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  • Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ek, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cider, Åsa
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Falun Hospital.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Increased Physical Activity Post-Myocardial Infarction Is Related to Reduced Mortality; Results From the SWEDEHEART Registry2018In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 7, no 24, article id e010108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]


    With increasing survival rates among patients with myocardial infarction (MI), more demands are placed on secondary prevention. While physical activity (PA) efforts to obtain a sufficient PA level are part of secondary preventive recommendations, it is still underutilized. Importantly, the effect of changes in PA after MI is largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect on survival from changes in PA level, post‐MI.

    Methods and Results

    Data from Swedish national registries were combined, totaling 22 227 patients with MI. PA level was self‐reported at 6 to 10 weeks post‐MI and 10 to 12 months post‐MI. Patients were classified as constantly inactive, increased activity, reduced activity, and constantly active. Proportional hazard ratios were calculated. During 100 502 person‐years of follow‐up (mean follow‐up time 4.2 years), a total of 1087 deaths were recorded. Controlling for important confounders (including left ventricular function, type of MI, medication, smoking, participation in cardiac rehabilitation program, quality of life, and estimated kidney function), we found lower mortality rates among constantly active (hazard ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.41), those with increased activity (0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.55), and those with reduced activity (hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.45–0.69) during the first year post‐MI, compared with those being constantly inactive. Stratified analyses indicated strong effect of PA level among both sexes, across age, MI type, kidney function, medication, and smoking status.


    The present article shows that increasing the PA level, compared with staying inactive the first year post‐MI, was related to reduced mortality.

  • Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Wernstål, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of Flywheel Training on Strength-Related Variables: a Meta-analysis.2018In: Sports medicine - open, ISSN 2199-1170, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Strength and power development are abilities important for athletic performance in many sports. Generally, resistance training based on gravity is used to improve these qualities. Flywheel training instead utilizes kinetic energy transferred to a flywheel. This allows for eccentric overload and variable resistance throughout the movement. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of flywheel training on multiple strength-related variables affecting athletic performance. The meta-analysis investigates the effects on (1) muscle growth (cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume/mass), (2) maximum dynamic strength, (3) development of power, (4) development of horizontal movement, and (5) development of vertical movement.

    METHODS: The meta-analysis includes 20 experimental studies that met the inclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was ranked according to the PEDro scale. Possible bias was identified in Funnel plot analyses. To enable the compilation of all results analyses, the random effect model was carried out using the software Review Manager Version 5.3 and presented with Forest plots.

    RESULTS: Flywheel training for a period of 4-24 weeks shows statistically significant increases in all strength aspects. Effect sizes were for hypertrophy, CSA 0.59; volume/mass 0.59; maximum strength 1.33; power 1.19; horizontal 1.01 and vertical movement 0.85. The evidence is particularly strong for beneficial effects from flywheel training in the development of maximal strength and power in trained younger individuals, and utilization of this training modality in shorter more intensive blocks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Flywheel training is an effective method for improving several aspects of strength and power with importance for sports performance.

  • Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Physical education - educating bodies after postmodernism?2018In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 1435-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article offers the author's perspective about what comes after postmodernism and how it affects educational philosophy and theory, focusing on physical education (PE) in schools. The author argues that the adoption of the idea of performative pedagogies as a way to elicit social change also indicates adoption of movement. Education insights about bodies and embodiment from the case of Indian sprinter Dutee Chand are noted.

  • Nyberg, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vägen till återhämtning- Stressrelaterad ohälsa & överträning/överträningssyndrom till utmattningssyndrom: En intervjustudie: konsensus i begrepp, diagnostisering och behandling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Aim: The aim of this study was to get a more precise definition, diagnosis and treatment of the phenomenon stress related illness and the process to exhaustion. Stress related illness covers the term overtraining syndrome (OTS) which is a common problem in elite sports. Experts, clinics and health workers in Sweden have been interviewed. By recognizing early signals, stress related illness may be dealt with an earlier treatment which leads to a better prognosis. Stress related illness and OTS can be a long-lasting process before exhaustion comes. Sports and work give the same stress to our bodies and minds. Different treatments of the clients were investigated in this study.

