellan cykeltestet "repeated 5 second cycling sprint test" (R5sCST) samt off-ice testet 36 meter upprepade sprinter (OfI) mot on-ice testet 33 meter upprepade sprinter (OnI). Samtidigt vill vi se om R5sCST kan utvärdera skridskosnabbhet samt undersöka om OfI kan användas som en alternativ testmetod med samma syfte.

    De frågeställningar vi besvarar är,

    – Finns det en korrelation mellan R5sCST och OnI?

    - Finns det en korrelation mellan OfI och OnI?

    – Är R5sCST och OfI relevanta testmetoder för att utvärdera förmågan till upprepade sprinter on-ice?

    - Finns det andra testvärden som kan förutse snabbhet on-ice?

    Metod

    3 tester har genomförts, ett cykeltest (R5sCST), ett on-ice test (OnI) och ett off-ice test (OfI).

    Testerna genomfördes på Bosön och i Björkängshallen vid två olika tillfällen, det var 2 dagar mellan testtillfällena. Testtillfälle 1 genomfördes R5sCST och OfI på Bosön, testtillfälle 2 genomfördes OnI i Björkängshallen. 18 stycken ishockeyspelare på junior elitnivå testades.

    Försökspersonerna (FP) var mellan 16 och 18 år gamla och har en idrottslig bakgrund inom ishockey som motsvarar 11-13 år.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att såväl medelvärdena samt de högst uppmätta effekt värdena hos varje FP från R5sCST testet korrelerar med medel- och högsta värden på OnI. Studien visar även en starkare korrelation mellan OfI och OnI.

    Slutsats

    Efter genomförd studie kan det konstateras att R5sCST, trots att det inte efterliknar ishockeyns krav fullt ut i arbetstid/vilotid, är ett reliabelt test för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice. Det framkommer även i studien att OfI har större korrelationer till OnI än vad R5sCST har, vilket innebär att även OfI är ett högst reliabelt test för att utvärdera snabbhet on-ice. Förutom större korrelationer så är även OfI mer lämpat för lag och föreningar att använda sig av då det är enklare att utföra och mindre kostsamt än R5sCST.

  • Holmqvist, Fernando
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Desport, Samuel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Olikheter i en likvärdig uttagning?: En analys av hur NIU-skolor förhåller sig till relativ ålderseffekt vid uttagningsprocessen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study is to examine how five teachers view talentidentification, how they execute the tryout process to elite academy schools and also how they relate to relative age effect(RAE) in the tryout process. The questions being answered in this study are: 1. How do the teachers view talentidentification? 2. How is the tryout process being performed and what difficulties do the teachers experience with the tryout process? 3. What knowledge do the teachers have in regards to RAE and how do they relate to RAE during the tryout process? Method The method being used is qualitative and is executed by performing semi-structured interviews. The purpose of our interviews is to examine how the teachers experience the tryout process and their approach when working with RAE. The reason for the explorative nature is because we have an area to survey and also gather deeper information about, in this case, RAE in relationship to the tryout process to elite academy schools. The selection consisted of five teachers (teacher 1, teacher 2, teacher 3, teacher 4 and teacher 5) that all had different experiences of working as a teacher and with elite academy school.

    Results The result showed that there are differences among teachers involved in individual sports in relation to teachers working with team sports, in regards to what kind of attributes a talent should possess. For the teachers, teacher 3 and teacher 4, which represented individual sports it appeared that sport specific knowledge was most important when identifying a talent. This identification can be performed at an early age. Teacher 1, 2 and 5 which represented team sports stressed the importance of the psychological skills that a talent must possess, in order to be identified as a talent. The result also showed that the tryouts is an equivocal process where the tryouts is executed differently depending on the sport and in some cases which school. In regards to difficulties with the tryout process and what the teachers valued similar responses were received. All teachers described the fear of eliminating someone who could possibly develop late and they all valued attributes as drive and dedication. All teachers also mention that they do not take RAE in consideration during the tryout process. Teachers 2 and 5 mention taking the physical development into consideration during the tryout process, however not which month a student applying is born.

