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  • Odisho, Nenlil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sam- eller särundervisning?: En intervjustudie om flickors inställning till olika undervisningsformer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka flickors inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa i årskurs 9. Jag är även intresserad av att undersöka om undervisningsformerna sam- och särundervisning påverkar flickornas inställning positivt eller negativt. Jag har använt följande frågeställningar.

    - Vilken inställning har flickor i årskurs 9 till ämnet idrott och hälsa?

    - Påverkar sam - eller särundervisning flickornas inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa?

    Metod

    Jag använde kvalitativa intervjuer. Sex flickor blev intervjuade från två olika skolor. Tre av flickorna hade särundervisning och de resterande hade samundervisning.

    Resultat

    Flickorna har en positiv inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa och menar att ämnet har en positiv inverkan på dem. De tycker att det är kul och roligt med idrott. Flickorna påverkas både negativt och positivt av undervisningsformerna. De menar att delaktigheten sjunker för de blyga och rädda och att de flickor som är "säkra" inte utvecklas. Undervisningsformerna påverkar inte flickornas inställning utan endast deras uppfattning om delaktighet, prestationsnivå och utveckling.

    Slutsats

    Det finns fördelar och nackdelar med sam- och särundervisning. En fördel är att flickornas inställning inte påverkas av undervisningsformerna utan av andra faktorer. Nackdelen är att vissa flickor inte utvecklas i samma grad som killarna.

  • Hellström, John S.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Den kommersiella idrottens utveckling speglat i sex amerikanska rättsfall om yttrandefrihet vs. förtal: recension av boken Game Faces: Sport celebrity and the laws of reputation av Sarah K. Fields2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 5 decemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Distance, duration and velocity in cycle commuting: Analyses of relations and determinants of velocity2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, 1-14 p., 1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose.

    Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban–rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used.

    Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1–4 or 6–9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas.

    Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies.

  • Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Med kultur som förstoringsglas: Anglosfäriska texter om kvinnor och ”action”-sport: recension av boken 'Women in Action Sport Cultures: Identity, Politics and Experience', red. Holly Thorpe & Rebecca Olive (2016)2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 23 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fagman, Erika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, 2047487317745177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO2max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  • Stålman, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Korrelationen mellan GIH:s pyramidtest och VO2max-test på löpband: - en valideringsstudie på gymnasieelever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim.

    The purpose of the study was to find out if there is a significant connection between 5-minute pyramid test (5MPT) and a maximum oxygen uptake test (VO2max) on a treadmill in upper secondary students in the social sciences program. The questions were - What are the results at 5MPT and in a maximal treadmill test of VO2max with direct measurement of oxygen uptake. - How strong is the correlation between these two different variants of aerobic tests? - Is there a difference in power between the first and second test times of 5MPT and if so, how great is this difference? Since similar studies have been conducted in more well-trained groups in upper secondary school and in younger adults, it is now interesting to see whether the tests correlate significantly also for this group, not all of which have a common specific interest in physical activity. If a good correlation is obtained, it is possible to conclude that 5MPT can be used for students in upper secondary schools and also in corresponding groups of individuals in other health contexts to measure the aerobic ability.

    Method.

    In the study, 17 people, of which 12 women and 5 men, participated in the ages 16-18 years. The participants attended Värmdö Gymnasium at the Social Science Program. A total of two 5MPT separate tests were performed and a maximum oxygen uptake test on a treadmill. Each test was performed at least two days apart and all tests were done within a month. In the 5MPT, the individual moves as quickly as possible over a pyramidal stair ramp, with a maximum height of 0.62 m and a total distance of 5.50 m. The number of turns was recorded for 5 minutes, after which a formula for developed effect was calculated. At the maximal treadmill test, the exhalation air was analyzed via an on-line equipment Oxycon Pro.

    Results.

    A significant relationship (r = 0.90) was found between power (power) at 5MPT and VO2max on treadmill. No significant difference was found in power between the first and second tests of 5MPT, and the difference between these two tests was shown to be only 0.44%. In this essay, the equation is presented to calculate the maximum oxygen uptake for this group of individuals based on the results for power in 5MPT.

    Conclusion.

    It is clear that there was a strong correlation between the two different variants of aerobic tests. No learning effect was seen between a first and second test opportunity of 5MPT. The hope is that the relatively simple and inexpensive 5MPT test can be used to investigate and monitor the development of aerobic ability in this group of individuals.