    Method: The method chosen was a quality study with semi structural interviews that investigate these phenomenon’s. Five experts (three in clinics who regularly sets diagnosis) and five health workers (two in clinics who regularly sets diagnosis) were interviewed. Terms were developed after the aim and the interviews were recorded. Systematic text condensation (STC) was used for the analysis.

    Results: Six codes were found after the analysis. 1.” The capacity of understanding the process”. The patient must admit his problem in order to be able to treat it. 2.” Defining stress related illnesses”. A finer grade of definitions will aid psychologists and doctors to set a certain diagnosis. 3.” The preemptive work is the treatment”. The best treatment is to find it at an early stage. 4.” The road to recovery” visualizes the entire course, from the first symptoms, to treatment and finally recovery. 5.” Challenges of the future”. The highest virtues in our society today are efficiency and performance. In itself those are great and should be revered, but as all things in extreme they can be dangerous. Education is vital if we want to avoid these problems in the future. 6.” Recovery”. When examining and diagnosing stress related illnesses, attention to recovery should always be your first and foremost concern.

    Conclusions: The definition of stress related illness is still too broad and covers a large field. Cases regarding these kind of illnesses differs and is highly individual. Exhaustion may occur quickly or not at all. The goal should be to coordinate with the rest of Europe to get a joint medical diagnosis. As it is now, definitions and treatments vary even inside of Sweden. If the knowledge regarding stress would be more widespread, exhaustion could be avoided. One should strive to identify the symptoms at an early stage to prevent them becoming severe. OTS should be picked up by health workers in their daily work and not only as a term in elite sports.


  • Andersson, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ger fysisk aktivitet bättre studieresultat?: En enkätundersökning om samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka eventuella samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat hos elever i årskurs nio i en skola utanför Stockholm. I syfte att utföra detta användes följande frågeställning:

    ● Ger en ökad mängd fysisk aktivitet ett högre meritvärde hos elever i årskurs nio?

    Metod Studien är baserad på en enkätundersökning besvarad av 71 deltagare från tre klasser i årskurs nio på en skola utanför Stockholm. Enkäten innehåller frågor om elevens mängd av fysisk träning, fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande samt en fråga om elevens totala meritvärde från terminen innan. Eleverna fick själva uppskatta mängden tid de spenderade på de olika aktiviteterna. Elevernas meritvärden kontrollerades med skolans betygskatalog för att säkerställa att rätt meritvärde var angivet.

    Resultat Resultatet visade inget samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat i form av ökat meritvärde. Det kunde heller inte påvisas något samband mellan fysisk träning och studieresultat. Däremot upptäcktes ett medelstarkt samband mellan ett ökat stillasittande och ett ökat meritvärde.SlutsatsDenna undersökning har inte påvisat något samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat hos den undersökta populationen.

  • Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Avhandling om ishockey i Sverige och Finland – teorifattig men resultatrik tegelsten: recension av avhandlingen Ishockeyns amerikanisering: En studie av svensk och finsk elitishockey av Jyri Backman2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 5 decemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Sjöblom, Paul
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Governance of local sports policy: A Swedish case study in the post-NPM era2018In: Managing sport in a changing Europe: Unpacking the challenges of (public) management of 'sport-for-all' facilities / [ed] Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth & Daniel Bjärsholm, Malmö: Malmö universitet , 2018, p. 449-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance of local sports policy: A Swedish case study in the post-NPM era


    This study is about the distribution of public sport resources in Sweden since 1985 on the local level. A motive is that earlier research has not univocally been able to show if the socioeconomic transformations in society, the change of ideas about how to arrange and govern it, and implemented policy has made any difference for the actual outcome of sport policies.

    The aim is to analyze the governance of public resource allocation to sport in Stockholm city 1985-2017 and its consequences. The research questions are as follows:

    -          How is the resources distributed?

    • How much resources and what resources are distributed?
    • In what ways are they distributed?
    • To whom are they distributed?

    -          Which principles are the basis for resource allocation?

    • What are the guidelines of the decision makers and what are the underlying norms and values?

    -          How are the guiding decisions taken and how are they implemented?

    • Who and what is involved and effect resource allocation, i.e. which actors participate in the decisions, who implement them and what structures affect them?