    Conclusions This study brings up a problem that is very current due to the equivocality which is present during the tryout process to elite academy schools. The study also showed that the teachers had different opinions in regards to what talent is and how to identify it. The result showed that RAE is a rife phenomenon however it is not being taking into consideration during the tryout process to elite academy schools.     

  • Skogberg, Robira
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tjernström, Olivia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jag kan inte delta, jag har mens: en kvalitativ studie om hur lärare hanterar elever som väljer att inte delta på lektioner i idrott och hälsa på grund av menstruationsrelaterade orsaker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to examine how teachers in physical education manage students who choose to not participate in class because of menstruation-related causes. The study will answer the following questions.

    1. How do teachers react when the students announce that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?
    2. How do teachers communicate with students who announce that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?
    3. How do teachers act when the students have announced that they will not attend because of menstruation-related causes?

    In order to answer the questions, nine teachers in physical education at different upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, were chosen to conduct qualitative interviews with. The respondents were three men and six women.

    The teachers in the study stated that students inform them about their menstruation differently; some are more forthright and others approach the teachers more cautiously and whisper it to them. Common reactions among the interviewed teachers were either to act neutral or evaluate the student's credibility. What the teacher responds the student varies from relating to herself, respond with facts or just answer "okay". How the teacher act in this situation differs among the respondents. A common action was to try to get students involved in regular education in any way. Others sent the student for a walk or to the gym, but it was also common to give the student a theoretical task. One teacher also highlighted that the student has to sit on the side and learn the content from the bench.

    All teachers reported that they had no difficulties to handle the situation, but an interesting response was that they lack education in the area and want to have more knowledge. The conclusion is that there are several ways to deal with a student who does not want to attend classes because of menstruation-related causes. As a teacher in physical education, more education about menstruation and exercise is desired and this requires more research! 

  • Glas, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tekniska fel i handboll: Analys av svensk och dansk herr-elithandboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om tekniska fel har potentiell påverkan på framgång i handboll. Studiens frågeställningar var (1) Hur ser ett eventuellt samband ut mellan ett lags antal tekniska fel under en säsong och dess slutplacering i serietabellen? och (2) Vilken inverkan har ett lags aeroba förmåga på dess antal tekniska fel?

    Metod

    För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning så delades studien upp i två delar. Första delen ämnar besvara huruvida ett lags antal tekniska fel inverkar på ett lags slutplacering i serietabellen. För att besvara den frågan inhämtades data från samtliga matcher och serietabeller i högsta serierna i Sverige (Elitserien) och Danmark (Boxerligan) under säsongerna 2011/12-2015/16.  För att besvara den andra frågeställningen rekryterades tre lag från Elitserien 2015/16 för genomförande av konditionstester.

    Resultat

    2011-16 var medelvärdet för tekniska fel/lag/match i Elitserien 11,8 ± 1,2 och i Boxerligan 11,4 ± 1,2. Missade passningar står för 40-45%, av alla tekniska fel, och närmare en fjärdedel av alla tekniska fel genererar ett mål till motståndaren inom 10 sekunder. För både Elitserien (BF=1,221e+22, p<0,001) och Boxerligan (BF=1,032e+10, p<0,001) var det ett väldigt starkt samband mellan antal tekniska fel och matchens utgång. Antal tekniska fel/lag/match var kopplat till lagets placering i både Elitserien (starkt stöd, BF=52, p<0,001) och i Boxerligan (väldigt starkt stöd, BF=2658, p<0,001). Sambandet mellan tekniska fel och lag som tog sig till slutspel mot de som inte gjorde det gav ett starkt stöd för Elitserien (BF=3,2, p<0,01) och ett mycket starkt stöd i Boxerligan (BF=87, p<0,001). Det lag som hade högst konditionsvärde hade lägst antal tekniska fel, men endast svagt stöd (BF=1,5) fanns för detta samband.

    Slutsats

    Slutplacering i Elitserien och Boxerligan har ett starkt samband med det antal tekniska fel ett lag förorsakar i match. Ju färre antal tekniska fel desto större chans att nå slutspel sett över åren 2011-2016. Det finns ett svagt samband som stöd för att kondition samvarierar med antal tekniska fel.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Reflektioner och tal vid Lingbal1990In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 1, 29-31 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Blomqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sköld, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag tycker det ser jättebra ut": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur lärare tolkar ett kunskapskrav och bedömer elevers rörelseutförande2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this paper is to see how physical education and health (PEH) teachers in year 7-9 interpreters one knowledge requirement and from that assess students movement capability.