  • Marcus, Moberg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Increased autophagy signaling but not proteasome activity in human skeletal muscle after prolonged low-intensity exercise with negative energy balance2017In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 5, no 23, e13518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise in field conditions where energy is intake inadequate. Here, 17 male and 7 female soldiers performed an 8 day long field based military operation. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, in which autophagy, the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the mTORC1 signaling pathway where studied, were collected before and after the operation. The 187 h long operation resulted in a 15% and 29% negative energy balance as well as a 4.1% and 4.6% loss of body mass in women and men respectively. After the operation protein levels of ULK1 as well as the phosphorylation of ULK1Ser317 and ULK1Ser555 had increased by 11%, 39% and 13%, respectively, and this was supported by a 17% increased phosphorylation of AMPKThr172 (P<0.05). The LC3b-I/II ratio was 3-fold higher after compared to before the operation (P<0.05), whereas protein levels of p62/SQSTM1 were unchanged. The β1, β2, and β5 activity of the proteasome and protein levels of MAFbx did not change, while levels of MuRF-1 were slightly reduced (6%, P<0.05). Protein levels and phosphorylation status of key components in the mTORC1 signaling pathway remained at basal levels after the operation. Muscle levels of glycogen decreased from 269±12 to 181±9 mmol ∙ kg dry muscle-1 after the exercise period (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 8 days of field based exercise resulted in induction of autophagy without any increase in proteasome activity or protein ubiquitination. Simultaneously, the regulation of protein synthesis through the mTORC1 signaling pathway was maintained.

  • Björkman, Frida Maria Eleonora
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Validity and reliability of a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the highest obtained rate of oxygen consumption during a physically intense dynamic whole-body activity. VO2max is an important factor for many types of physical performance, as well as a strong independent predictor of health and longevity. Thus, it is important to have accurate and precise methods for assessment of VO2max.

    A direct measurement of VO2max is often conducted via indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise. The demand for maximal effort from an individual, along with the need for laboratory equipment, makes direct measurements unsuitable in the general, non-athlete population. There are also a number of contraindications that limit the possibility to conduct direct measurements of VO2max in many settings. Instead, several other exercise tests have been developed in order to facilitate the procedure of determination and evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in different populations. These tests can be either of submaximal or maximal character. Commonly used work modes are stepping, walking, and cycling. The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the background to, and the development of, submaximal cycle ergometer tests for estimation of VO2max.

    The present thesis focuses on the validity and reliability of a new submaximal cycle ergometer test – the Ekblom-Bak test (EB test). The first study described the test procedure for the new cycle ergometer test and the creation of an accompanying mathematical model (prediction equation) for estimation of VO2max. The development of the test and its associated prediction equation was continued in study II, while it was further validated in adults and adolescents in study II and IV. Study III examined the ability to use a submaximal cycle ergometer test in order to detect changes in VO2max over time.

    The EB test comprises of 8 minutes of continuous cycling – 4 minutes at 0.5 kp, followed by 4 minutes at a higher, individually chosen work rate – with a pedalling rate of 60 revolutions per minute. The test measures the change in HR (ΔHR) between the two different work rates (ΔPO), and the variable ΔHR/ΔPO was obtained and linked to measured VO2max. In study I, the validity and reliability of the EB test and the associated prediction equation was tested in a mixed population with regard to sex, age, and physical activity status. The subjects performed repeated submaximal cycle ergometer tests and maximal running tests for direct determination of VO2max (reference value). There was a strong correlation between estimated and measured VO2max, with an adjusted R2 of 0.82 and a corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) of 9.3%. Although there was a relatively high precision in the estimation of VO2max by the prediction equation, it was evident that individuals with high VO2max were underestimated and individuals with low VO2max were overestimated. This issue was further addressed in study II.

    In study II, the size of the study population was increased, in order to broaden the valid range and evaluate the use of sex-specific prediction equations. The estimation error was slightly decreased, and the sex-specific prediction equations resulted in an adjusted R2 of 0.91 and a CV of 8.7% in the whole group. The new models were also evaluated in a cross-validation group, where the adjusted R2 was 0.90 and CV 9.4%.

    The relation between the estimation error and changes in VO2max over time was investigated in study III. Follow-up tests were conducted in 35 subjects, in order to examine the conformity between changes in measured and estimated VO2max over a timespan of 5 to 8 years. Results showed a moderate correlation between change in measured VO2max and change in estimated VO2max (r = 0.75). Changes in body mass or changes in work efficiency did not relate to the change in assessment error. 