    Theoretical background and literature review

    The analytical approach starts within historical and political science and research of societal governing. Three forms of political social governing are scrutinized: hierarchic governing, discursive governing and interactive governing. The concept governing is stipulated as a long-term impact that brings on certain specific effects.

    The changes during the last three to four decades that have influenced sport policies on a national level has been thoroughly described. From the beginning of the 1990s, sport scientists discern a gradual change in the stately view of the sport movement’s societal role. They refer among other things to new general principles regarding the governing of aims and results in Swedish administration, and also to more cooperation and trust between governmental actors and to a rapidly growing element of aimed public project funding.[1] At the same time though it is pointed out that “the greater part of sport support today lies within the appropriation of ‘common nature’ that RF has at its independent disposal”, and that ”the state /…/ has avoided political pressure regarding regulation and normative development of sport clubs and federations”.[2]

    The centralized attempts to control have, as earlier on in history, mainly been in form of expressed wishes and interests – not regulations and sanctions. The matter of a new basis for negotiations and its penetration in practice can thereby only be settled empirically.   

    Research design, methodology and data analysis

    The method is a case study of Stockholm city. The empirical data is collected from meeting minutes and decision protocols from the public sports authority, contemporary literature and recorded and transcribed interviews with representatives of politics and public administration. The interviews are qualitative and semi-structured.

    The data consists of leading decisions, i.e. those decisions that – in retrospect – can be seen as indicative on how the public sport resources should be (and have been) used. It could be long-term policy decisions or more direct, acting decisions. Mainly it is decisions and acting on support for sporting facilities and sport clubs that is being analyzed. The concept of support refers mainly to financial support.

    Results/findings and discussion

    The survey about the governing forms and practices indicates, that a lot of different shapes and practices have been used for a long time working parallel as a complement to each other rather than succeeding (replacing) each other.

    Primary results regarding the accomplished sport politics, i.e. the sport policy and administration-effects and consequences, are in the first place that the allowance of public funds to sports has increased during the period. Secondly that the resources are distributed in mainly the same ways (channels) as before and that there are mainly the same physical activities, organizations and social groups as before that are favoured – while others in comparison are disadvantaged. This is a fact in spite of that the politicians since quite a long time are fully aware of which groups have been neglected when it comes to physical activities, what kind of new desires citizens have today, and that there are many new initiatives from public authorities time and again to bring about a change.

    Conclusion, contribution and implications

    The conclusion reads that the structural elements economy, tradition (worked up systems and routine procedures) and culture (normed/standardized behaviours) have influenced the shaping of sports policy after 1985 more than individual actors and their articulated interests and expressed values. A fact is also that politicians and civil servants have a main responsibility regarding the implemented policies, but that they at the same time are forced to take into consideration the investments already done and the economic reality that reigns here and now.

    Interestingly enough international research often come to similar conclusions, which shows that there is much to gain by comparisons on procedures and outcomes of public sport support. Obviously there is local sports policy with high ambitions all around Europe. At the same time economic ideas, established structures and strong traditions often set more or less distinct limits of what could be done.

    The contribution this article provides concerns details on how the leading decisions are taken, by whom and why. The article also elaborates on the routines that make the setting for the civil servants in the local public sport administration and the cultures/traditions that influences the representatives in the public sport authority as well as the employees in the administration.


    Bramham, P. (2008). “Sports policy”. In: Hylton, K. & Bramham, P. (eds.). Sports development: policy, process and practice (2:nd. ed.). Oxon: Routledge.

    Carlsson, B., Norberg, J. & Persson, H. T. R. (2011). The governance of sport from a Scandinavian perspective. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3:3, 305-309.

    Fahlén, J. & Stenling, C. (2016). Sport policy in Sweden. International Journal of Sport Policy, 8:3, 515-531.

    Houlihan, B. (2011). ”Introduction: Government and civil society involvement in sports development.” In: Houlihan, B. & Green, M. (eds.). Routledge handbook of sports development. London: Routledge.

    King, N. (2009). Sport Policy and Governance: Local Perspectives. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier.

    Norberg, J. R. (2011). A contract reconsidered? Changes in the Swedish state’s relation to the sports movement. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3,3, 311-325.