    • How do teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement, The student can participate in games, play and sports that comprises complex movements to different environments and varies and adapts their movements to some part/relatively well/well to the activity and to the context?
    • How do teachers in PEH assess students movement capability in reference to the knowledge requirement above, by three film sequences?

    Method

    This is a qualitative interview study and there where six teachers in physical education and health in year 7-9 that participated. To answer the aim of this paper the interview was divided into different parts. One part focused on the first question, how teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement. The next part focused on, how teachers in PEH assess movement, by three film sequences. To get a deeper understanding of the teachers interpretation and assessment have the transformation arena been applied on the first question and the realisation arena been applied to the second question.

    Results

    The teachers interpreted complex movements and the word, to some part, relatively well and well, with a big variation. Some interpretations are in line with the Swedish National Agency for Education assessment template, but many are not. The teachers described and assessed the film sequences differently. The teachers have described the same movement performance similarly and then assessed them differently, they have described it differently and then assessed it the same and finally they have described and assessed it differently.

    Conclusions

    The teachers interpreter both same and different in the transformation and realisation arena. The teachers have a harder time describing the words in the transformation arena then in the realisation arena, when they can see different movements. The descriptions and assessments between teachers differ a lot. Because of this we need to develop a technical language, more tools and education around assessment.

  • Spång, Elias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Spring, vi har bollen!: En kvantitativ undersökning om sambandet mellan högintensiva löpningar och bollinnehav i svensk elitfotboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om det finns samband mellan högintensiva löpningar och bollinnehav inom svensk elitfotboll. Denna information är viktig för hur en tränare bör lägga upp spelarnas träning, behövs anaerob effekt eller aerob kapacitet mest och vad bör prioriteras? Det framgår även i studier (Evangelos et al. 2014) att det är gemensamt för flertalet framgångsrika lag att de har ett högre bollinnehav än motståndarna. Det är därmed viktigt att undersöka vad som har en inverkan i bollinnehavet. Flertalet studier (Konefal et al. 2015; Bradley et al. & Ribeiro Da Mota et al. 2015) har presenterat att antalet löpmeter inte har betydelse för bollinnehavet, men potentiellt kan intensiteten på löpningar vara av betydelse. Studiens frågeställningar är således; Hur ser sambandet mellan löpmeter över 5,5 m/s och totalt antal löpmeter? Springer laget fler totalt antal löpmeter samt fler högintensiva löpmeter över 5,5 m/s när laget har över 50 % av bollinnehavet? Hur många procent av totalt antal löpmeter springer spelarna över 5,5 m/s i de matcher där de har mest respektive minst bollinnehav?

    Metod

    Till studien rekryterades ett lag i Sveriges högsta serie, Allsvenskan. Insamlingen av information genomfördes under våren 2016. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med GPS, i denna data framgick löpmeter under matchen och högintensiva löpmeter under matchen. Bollinnehav och resultat i matcherna samlades in via svenska fotbollsförbundets officiella hemsida.

    Resultat

    Studien upptäckte en statistiskt signifikant korrelation mellan antalet löpmeter och antalet högintensiva löpmeter under en fotbollsmatch (p = 0,001; r = 0,889). Mellan bollinnehav och högintensiva löpmeter upptäcktes ingen signifikant korrelation (p = 0,809; r = -0, 096). Kategoriserat när laget hade över 50 % bollinnehav och under 50 % bollinnehav upptäcktes ingen statistiskt signifikants mellan kategorierna.

    Slutsats

    Sammantaget visar studien att antalet högintensiva löpmeter påverkas av totalt antal löpmeter men att högintensiva löpmeter inte ensamt har ett samband med bollinnehav. 

  • Borg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Alla ska vara med!: även muslimska kvinnor i simning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    Aim:

    To investigate participation of muslim women in swimming education in secondary school subject sports and health.