    In study IV, the aim was to determine the applicability and validity of the EB test in pre-pubertal and pubertal adolescents. Medical examinations and assessment of sexual maturity (according to the stages of Tanner) were performed in addition to the physical tests. The included subjects (n = 50) were 10 to 15 years old and in Tanner stages I–IV. The measurement error (the difference between measured and estimated VO2max) was related to maturity in boys, but not in girls. The measurement error decreased for the whole group when the equation developed for women was used for the boys in Tanner I and II. This modification in the calculations of VO2max resulted in an adjusted R2 of 0.83 and SEE 0.23 L/min. Hence, the most accurate prediction of VO2max from the EB test is generated if the test result is accompanied by ratings of sexual maturity in adolescents. Analysis of the test-retest values showed no significant change in estimated VO2max from repeated tests within two weeks of each other. 

    In summary, the EB test proved to be a reliable and valid test throughout a wide range of ages (20 to 85 years) and fitness levels (1.33 to 3.94 L/min in women, and 1.67 to 5.97 L/min in men). The test was also found to be useful and reasonably valid for determination of VO2max in pre-pubertal and pubertal adolescents, preferably after adjustment for sexual maturity status in boys. Furthermore, it was shown that the EB test captured fairly well an actual change in VO2max during a period of 5 to 8 years. However, it is still unknown whether the test has an acceptable sensitivity for detection of a training-induced increase in VO2max. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the test can be used in diseased individuals with or without different medications. The EB test can be used in health-related clinical settings, sports and fitness clubs.

  • Sundell, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Ådin, Lars
    Piteå hospital.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Physical Examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stress-Related Bone Injuries in Tuber Ischiadicum2017In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 4, no 1, 1-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Stress-Related Bone Injuries (SRBI) in the Tuber Ischiadicum (TI) is a possible preliminary diagnosis in adolescent athletes with pain in the pelvic region or in the back of the thigh. The condition requires an early diagnosis in order to heal properly. We describe five cases of young athletes seeking a physiotherapist for pelvic or back thigh pain.

    Materials and methods: Five patients previously diagnosed with lower back pain, groin pain, pelvic or back thigh pain underwent a Physical Examination (PE) by a physiotherapist to identify the pathogenesis of the pain. The PE led to the preliminary diagnosis of SRBI in the TI, which was confirmed by an MRI. The patients were treated with rest and Personally Guided Rehabilitation (PGR).

    Results : All cases had a positive eccentric hip extension test and pain provocation on palpation on the TI. MRI found different levels of stress reactions/fractures in the enthesis of the TI. After rest and rehabilitation, all subjects returned to their previous level of physical activity.

    Conclusion: PE appeared to identify adolescent athlete patients with SRBI in the TI requiring an MRI. The correct diagnosis led to a quick return to the previous level of physical activity.

    Clinical relevance: An early and correct diagnosis thru a thorough PE can lead to complete healing and a return to sports.

  • Renberg, Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Finns det samband mellan höft och ljumskproblem och rörlighet eller styrka i höftrotation hos ishockeymålvakter?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to compare if hip and/or groin problems (pain and symptoms) are related to mobility and/or strength in hip rotation in ice hockey goalkeepers and if there are differences between youth, junior or senior goalkeepers. The questions ask if self-assessed hip and/or groin problems, strength and mobility differ between the groups.

     

    Method

    Fiftyone goalkeepers were divided into three groups depending on age. They were measured in prone position in isometric strength and passive mobility in both internal rotation and external rotation of the hip joint. Goalkeepers also had to fill out HAGOS questionnaire about hip and groin problems. Strength and mobility were compared to how the goalkeepers responded to the questionnaire's two first subheadings, pain and symptoms. In addition, self-assessed hip problems, strength and mobility were compared between the groups.

     

    Results

    Correlations were found in the seniorgroup between strength in external rotation and both pain and symptoms. In the junior group no correlations were found. In the youth group there was a correlation between symptoms and mobility in both internal and external rotation, in addition, there was a correlation between symptoms and strength in external rotation bilaterally and strength on the left side. The older group of goalkeeper, the more problem according to HAGOS questionnaire. The strength increased and mobility decreased with higher age group, but the differences between the two oldest groups were small. The senior group had uneven mobility between left and right side, which the two younger groups did not have.

     

    Conclusions

    Reduced strength in external rotation seems to be associated with hip and groin problems, but more studies are needed to investigate whether problems affect strength or vice versa. Senior goalkeepers seem to have more problems with their hips and groins compared with younger goalkeepers, but larger studies are needed that can also can compare with other athletes.

  • Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35 and 50 kg at two walking speeds, 3 and 5 km/h, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 yrs, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 yrs, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg). Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fibre distribution of the thigh were also obtained. To load the participant a standard backpack filled with extra weight according to the carrying weight tested was used. Extra Load Index (ELI), the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over no-load-exercise, was used as a proxy for load carrying ability. In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyzes using sex and long term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking at 5 km/h body mass, body height, leg muscle strength and absolute VO2max were correlated to ELI35 and ELI50, but relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance and leg muscle fibre distribution were not. Sex as causal factor was evaluated in a mediator analyses with ELI50 as outcome. ELI50 at 5 km/h differed between the sexes. The limit for acceptable body load, 40% of VO2max (according to Astrand, 1967), was nearly reached for women carrying 35 kg (39%) and surpassed at 50 kg at 3 km/h, and for men carrying 50 kg at 5 km/h. This difference was only mediated by difference in body mass. Neither muscle fibre distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference. Participants with long term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or non-experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference. The study showed that body mass and experience of carrying heavy loads are important factors for the ability to carry heavy loads.

  • Silvhagen, Hannah
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vem är idrottsläraren?: En intervjustudie om föreställningen av idrottslärare2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka synen på idrottsläraren som kunskapsförmedlare och förebild. Detta har lett fram till följande mer preciserade frågeställningar: 1. Hur ser synen på den ideala idrottslärare i rollen av kunskapsförmedlare ut? 2. Vilka föreställningar finns om den ideala idrottsläraren som förebild?

    Metod

    Studien har genomförts som en kvalitativ intervjustudie med utgångspunkt i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande. Intervjuer är gjorda med två aktiva idrottslärare och fem elever i årskurs 9. Intervjuerna utgick från en intervjuguide. Respondenterna valdes med ut hjälp av ett bekvämlighetsurval med hänsyn till studiens tidsbegränsning. Intervjuerna spelades in med ljudinspelare och varade 40-60 minuter för lärarna (individuella intervjuer) och 35 minuter för eleverna (gruppintervju). Genomläsning av materialet och kodning skedde genom tematisk analys.

    Resultat

    Kunskap inom ämnet idrott och hälsa är otydligt formulerad. Eleverna vet sällan vet vad de ska kunna, samtidigt som lärarna delvis har olika idéer om vad som är kunskap i ämnet. Eleverna har även svårt att veta hur de ska erhålla denna kunskap. Läraren som förebild kännetecknas av att det finns en yrkesstolthet i att kunna visa och förklara övningar. Både lärare och elever inser att idrottslärarens kompetens innefattar många olika områden.

    Slutsats

    I studien framgår att eleverna är oklara över hur de ska få kunskaper i ämnet. Lärarna framhåller att det är viktigt att skapa intresse hos eleverna så de blir motiverade till att lära sig själva. Vidare visar studien att lärarna i stor uträckning agerar som organisatörer. För att vara en bra förebild som lärare i idrott och hälsa ingår, enligt både elever och lärare, att ha en både bred och djup kunskap. För att kunna vara en ideal idrottslärare krävs mer tid till att ge eleverna feedback och en tydligare integrering av teori och praktik. Idrottsläraren som förebild påverkas starkt av signaler från den kulturella omgivningen.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett tal vid Lingbalen 20172017In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 5, 24-25 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lingbalen är en gammal tradition på Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet -- Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm. Den har då alltid gestaltats som en årlig middag med både lärare och studenter. Under 2000-talet har den dock gjort ett uppehåll flera år. 2017 var det åter dags igen, och balen hölls i Nobels gamla fabrikslokaler vid Vinterviken i Stockholm. Här presenteras den äldste lärarens tal, och i det belyses bland annat flera kopplingar mellan Ling och Nobel.

  • Fredriksson, Christel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter på aktivitetsnivå, fysisk kapacitet och skattad livskvalitet hos patienter med KOL efter deltagande i KOL-skola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with chronic obstructive lung disease after seven weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation increased their activity in daily life and their physical activity level and relate this to increase in quality of life and physical capacity.

    The questions asked was if seven weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation could lead to an increase in physical activity level measured with accelerometer and if physical capacity and performance would increase measured with 6-minutes walking distance? Can this also lead to a change in ADL and quality of life measured with the Eq5d-questionaire and decrease the patient’s perceived inconvenience in COPD measured with CCQ?