    [1] Fahlén & Karp, 2010; Fahlén & Stenling, 2016; Norberg, 2011; 2016, p. 205-206; Österlind & Fahlén, 2015.

    [2] Norberg, 2016, p. 206; Carlsson, Norberg & Persson, 2011, p. 305.

  • Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Hög aerob uthållighet förenat med låg risk för hjärt-kärlsjukdom hos svenska unga vuxna2018In: BestPracticeArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Sandamas, Paul
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M
    KTH, Karolinska institutet.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    The effect of a reduced first step width on starting block and first stance power and impulses during an athletic sprint start.2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how manipulating first step width affects 3D external force production, centre of mass (CoM) motion and performance in athletic sprinting. Eight male and 2 female competitive sprinters (100m PB: 11.03 ± 0.36 s male and 11.6 ± 0.45 s female) performed 10 maximal effort block starts. External force and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded in both the block and first stance phases. Five trials were performed with the athletes performing their preferred technique (Skating) and five trials with the athletes running inside a 0.3 m lane (Narrow). By reducing step width from a mean of 0.31 ± 0.06 m (Skating) to 0.19 ± 0.03 m (Narrow), reductions were found between the two styles in medial block and medial 1st stance impulses, 1st stance anterior toe-off velocity and mediolateral motion of the CoM. No differences were found in block time, step length, stance time, average net resultant force vector, net anteroposterior impulse nor normalised external power. Step width correlated positively with medial impulse but not with braking nor net anteroposterior impulse. Despite less medially directed forces and less mediolateral motion of the CoM in the Narrow trials, no immediate improvement to performance was found by restricting step width.

  • Engdahl, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Transtemporality of Online Performance2016In: Performance Research, ISSN 1352-8165, E-ISSN 1469-9990, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 107-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines notions of temporality of online performance as a way to rethink earlier debates about performance ontologies. Today, online, and increasingly mobile, technological activities such as photo and video sharing, instant messaging, blogging and social networking organise around performance practitioners' day-to-day existence. In this networked society, performances are constantly mediated through the prism of myriads of digital platforms. Because performances are enacted within or supported by digitally mediated networks and, this is crucial, they incessantly expand temporally, I will refer to online performance in terms of transtemporality, rather than depend on an ontology of unmediation and presence. I depart from Rebecca Schneider's Performance Remains (2011) where she argues how notions of performance, reiteration and documentation are intertwined and contingent, and from the recent performative answers to the logic of the archive found in Amelia Jones's and Adrian Heathfield's anthology Perform Repeat Record: Live Art in History (2012). I argue, by illustrations of Adam Weinert's performance work (2013-2014) as well as my own (2010-2012), that online performance is never fully present but immanently distended through remediation. Performances participate in inherently ruptured transtemporal networks (tweets, reperformances, blogging, video sharing) through which they are continuously remediated and transformed. I propose that online performance even might suggest that performance continuously escapes a sense of Being. Performance's ontology, or rather its ontogenesis proposed by Heathfield (2012), resides with the elements of transformation inherent in its online remediations.

  • Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Baseball, glima and Gotlandic sport: An analysis of the demonstration sports in the 1912 Stockholm Olympics2018In: Diagoras: International Academic Journal on Olympic Studies, Vol. 2, p. 103-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to analyse the demonstration sports (baseball, glima and Gotlandic sport) into the 1912 Stockholm Olympics. Who took the initiative for the demonstration sports? The IOC or the Swedish Organising Committee? How were the demonstration sports received by the public and the press, and what was their legacy? The study is based mainly on primary sources from the 1912 Stockholm Olympics’ archive. The 1912 Stockholm Olympics has been well explored, mainly by Swedes and internationals, and this gives a good picture of the 1912 Stockholm Olympics from different perspectives. On the other hand, research into the demonstration sports in the Olympic Games is clearly limited and there is thus a great need for further studies. This current study covers just a small part of this need. The results show that in 1912 there was no considered strategy on the part of either the IOC or the Swedish Organising Committee concerning the demonstration sports. The initiative for the demonstration sports came from individual representatives of each type of sport, and the Swedish organisers were positive towards three of those proposed: baseball, glima and Gotlandic sport. The Swedish organisers had control over which demonstration sports would be included in the programme. This meant that the choice of demonstration sports lay beyond the control of the 1912 IOC, but this would change in the 1900s. During the games they were given limited attention at most, both publicly and in the press. The demonstration sports were removed from the Olympic programme before the 1992 Olympic Games.

  • Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå university.
    National injury prevention measures in team sports should focus on knee, head, and severe upper limb injuries.2018In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine acute injuries in licensed floorball, football, handball, and ice hockey players in all ages nationwide in Sweden, and to identify the most common and severe injuries in each body location and recommend injury prevention measures.

    METHODS: Using national sport insurance data from years 2006-2015 was the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), calculated in the four team sports. The most common injury type and injured body part was identified, with a particular focus of the severe injuries. Comparison between sexes was made.

    RESULTS: In total, there were 92,162 registered injuries in all sports together. Knee injuries were most common, and also had the highest incidence of PMI, in all ball sports and in female ice hockey players. In male ice hockey, the most common injury was a dental and face injury, and PMI injuries were mostly in the shoulder. The most severe PMI injuries were rare and most often a face/eye injury in male floorball and ice hockey, a concussion in female ice hockey, and a knee injury in female floorball, and in both sexes in football and handball.

    CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the greatest impact in reducing the adverse effects of acute sport injuries nationwide in Sweden, preventive measures should focus on knee injuries in all the investigated team sports. The severe head/face and upper limb injuries also need attention. Protective equipment, neuromuscular training programs, rules enforcements, and fair-play interventions may reduce the incidence of injuries.

  • El Bajdi, Sofian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Omklädningsrummet: En studie om elevers uppfattning om miljön i omklädningsrummet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]


    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta reda på vad elever i årskurs 7-9 har för åsikter om miljön i omklädningsrummet som används i samband med idrott och hälsa samt vilka faktorer som gör att vissa elever avstår från att byta om och duscha efter idrottslektionen.

    - Vad anser eleverna om att duscha och byta om öppet med andra elever?

    - Skiljer sig tjejernas och killarnas erfarenheter av omklädningsrummet åt?


    Undersökningen är kvantitativ och jag använde mig av en enkätundersökning som omfattar 60 elever. Deltagarna i min undersökning är elever från en klass i årskurs 7, 8 och 9.


    Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visade att hälften av alla elever inte duschade och många av dem på grund av risken för kränkande behandling, hur ens kropp ser ut och att det är ofräscht i omklädningsrummet. Undersökningen visade också att hälften av eleverna ansåg att det aldrig sker kränkande behandlingar i omklädningsrummet. Studien visade inga stora könsskillnader i omklädningsrummet men antalet flickor som blivit utsatta för kränkande behandling var några fler än pojkarna. Däremot visade undersökningen att antalet flickor som är missnöjda med sitt kroppsutseende är högre än pojkarna. Undersökningen visade även att de elever som var missnöjda med sin kropp också var de som undvek att duscha efter idrottslektionen.


    Undersökningen visar att många elever är missnöjda med sitt kroppsutseende och detta kan vara en orsak till att hälften av eleverna i undersökningen inte duschar efter lektionen. I denna studie framkommer det även att cirka en tredjedel av eleverna säger sig ha blivit utsatta för kränkande behandlingar. Detta är viktigt att skolan tar denna problematik på allvar då en av deras uppgifter är att motverka kränkande behandling.

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general  population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establish it for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration–distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20–65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24–28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes)  x  speed (km/min)  x  a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population  x  age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T  x  20.76 km/h  x  0.719  x  (1.676 – 0.0147  x  A). For females, the  formula was: D = T  x  16.14 km/h  x  0.763  x  (1.604 – 0.0129  x  A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max) in the general population are limited.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in VO2 max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions.