    Questions:

    • Which experiences do women with a muslim background have of swimming education?
    • What obstacles or possibilities do women with a muslim background have for participation in swimming education?

    Method

    The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews. The interviews where conducted on acquaintances of acquaintances, whom all where women with a muslim background. Subsequently, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on a theoretical model consisting of categories related to the two issues in this study. Previous research where also used in the same way, which highlighted the area of this study.

    Results

    The result indicated that our participants had a positive experience of their swimming classes. The biggest factor to this positive experience however where the schools ability to organize separate classes to those who could not participate in the common ones. When a school did not organize separate classes, our participants generally face two options. Either not to participate and risk not getting a grade, or to challenge their principles and participate anyway, which could lead to bad experiences.

    Conclusions

    Separate classes where the key to participation amongst the participants in our study. There where both obstacles and possibilities affecting the degree of which separate classes where necessary and the participants were divided on the topic of who were responsible to adapt in the situation.

  • Ekdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundell, Philip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Allt vi gjorde på gympan handlade om att vara bäst": En diskursanalytisk studie av storstadspressens framställningar av skolämnet idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the metropolitan press representations of Physical education during the period 1 July 2015 - 30 June 2016. We raised the following questions, in order to fulfill the aim of the study: 1) Which – and what kind of terms are produced in connection with Physical education in the metropolitan press in the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016? 2) Which discourses emerges from these terms and which connections emerge in comparison to previously identified discourses? 3) What connections can be identified from the discourses and the analyzed articles, in regard to the author's profession, the quoted/referenced persons, the type of article and the designation of the school subject

    The chosen method of the study was discourse analysis. The source material was obtained from a database that gathers all printed press in Sweden. The collection was made through the use of keywords consisting of different designations for Physical education. Metropolitan Press is a categorization consisting of newspapers based in Stockholm, Malmo and Gothenburg. The collection, selection and analysis procedure was structured on the basis of five steps of categorization. The final selection of the study was 63 articles. The Discourse Theory was combined with the Agenda Setting Theory, whose starting point is that the agenda of the media reflects the agenda of the public.

    Terms produced in correlation with Physical education included among others the prevention of diseases, the benefit for other school subjects, the content of physical activity and sports in the subject and the content of bullying and exclusion caused by the setup of the subject. Based on these terms, four discourses could be identified: the Discourse of Movement and Activity (consisting of five sub-discourses), the Discourse of Exclusion, the Discourse of Diet and Wellbeing and the Discourse of Safety. The Discourse of Movement and Activity is the most frequent and regular discourse. Sports is the most common designation for Physical education.

    The conclusions of the study are the following: the public prioritize students' movement and physical activity as the most important mission of the subject, the subject is not considered to be an educational subject, the activity of the subject is assumed to consist of sports and other competitive activities, the subject is assumed to contribute to a culture in which masculine norm prevails, the competitive activities are considered to reproduce this culture, the activity of the subject is considered to aim for the strengthening of the society. There is a discrepancy between public interpretation and the purpose of the curriculums.

  • Melin, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “För att må bra måste du äta en balanserad kost och röra på dig. Så enkelt är det.”: en diskursanalys av läromedelsböcker2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study set out to investigate how printed curriculum teaching materials depict health. The research questions are as follows: How is health described in the books? What perspectives on health do the books convey?

    Method

    Three (3) printed curriculum teaching books, based on the latest syllabus LGR/LGY11, were analysed from a critical discourse perspective. The identified discourses and perspectives were sorted, and then analysed using Antonovsky's health theory, but also Quennerstedt's elaboration on salutogenic and pathogenic health perspectives.

    Results

    All of the books were considered to retain, and convey, a pathogenic view on health. Some of the books displayed salutogenic approaches as well. The most conspicuous discourses appearing in the books were the stress-discourse and the physical activity-discourse. This may convey a one-sided picture of the books' content.

    Conclusions

    The most noticeable discourses appearing are the stress-discourse connected to psychological health and the physical activity-discourse. Regarding the perspectives on health, both salutogenic and pathogenic views appear where the dominating perspective is pathogenic. This is of relevance for practicing teachers, as they should scrutinise the materials used and provide different aspects and discussions where possible.