    Method: The study is a quantitative prospective study. There were 25 participants in the study. Men and women in the ages 45-90 years, all diagnosed with COPD stage 1-4. All patients participated in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation during seven weeks including information about COPD and fitness- and strength training during 12 occasions. The participants were evaluated with accelerometer- a device that measures movement in three dimensions, 6-minutes walking distance, CCQ-chronic COPD questionnaire and Eq5d- health barometer (0-100mm). All evaluation was made before and after participating in pulmonary rehabilitation. Measurements with the accelerometers was made one week before the rehabilitation started and one week after it finished.

    Results: No significant improvements were found regarding physical activity level, step counts/day (N.S p=0.330), sedentary time (N.S p=0.055), periods of sedentary bouts (N.S p=0.875). Physical capacity and performance measured with 6-minutes walking distance showed a significant increase, on average 60 meters (p=0.0002). ADL and quality of life measured with Eq5d health barometer showed a significant improvement in average 56 mm before to 64 mm after participating in pulmonary rehabilitation (p=0.022) and the patients evaluated their perceived inconvenience 0.29 points less, from 2.32 to 2.03 points of a maximum score of 6.0 (p=0.046).

    Conclusions: After participating in pulmonary rehabilitation for 7 weeks the study could show a significant increase regarding walking distance and less perceived inconvenience from breathlessness at physical demanding activity. The patients increased their mental wellbeing but showed no significant increase regarding activity level or step counts/day, although a tendency that the patient were less sedentary could be seen.

  • Liljedahl, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkan av klossplacering på cykelskorna avseende effektutveckling och kadens vid cykelsprinter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim was to investigate whether cadence and power output is affected by the position of the cleats on the cycling shoes when cycling.

     

    Method

    Twelve well-trained men (33 ± 6.41 years old, length 176 ± 5.62 cm, weight 72 ± 7.84 kg, maximal power output 332.69 ± 54.38 W, maximal oxygen uptake 62.78 ± 6.45 ml∙kg-1∙min-1) participated in the study. Two maximal sprinttest on a test-bike (LC7, Monark Exercise AB, Sweden) that lasted for 20 seconds was performed, where an anterior and a posterior shoe cleat position was compared to each other. The order of the two tests was randomized. Cadence and power output was registered via the test-bike. The statistical analysis was done in SPSS and paired samples t-test was used.

     

    Results

    No significant difference was found when the clip was placed anteriorly or posteriorly on the cycling shoe, for neither cadence (p = 0.219) nor power output (p = 0.052), when comparing the anterior and posterior shoe cleat position. The difference for power output was however close to significant. Correlation was strong between cadence and power output for both the anterior and posterior position (r = 0.98 and 0.92 respectively).

     

    Conclusions

    The shoe cleat position has little or no effect regarding power output and freely chosen cadence, at a short duration maximal effort. However, there is a strong correlation between cadence and power output. Further studies should include a training period to confirm that the result is not dependent on the participants’ muscular and neurological adjustment to different positions on the bike.

  • Viol, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bedömning i specialidrott: Hur går lärarna tillväga och vilka ramfaktorer påverkar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur fotbollslärare i ämnet specialidrott arbetar med bedömning, samt vilka ramfaktorer som påverkar bedömningen.

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur arbetar lärare i specialidrott med bedömning?

    2. Vilka ramfaktorer påverkar lärarnas bedömning?

    3. Vilka svårigheter respektive möjligheter med bedömning i specialidrott upplever lärarna?

    Metod: Semi-strukturerade intervjuer via telefon genomfördes med fem lärare i specialidrott. Deltagarna var mellan 31-63 år och har arbetat med specialidrott i 1-25 år. Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades ordagrant. Analysen genomfördes sedan i fyra steg: hitta nyckelord, hitta teman, hitta underkategorier och hitta mönster.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att lärarna utgår främst från kurskriterierna vid bedömning och sådana färdigheter såsom teknik och taktik. De svårigheter som lärarna nämner är att sätta rättvisa betyg, otydlighet från Fotbollsförbundet och Skolverket. Möjligheterna med bedömning som resultatet visar på är att sätta rättvisa betyg då läraren träffar eleverna ofta, läraren kan diskutera med kollegor som också ser eleverna samt att det är en viss frihet för lärarna i upplägget. De ramfaktorer som påverkade mest var tid i olika perspektiv och styrdokument men även eleverna i form av klasstorlek och nivå samt lokaler påverkade.