    METHODS: 354.277 participants (44% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1995 and 2017 were included. Changes in standardized mean values of absolute (L·min-1 ) and relative (ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) VO2 max, and the proportion with low (<32) relative VO2 max are reported. VO2 max was estimated using a submaximal cycle test.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2 max decreased by -6.7% (-0.19 L·min-1 ) in the total population. Relative VO2 max decreased by -10.8% (-4.2 ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) with approximately one-third explained by a simultaneous increase in body mass. Decreases in absolute fitness were more pronounced in men vs. women (8.7% vs. 5.3%), in younger vs. older (6.5% vs 2.3%), in short (11.4%) vs. long (4.5%) education, and in rural vs. urban regions (6.5% vs 3.5%), all p<0.001. The proportions with low VO2 max increased from 27% to 46% (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Between 1995 and 2017, there was a steady and pronounced decline in mean cardiorespiratory fitness in Swedish adults. Male gender, young age, short education and living in a rural area were predictive of greater reductions. The proportion with low cardiorespiratory fitness almost doubled. Given the strong associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple morbidities and mortality, preventing further decreases is a clear public health priority, especially for vulnerable groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Eff, Christopher
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Leipzig.
    Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the bioactivation of dietary nitrate during submaximal exercise2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Aim: The purpose of the study is to show the influence of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI in form of esomeprazole) on the bioactivation of dietary nitrate (sodium-nitrate solution) in submaximal exercise, through affecting the gastric pH.

    Method: Randomized, doubled-blinded, placebo-controlled and crossover study with six subjects (mean ± SD, age 29 ± 5years, height 170 ± 5 centimeters, weight 70 ± 5 Kg, BMI 24,36 ± 1,75 Kg/m2 blood pressure 119/ 77 ± 6 mmHg, 3 male and 3 female). They were tested in two different trials. Every trial consisted of two parts. One part was cycling on 4 different submaximal stages (80W/60RPM, 80W/90RPM, 120W/60RPM, 120W/90RPM) for 5 minutes each, with 90 minutes rest in between. The same protocol was repeated. In the beginning of the resting time a sodium nitrate solution (NaNO3-, 10mg/kg body weight) was ingested. VO2, VCO2, RER, VE, Lactate, Glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. Venous blood samples were taken. Whether esomeprazole (10mg) or a placebo were taken 24h, 12h and directly before being tested in both trials. Subjects were pleased to have a nitrate poor diet starting when taking the pills. An information sheet was provided.

    Results: No significant differences were found between the post values and the treatment. Tendencies of a higher oxygen consumption when taking esomeprazole (2,62%) in comparison to placebo (0,11%) were observed. Systolic BP decreased by 3,91% with the placebo while it decreased just 2,04% with esomeprazole after intake. Sex-specific differences occurred in the metabolism of esomeprazole and dietary nitrate. RER showed a significant post nitrate difference between the female and male participants with t=.006 and a significance in predietary nitrate intake. VE in female (40,79 ± 7,20 L/min) and (50,03 ± 10,09 L/min) in male were as well significant (t=.017).

    Conclusion: Tendencies of effects of PPI are seen in the post-values of VO2 and BP after intake of dietary nitrate. Gender-differences are shown in RER and VE. More research is needed to see the impact of dietary nitrate on the human body under submaximal load.

  • Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa2018In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning. Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga många former av ohälsa, men vilka fysiska aktivitetsmönster som gynnar psykisk hälsa och kognitiva förmågor är fortfarande okänt. Denna typ av forskning är komplex och kräver samarbete med många olika aktörer i samhället.

  • Cardinale, Daniele A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The significance of mitochondrial respiratory function in regulating oxygen uptake and performance in humans2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mitochondrion is one of the most fascinating organelles of our cells which has kept and keeps researchers busy in studying its origin, the complex morphology, the numerous functions, the rapid adaptations to a variety of stimuli and its role in health and disease. Exercise challenges cellular homeostasis and skeletal muscle mitochondria greatly adapt to repeated bouts of exercise by increasing mitochondrial respiratory function and content to match energy requirements and to better sustain future perturbations induced by muscle contractions. The oxidative capacity of mitochondria has been shown to exceed the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to supply oxygen to active muscle at maximal exercise intensity. Despite this, exercise training further increases this overcapacity. Little is known about the role of this excess oxidative capacity of mitochondria in regulating oxygen consumption, the role of oxygen delivery in determining exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations, and whether any sex-related differences exist. The assessment of mitochondrial respiratory function in high resolution respirometer is largely used for clinical and scientific purposes. However, the reliability of this method has not been systematically investigated and warrant further investigation.