  • Gerby, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tuneld, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur är det att vara skadad truppgymnast?: En kvalitativ studie kring psykologiska faktorer i samband med rehabilitering och återgång till idrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda om det finns olika psykologiska faktorer som har påverkat och hjälpt i rehabiliteringen av en långvarig skada hos truppgymnaster. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de tiden som skadad ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv? samt Vad motiverar gymnasten att återgå till idrotten?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju elitgymnaster på hösta nationella nivå deltog i studien där alla hade varit skadade och borta från tävling minst 12 månader. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades. Analysen var deduktiv med self determination theory som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att kategorisera resultatet.                                                                                                   

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det som motiverar deltagarna att återgå till idrotten var de små framstegen, att rehabiliteringen ger resultat och att det går att utvecklas. Det hade även varit viktigt med socialt stöd under rehabiliteringen. Social support har bland annat kommit från tränare, lagkamrater, föräldrar och sjukgymnaster genom att de lyssnat, förklarat och försökt förstå den skadade. Under tiden som skadad har deltagarna i stor utsträckning förändrat sin syn på gymnastik på grund av skadan. De uppskattar idrotten mer och har fått en ökad förståelse. De känslor som deltagarna har tampats med mest med under tiden som skadad har varit frustration, ilska, bitterhet, vilsenhet, ångest, sorg, ledsamhet, oro, uppgivenhet och utanförskap.

    Slutsats

    Vad som hjälper en skadad idrottare att återgå till idrotten beror på individen. Det som visat sig gemensamt för flera av deltagarna har framförallt varit det sociala stödet, förmågan att kunna se de små framstegen i rehabiliteringen och att de identifierat sig med gymnastiken.

  • Åbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sharro, Jessy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag borde utnyttja deras kunskaper": En studie om lärares möte med nyanlända elever i undervisnigen i idrott och hälsa utifrån ett interkulturellt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of the study is to examine the challenges teachers in the subject sports and health is facing in their teaching with newly arrived students. To answer the aim of the study, we have chosen to be based on the following questions: How do teachers describe their work with newly-arrived student in the subject sports and health? -What educational tools do the teachers mention that they use in their work with newly arrived students? – What support do the teachers asks for in the work with newly arrived students?

    Method

    We have been collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews to examine teachers ' meeting with newly arrived students in the subject of sport and health. The selection has been strategically and consists of six physical education teachers who works with newly arrived students. The collected empirical data has been analyzed from an intercultural perspective using the analyses concepts normative, critical and innovative.

    Results

    The results shows that the teachers challenges is to mediate the subject's purpose, get the students to reflect, language difficulties, swimming and girls ' approach to sport and movement. Through educational tools, such as customization and alternative explanatory models do teachers make their teaching more comprehensible to students. All teacher mentions that they have not been prepared to teach newly arrived. They want a forum for exchange of experience with discussions between colleagues about the work of newly arrived students.

    Conclusions

    The challenges that the teachers testify is largely linked to the students ' past experiences and cultural values that permeate the school community both in Sweden and in the students' countries of origin. The teachers are positive and reflect an open-minded and curious approach to students ' diverse cultures. They are also try to use students ' experiences as teaching tools. There are examples of an intercultural approach in the teachers ' statements but in most cases teachers ' descriptions of their work methods stops at a depictions of cultural meetings.

  • Lessner, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Läroboken – en tillgång för paradigmskifte?: En kvalitativ diskursanalys av läroböcker i idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Research shows that questions about what, how and which knowledge should be taught in physical education appears unclear in practice. Previously identified discourses in the subject's practice is not always compatible with the knowledge of the mission. The purpose of this study is to analyze which discourses can be identified in the textbooks for the subject Physical Education, how the order of discourses manifests and the possible development of knowledge these discourses offer. Together it gives us an opportunity to discuss whether these textbooks are an appropriate tool to achieve change or if they reproduce traditional beliefs about the subject's character. To define the aim of this study we point out three questions to examine: Which subject discourses are expressed in the textbooks? How does the order of discourses in the textbooks looks like? What educational philosophical traditions can be linked to the identified discourses?