    Slutsats: Den slutsats som dras är att det finns ramfaktorer som påverkar lärarnas bedömning. Styrdokument var en ramfaktor som påverkade och som lärarna använde sig av i bedömningen, tid och elevsammansättning är två andra ramfaktorer. En svårighet var att det var mycket otydlighet från förbundet och Skolverket. Enligt lärarna behövs det mer stöd från både Skolverket och förbundet. För att underlätta för lärarna måste det blir mer tydligt från förbundet och Skolverket i hur lärarna ska bedöma.

  • Karlsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norrby, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hjälpa varandra, rätt inställning och att göra sitt bästa: Vad upplever eleverna att de bedöms på i Idrott och Hälsa?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad elever i kommunala högstadieskolor uppfattar att de bedöms på i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa och orsaker till denna uppfattning. Vidare ska undersökas om utformningen av de lokala styrdokumenten (lokal arbetsplan och lokala betygskriterier) har påverkan på detta genom en jämförelse mellan skolorna.

    - Vilka tror eleverna är de viktigaste bedömningskriterierna i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa?

    - Har kön, nuvarande betyg och/eller lokala styrdokument tydlig inverkan på elevernas

    uppfattningar?

    Metod

    Vi kontaktade ett flertal skolor och undersökte möjligheterna att utföra vår studie på dessa. Vi fick okej från fyra av skolorna och på dessa genomförde vi en enkätundersökning som föregicks av ett deltagarbrev till eleverna. I brevet stod vad undersökningen gick ut på samt hur de skulle göra om de inte ville delta i undersökningen och även att allt är konfidentiellt. Utifrån enkäterna räknade vi i SPSS ut vilka faktorer som påverkade elevernas uppfattning samt eventuella confounders. Utöver detta gjorde vi även en förenklad innehållsanalys på skolornas lokala styrdokument.

    Resultat

    De två viktigaste bedömningskriterierna tror eleverna är främst en god social inställning och samarbetsvilja, och att ha en god fysik och att kunna prestera bra under lektioner såväl som på fritiden. Vår undersökning visar att elevernas kön inte påverkar uppfattningen om vad de tror sig bedömas på i Idrott och Hälsa. Det nuvarande betyget samt vilken skola de går på kunde uteslutas som en confounder genom en flerstegsuträkning i statistik programmet SPSS, kallad multipel regression.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen av studien blir att eleverna tror att de bedöms främst på deras inställning, att de klarar att hjälpa varandra, att de är snälla och trevliga och positiva i sin inställning. Det bedömningskriterium de tror kommer strax efter den sociala biten är att de utför fysisk träning och att de presterar bra i dessa moment. Vi kan inte se en direkt koppling till de olika arbetsplanerna i deras uppfattningar men vi ser en stor skillnad mellan elevernas inställning mellan de olika skolorna.

  • Pettersson, Michael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är det möjligt att göra som Idrotten vill?: En fallstudie om idrottsföreningars möjligheter att bedriva en barn- och ungdomsverksamhet som överensstämmer med idrottsrörelsens riktlinjer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to examine associations' views on their ability to conduct their activities in accordance with the Swedish policy document for sport, Idrotten vill to include the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. More specifically, the study has investigated the extent to which the associations allow children and young people to participate and what a participation for a child and youth includes, as well as what obstacles and opportunities the association's representatives identify for the implementation of the sports movement's guidelines.

    Method: The study has been conducted with a qualitative approach. Case studies were chosen as design and the central data consisted of eight interviews with union representatives at three different levels. The material has since been analyzed based on an actor and structure perspective and Lundquists (1987) "The simplified actor model" consisting of three factors (understanding, feasibility and will).

    Results: The association representatives claimed that all children and young people were allowed to participate in their association. Participation was limited in many cases, as there were circumstances, such as lack of space and leadership, which meant that the children and young people could not participate in the training and competition activities. The association representatives faced the majority of obstacles and opportunities to successfully implement the guidelines in the business. The identification of these was not unanimous. For example, some of the association's representatives felt that parents could be an asset, while others saw them as an obstacle. The explanation factors differed in terms of level and sport.

    Conclusions: The associations explained that in cases where the guidelines were not met, it was mainly because they could not control all conditions in society and then did not consider that they were given the opportunity to conduct an activity according to Idrotten vill. The association's other explanation model was that they did not have an interest in conducting their business in accordance with all the Guidelines in Idrotten vill, since Idrotten vill not be considered to be in agreement with their business or their members' will.