    With this background, specific measures of reliability associated with repeated determination of maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in saponin-permeabilized fibres, comparison of the right and left legs, variability with measurements at different time-points and over time, as well as influence of the local anesthetic and wet weight of the fiber bundle on determined maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were investigated in paper I. The importance of having the same technicians in preparing the samples, and that the major source of variation in measuring mitochondrial oxidative capacity is the sample preparation per se were shown. Furthermore, other factors such as the possible difference between left and right limbs, two time points of sample collection, fibres bundle weight, time that elapsed after collection of the biopsy, and the use of an anesthetic have only a minor impact on the standard error of the measurement.

    In paper II the physiological significance of having a mitochondrial oxidative capacity in excess of the capacity of the central circulation to deliver oxygen to the tissue was shown by integrating measures of ex vivo mitochondrial respiratory function with direct in vivo measure of oxygen consumption when performing two-legged cycling and one-legged knee extension exercise while inspiring atmospheric air and oxygen enriched air in the same participants. Excess capacity of mitochondria allows submaximal mitochondrial activation at maximal oxygen delivery, thereby maintaining a high mitochondrial oxygen affinity and a high oxygen extraction peripherally. Considering the widespread and increasing sedentary behavior in a society plagued by diseases often linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, these results suggest the importance of preserving a high muscle oxidative capacity throughout life, which can be of significance in patients with heart, circulatory, and overall metabolic diseases.

    Despite known sex-specific metabolic differences in human skeletal muscle and that animal models have consistently shown females having a superior mitochondrial function compare to males, data in humans are lacking. In paper III the first evidence that women possess higher mitochondrial quality compared to men with equal cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance was provided. Mitochondrial oxygen affinity varied with the degree of mitochondrial respiration rate and was lower in women compared to men. These results indicate that the higher mitochondrial quality in women may be an important physiological adaptation that compensates for the lower mitochondrial oxygen affinity allowing a higher oxygen extraction peripherally. Moreover, these results could possibly be linked to the difference in life expectancy, disease occurrence and aging between women and men.

    Lastly, in paper IV it was shown that increasing oxygen delivery and exercise intensity by means of breathing hyperoxia during high-intensity exercise did not enhance cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations but still resulted in a small beneficial effect on performance in trained cyclists. This small positive effect on performance can be exploited in elite athletes; however, considering the cost/benefit, the unknown health-related problems, and ethical issues of performing hyperoxic-supplemented endurance training, it is arguable if the use of this strategy to maximize endurance performance is worthwhile.

    Overall, this thesis provides useful information for future research on various factors influencing the error of the measurement when assessing mitochondrial respiratory function. Moreover, this thesis sheds light on novel factors that regulate oxygen consumption during exercise, highlighting the importance of maintaining a good mitochondrial function. This thesis also provides possible directions for future studies on mitochondrial function, metabolism and exercise-induced adaptations.  

  • Sundell, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Jonsson, H
    Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Ådin, L
    Diagnostic Radiology, Skellefteå.
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Umeå universitet.
    Stress Fractures of Pars Interarticularis in Adolescent Athletes a Classification System with MRI and CT Enabling Evaluation of The Healing Process2018In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, E-ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing frequency in different stages of stress reactions in the Pars Interarticularis (PI) using a classification system with MRI and CT. The intervention was 3-month rest from physical activity, without a brace, with the exception of activities of daily living.

    Materials & Method: Twelve adolescent athletes with different stages of Spondolysis were included in the study. They had pathology in the Pars Interarticularis and were clinically examined with MRI and CT 3-6 weeks after debut of Low Back Pain (LBP) and re-evaluated after 3 months intervention with rest from physical activity.

    Results: A combination of MRI and CT scanning to investigate suspected injuries to Pars Interarticularis in adolescent athletes revealed 6 different stages of Spondolysis that ranged from marrow oedema to pseudoarthrosis. After 3 months of rest from physical activity the early stages of Pars Interarticularis injuries healed significantly better than the later stages with rest from physical activity.