    The methodology of the study is discourse analysis. The empirical basis of the study consists of two textbooks which are published for 'idrott och hälsa 1 & 2'. An analyze scheme was designed to categorize the discourses expressed in the books. The initial processing of the material was made separately and then we came to a common interpretation framework of identified discourses. The subject discourses that are represented in the books were then analyzed based on regularity and relative dominance. Finally, the identified discourses were placed into education philosophical traditions to broaden the understanding of what type of knowledge the textbooks offer.

    The result shows that nine different subject discourses identified. These are: Activity discourse, (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse, risk discourse, nature meeting discourse, the moralizing discipline discourse, socio-cultural discourse, empowerment discourse and gender divisions discourse. The discourses that get the most space in both books are those we term as the (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse and risk discourse. These are placed into the essentialist philosophy of education, which is not consistent with the constructionist curriculum. The result shows that physiology discourse and risk discourse has high status in the books. They are the most occurring discourses and figures both as superior and secondary discourses and are also well compatible with each other. However, the constructionist empowerment discourse is interpreted as a superior discourse in the books, giving the textbooks some legitimacy in relation to the curriculum. The constructionist socio-cultural discourse is completely marginalized to some minority parties of the empirical data.

    The conclusion is that the analyzed textbooks largely reproduce the reality that more practice-oriented studies shows. The textbooks are not an asset to the paradigm shift that we request, but depending on how the textbooks are used, teachers might have benefit of some of the content.

  • Jörmyr, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärare i idrott och hälsas upplevelse av sin egen psykosociala arbetsmiljö: Utifrån krav, kontroll och stödmodellen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out the physical education teachers' perception of their own psychosocial work environment on the basis of demands, control and social support. I want to find out what affects the PE teachers' psychosocial work and find out the factors that may obsticel or promote the psychosocial work environment. The study's two questions are as follows:

    • Which factors are the promotion of PE teachers' psychosocial work?
    • What factors obsticels the PE teachers' psychosocial work?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative perspective and has a semi-structured interview form to collect data. The sample consists of five physical education teachers who work in the City of Stockholm with grades 1-9. The result has been interpreted by the control, demands and support model for investigating how the employee perceives his own psychosocial work environment.

    Results

    Results of the study show that the teachers feel they have a great influence in their work, particularly on the subject of sport and health. All teachers also believe that they feel a great social support from colleagues and school management. All teachers had also wanted to have more contact with more people in school if possible. It shows, among other things, that all P.E teachers are visiting the staff room several times a day. All teachers feel stressed, even if not every day then at least once a week. It is rare that students creates this stress, but rather things around teaching. The work also affects leisure time in any way for all P.E teachers, where, among other things, has led to two of the teachers were sick of work-related causes such as stress.

    Conclusion

    To work as a P.E teacher means that no days are ever the same. The results of this study show that some days you feel a high social support, while other days lower. Control is something all P.E teacher in this paper feel in their profession, where they have the opportunity to influence their own work. The demands are reasonable but when you go deeper in their answers we find that stress is something they face every day, which can be directly harmful to one's overall health.

  • Wiiand, Tilda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lidholm, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Framgångsfaktorer på nationella idrottsutbildningar inom handboll: en kvalitativ studie av elevernas utvecklingsmiljö ur ett handbollslärarperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vad handbollslärare som undervisar i specialidrott på nationella idrottsutbildningar (NIU) inom handboll anser om sin påverkan på elevernas utveckling. För att uppnå uppsatsens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

    • Hur beskriver handbollslärarna utvecklingsmiljön på Sveriges NIUhandbollsgymnasium?
    • På vilket sätt finns Henriksens omarbetade framgångsfaktorer representerade i elevernas utvecklingsmiljö?

    Metod

    Handbollslärarnas syn på elevernas utvecklingsmiljö undersöks med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod. Insamlingen av data sker i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer där målet är att komma mer på djupet kring ämnet för att få svar på uppsatsens frågeställningar. Intervjuerna genomfördes via telefon för att kunna nå handbollslärare över hela landet. Urvalsgruppen bestod av fem manliga handbollslärare som är anställda vid olika NIU- handbollsgymnasier i Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet i uppsatsen visar en varierande utvecklingsmiljö. Elevantal, kommunikation mellan skola och klubb, avsaknad av förebilder är några av de bristfälliga områden som lärarna anser utvecklas. En stark idrottskultur har visats sig vara betydande för både skolan och kommunen gällande utvecklingsmiljön.