  • Regnander, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ungdomseliten - På väg mot toppen: Om motivation, ambition & betyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syfte är att undersöka hur den svenska ungdoms -och junior eliten inom svensk friidrott presterar i skolan. Frågeställningar undersökningen utgår ifrån är:

    - Skiljer sig ambitionsnivån och motivationen åt mellan elitfriidrottare och icke-elitfridrottare när det gäller utövandet av den egna idrotten?

    - Skiljer sig ambitionsnivån och motivationen åt mellan elitfriidrottare och icke-elitfridrottare när det gäller skolarbetet?

    - Skiljer sig betygsnivån åt mellan elitfriidrottare och icke-elitfridrottare avseende skolans kärnämnen?

    Metod

    Föreliggande studie är en kvantitativ studie. Datainsamlingen har skett i form av enkäter. Undersökningen involverar pojkar och flickor 16 - 19 år som är aktiva inom friidrott. Urvalet är slumpmässigt hämtat från svenska friidrottsförbundets årsbästalistor för 2016. I studien deltog totalt 67 stycken personer. All data har hämtats ifrån svenska friidrottsförbundets årsbästa listor som avser tävlingssäsongen 2016.

    Resultat

    Motivation och ambitions nivån skiljer sig åt mellan elitfriidrottare och icke-elitfriidrottare, de elitaktiva erhåller en högre grad av motivation och ambition gällande utövandet av den egna idrotten i föreliggande studien. Elitaktiva friidrottare hade en högre grad av motivation och ambition än icke-elitaktiva friidrottare, resultatet är signifikant.

    Slutsats

    Det man kunde utläsa av studiens resultat är att elitaktiva presterar bättre i skolan än de som inte är på elitnivå. Detta kan förklaras med bland annat Jonsons modell som pekar på att dessa elever har ett bra självförtroende och vill leverera på en hög nivå inom skolan och sina studier. (Jonsson 1985, s. 22-23). Man ska ta i beaktning att alla resultaten i föreliggande studie inte är signifikant. Detta kan bero på att svarsfrekvensen är alldeles för liten i förhållande till populationen.

  • Kaldo, Viktor
    et al.
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundin, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strid, Catharina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy and physical exercise on sick leave and employment in primary care patients with depression: two subgroup analyses.2017In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, oemed-2017-104326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Depression can negatively impact work capacity, but treatment effects on sick leave and employment are unclear. This study evaluates if internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) or physical exercise (PE), with already reported positive effects on clinical outcome and short-term work ability, has better effects on employment, sick leave and long-term work ability compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed primary care patients (German clinical trials: DRKS00008745).

    METHODS: After randomisation and exclusion of patients not relevant for work-related analysis, patients were divided into two subgroups: initially unemployed (total n=118) evaluated on employment, and employed (total n=703) evaluated on long-term sick leave. Secondary outcomes were self-rated work ability and average number of sick days per month evaluated for both subgroups. Assessments (self-reports) were made at baseline and follow-up at 3 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: For the initially unemployed subgroup, 52.6% were employed after 1 year (response rate 82%). Both PE (risk ratio (RR)=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.87) and ICBT (RR=0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84) showed lower rates compared with TAU after 3 months, but no difference was found after 1 year (PE: RR=0.97; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.57; ICBT: RR=1.23; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.13). For those with initial employment, long-term sick leave (response rate 75%) decreased from 7.8% to 6.5%, but neither PE (RR=1.4; 95% CI 0.52 to 3.74) nor ICBT (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.39 to 2.46) decreased more than TAU, although a temporary positive effect for PE was found. All groups increased self-rated work ability with no differences found.

    CONCLUSIONS: No long-term effects were found for the initially unemployed on employment status or for the initially employed on sick leave. New types of interventions need to be explored.

  • Carayol, Charles
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pedagogers syn på relationen mellan rörelseträning och inlärning: En kvalitativ studie av elever med koncentrationssvårigheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur lärare ser på relationen mellan inlärning och rörelseaktivitet, samt om de anser att barn med behov av särskilt stöd har ett större behov av fysisk aktivitet jämfört med andra barn.

    Frågeställningar

    • Hur ser lärare idag på sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och inlärningsförmåga?
    • Anser lärarna idag att barn i behov av särskilt stöd har ett större behov av daglig fysisk aktivitet jämfört med barn utan behov av särskilt stöd?