    Conclusion: The combination of MRI and CT revealed 6 stages of stress reactions instead of 4 as in Hollenberg's staging with MRI only. In the 3 earliest stages, of these 6, rest from physical activity for 3 months can heal the stress reaction.

  • Haglund, Lotta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Collaboration with sister organisations around the globe: a SWOT-analysis at the EAHIL Council meeting in Cardiff2018In: Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries, ISSN 1841-0715, no 3, p. 7-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Sandahl, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Dopningsfrågan i ett franskt perspektiv: recension av boken Doping in Elite Sports: Voices of French Sportspeople and Their Doctors, 1950–20102018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 26 septemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Hägg, Peder
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tränares utbildningar: En undersökning av fyra specialidrottsförbunds validering av tränares utbildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om valda specialidrottsförbund har tagit tillvara den utbildningsbakgrund som huvudtränare på elitnivå besitter.


    1. Vad för utbildningar har huvudtränare på elitnivå inom valda specialidrottsförbund?

    2. Anser tränarna att deras övriga utbildningar är relevanta för deras tränarskap?

    3. Har dessa tränare fått sina tidigare utbildningar validerade av specialförbunden?



    Urvalet bestod av 180 huvudtränare inom fyra specialidrottsförbund: fotboll, innebandy, ishockey och basket. Tillvägagångssättet var enkäter, och då i form av den webbaserade tjänsten Google Forms. Enkäten bestod av 16 frågor, där både öppna och slutna frågor förekom. Resultatet baseras på 61 besvarade enkäter.



    Sett till högsta utbildningsnivå så hade 25% av tränarna eftergymnasial utbildning, 36% av tränarna högskole-/universitetsutbildning och 39% av tränarna gymnasieutbildning. 54% av tränarna ansåg att deras övriga utbildning var relevant. Två tränare har kunnat validera tidigare kunskaper.



    Utifrån studien och tidigare forskning så kan man konstatera att specialidrottsförbunden har en välutbildad tränarkår. Majoriteten av tränarna ansåg dessutom att deras övriga utbildning var relevant i förhållande till sitt uppdrag, trots detta var det endast ett fåtal tränare som lyckats ta en annan väg till toppen än genom förbundets utbildningar, vilket tolkas som att det bara finns en väg som leder till elittränarskap och att förbunden inte tar tillvara tränarnas tidigare kunskaper

  • Najafi, Rahim
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärarnas inställning till styrketräning för högstadieelever2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]



    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka svenska idrottslärares inställning till styrketräning. Jag undersöker ett antal lärares inställning till styrketräning i idrottsämnet på högstadienivån och konstaterar att alla har en positiv syn men att det finns en viss skepsis mot styrketräning på gym. Det verkar som om nya idrottslärare kan behöva få information om ny forskning som påvisar att även träning på gym har positiva effekter på ungdomar om den utförs rätt.


    • Hur ser lärarna på styrketräning på lektionerna i Idrott och hälsa på högstadiet?

    • Vad anser lärarna angående fördelar och nackdelar med styrketräning?

    • Vad är lärarnas uppfattning om Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer när det

       gäller styrketräning för barn?

    • Går det att säga utifrån det som framkommer av intervjuerna att kunskap om

       styrketräningens effekter saknas hos många lärare?


    Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer. Urvalet bestod av sex stycken idrottslärare på högstadienivå, fyra män och två kvinnor. Intervjuerna spelades in. Jag ville helst ha lärare med flera års erfarenhet av att undervisa för barn eftersom jag ville ha lärare som hunnit reflektera över hur de ska göra med styrketräningen i skolan och som hunnit stöta på eventuella problem. Sedan handlar det också om att utvärdera resultaten i förhållande till Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer och den moderna forskningens syn på styrketräning för barn och ungdomar.


    De flesta idrottslärare är ense om att styrketräning medför mest fördelar för barnen. Både lärarna och forskningen anser att styrketräning förebygger både skador och påskyndar rehabilitering. Lärarna känner delvis till Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer men verkar inte ta så stort intryck av dem.


    Slutsatsen av denna studie är att inställningen i huvudsak är positiv men att det verkar finns en utbredd uppfattning om att gymträning bör undvikas som idrottslärarutbildningen kanske ska utmana.