    Slutsatser

    Slutsatserna som kan dras av denna uppsats är att handbollslärare på NIUhandbollsgymnasium ser utvecklingsmiljön som framgångsrik, men de är överens om att det finns utvecklingsmöjligheter. De anser att framgångsfaktorerna förebilder och integrationsarbete med klubbtränare är bristfällig och bör prioriteras för att optimera elevernas utvecklingsmiljö.

  • Papachristou Thulin, Nicole
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Segura, Vanessa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärares syn på hur digitala hjälpmedel påverkar undervisningen samt bedömningsprocessen i idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions:

    The aim of this study was to examine how lower secondary school teachers in physical education work with digital tools in their teaching. The focus of the study includes if teachers believed that digital tools affect their teaching and the assessment process.

    1. How are digital tools used in teaching?

    2. What is the purpose of using digital tools?

    3. What advantages and disadvantages can digital tools in the teaching of physical education have according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    4. How can the assessment process be influenced by digital tools according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    Method:

    The study was carried out through qualitative interviews in which we interviewed five lower secondary school teachers who teach physical education and health, and use digital tools in their teaching.

    Results:

    The results showed that the inclusion of digital tools can have a positive impact on pupils' learning according to the surveyed teachers. Also, the assessment process was experienced to be simplified with the use of digital tools, mainly through video recording. 

  • Sandahl, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Finns det en framgångsmodell för OS?: Recension av boken "Success and Failure of Countries at the Olympic Games" av Danyel Reiche2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 7 februariArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla som är intresserade av idrott har förmodligen på något vis en relation till de olympiska spelen. Som den största och därmed främsta av alla idrottsevenemang, möjligen undantaget världsmästerskapen i fotboll, har de olympiska spelen analyserats sönder och samman ur ett antal olika perspektiv. Mindre är dock skrivet om en faktor som förmodligen funnits på näthinnan hos alla dem som följt Sveriges framgångar och motgångar i de olika evenemangen, nämligen: finns det en framgångsmodell för OS? Den frågan försöker Danyel Reiche svara på i Success and Failure of the Countries at the Olympic Games.

  • Fogelberg, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svärd, Linnea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Saknas hälsoperspektiv?: En kvantitativ studie om hälsoundervisningen i Idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study has been to investigate high school physical education teachers teaching in health in Physical Education and health (PEH). Two questions were designed to fulfill this purpose: 1. How do teachers plan their teaching in health? 2. What dimensions of health permeates their teaching approach and plan?

    Method

    The method used was a quantitative survey. A web-survey was designed with the web tool Google Forms. Teachers with at least one year of teaching experience in PEH at high school level was asked to participate. 77 out of 470 asked teachers chose to attend. The teachers were chosen through a strategic selection followed by a complementary selection. In order to systematize collected data Health Literacy (HL) was chosen as the study´s theoretical framework.

    Results

    The results of the study show that health education mainly is pervaded by a salutogenic perspective in which physical health has the greatest focus. The majority of them answered that they integrate health as an area of knowledge in their education. Psychological and social dimensions of health is less common. The teachers' view is that they are working to a high extent with theoretical and practical knowledge within health and also with individual development. Even though they also imply that they work with critical thinking and citizenship, this is to a more limited extent.

    Conclusions

    Teachers in high school work with physical health to a high extent in PEH and they integrate health within their teaching. Eventhough the study shows that the teachers work with critical thinking and society perspectives to a limited extent. These areas are considered to be important to reach a deeper knowledge, which pupils need to take responsibility for their health in the present and future. Therefore teaching contributes to shallow and unilateral perspectives of health. Consequently it is important that more perspectives are used. Furthermore the study concludes that the theory of HL can work as a framework in order to develop strategies for health education. A proven theory could contribute to the teachers' ability to form a more deepened health education.