    Metod

    För att få svar på frågorna utfördes en kvalitativ undersökning i form av intervjuer. I studien ingick fyra olika lärare som undervisar i årskurserna 4-6. Intervjufrågorna utformades utifrån studiens frågeställningar samt med stöd av Jean Piagets kognitiva teori. Intervjusvaren transkriberades och analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Lärarna var eniga om svårigheterna med att erbjuda eleverna daglig fysisk aktivitet utöver den organiserade idrotten som skolorna har. De var även eniga om att fysisk aktivitet och motorikträning har en viktig roll för elevernas fortsatta inlärning och koncentration i skolan.

    Slutsats

    Lärarna som deltog i undersökningen hade en mycket generell uppfattning om sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och barns inlärning. De var alla eniga om att den fysiska aktiviteten var både viktig och givande för elevernas koncentration och inlärning under skoldagen. Lärarna saknade däremot en djupare kunskap av skälet till daglig fysisk aktivitet.

  • Ferm, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effects of rapid weight loss on sports performance: A systematic review2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss (RLW) in relation to physiological aspects, psychological aspects, and sport specific performance through a systematic review. This study further aimed to investigate what methods are being used when studying the effects of RWL. To examine the above the following research questions have been used: what physiological and psychological effects can be found in concurrence with RWL, how does the effects of RWL impact sports performance, and what methods are recurrently being used when studying the effects of RWL?

    Method: For this purpose a systematic review was conducted using three databases; PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus. Out of 1163 screened articles 20 of them were included in the review. Further analysis was conducted using Forsberg & Wengströms quality evaluation for quantitative studies screening form and the Swedish agency for health technology assessment and assessment of social services Risk of systematic bias screening form. Results were later summarized and compiled.

    Result: The most evident finding was that the athletes suffer from dehydration with significantly elevated levels of Urine Specific Gravity, USG. In addition the utilization of RWL also have a negative impact on both cognitive functions and mood, it affects important central factors such as reaction time. However many of the negative physiological effects have been show to subside after 4-12 hours if adequate recovery measures are implemented. The foremost evident sport specific finding was a maintained or increased relative anaerobic peak power. Furthermore positive results in maintaining performance for factors such as; Counter Movement-Jump, clean, snatch, judo specific test, and balance test.

    Conclusion: Although athletes were found dehydrated performance was still maintained in sport specific factors. However, this systematic review also found an overall lack of quality within the studies conducted. Sufficient scientific evidence was not found to draw reliable conclusions, additional studies of higher quality are needed for future reviews.

  • Mikaels, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Becoming-place: (Re)conceptualising friluftsliv in the Swedish physical education and health curriculum2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to critically examine taken for granted assumptions underpinning friluftsliv and outdoor education as a learning area in the curriculum, and to explore the educational potential of a place-responsive pedagogy. A growing body of critical research in outdoor studies suggest that there has been a discursive shift away from an activity-based personal and social development discourse, in favour of more critical awareness in outdoor education research. This discursive shift includes a focus on place and educating for an environmentally sustainable future as the primary goal for outdoor education. The Swedish curriculum emphasizes that historical, environmental, ethical, and international perspectives should be addressed in all subjects, including physical education and health (PEH), in which friluftsliv is imbedded. However, the implementation of these overarching perspectives into pedagogical practice has been proven to be rather limited.

    The thesis comprises four independent but connected articles. Empirically, this thesis draws on interviews with PE teachers in New Zealand, reflective journals from a month-long journey in the Canadian Rockies, and curriculum documents, interviews and workshop reflections from a yearlong case study with a group of PEH teachers in Sweden. Inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, relational materialism and posthuman perspectives have been employed in the analysis.

    Findings suggest that different ontological perspectives affect what is regarded as “normal” or “true” learning objectives in outdoor education and school-based friluftsliv. The overall findings from the thesis show that there is educational potential in place-responsive pedagogy. The case study demonstrates that place-responsiveness challenges the taken for granted people-centred practice focusing on personal and social development outcomes, which traditionally has dominated outdoor education and Swedish school-based friluftsliv. The decentring of humans, in favour of mutual and relational engagements with matter and the more-than-human, opens up new possibilities for embodied relations to place(s). 

    In conclusion, this thesis suggests the notion of engaging in a place-responsive pedagogy, in order to enable teachers to work within school-based friluftsliv in new and innovative ways. Place-responsiveness offer possibilities for working with the overarching perspectives and sustainability in pedagogical practice as well as for engaging in cross-curricular teaching and learning initiatives more locally.