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  • Nowik, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tellström, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Specialidrottslärares erfarenhet av rehabilitering för skadade elever: En kvalitativ studie riktad mot riksidrottsgymnasier och nationellt godkända idrottsutbildningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur specialidrottslärare på RIG och NIU ger stöttning samt förmedlar strategier till elever kring mentala situationer under en rehabilitering.

    Frågeställningarna studien ska besvara är följande:

    • Hur anpassas undervisningen för skadade elever på RIG och NIU i form av stöttning?
    • Vilka metoder förekommer på gymnasier för att bidra till elevernas motivation till rehabilitering?

    Metod

    Datainsamlingen till studien gjordes i form av intervjuer utifrån en intervjuguide. Sex specialidrottslärare med olika idrotter intervjuades, fyra från NIU och två från RIG utspritt på tre olika skolor i Mellansverige intervjuades. Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades.

    Resultat

    Samtliga specialidrottslärare menade att motivation behövdes för att orka med att genomföra en rehabilitering och att de hade ett ansvar att finnas där som ett socialt stöd för de skadade eleverna. En motivation för eleverna blev att ta sig igenom delmål utifrån ett rehabiliteringsprogram. Specialidrottslärarna ville få eleverna att känna delaktighet under skadeperioden och de stöttades till att uppnå sina delmål. Specialidrottslärarna ansåg att stöttning var en självklar del av undervisningen, framför allt under en skadeperiod då positiv stöttning bör komma från alla håll och kanter. Det är lättare att ge stöttning till elever som är tillsammans med övriga i gruppen, då gruppdynamiken ger positiv inverkan mentalt på den skadade eleven. En del av specialidrottslärarna använder sig av en strategi med målsättningar, där de sätter upp delmål för att få en progression med rehabiliteringen.

    Slutsats

    Undervisningen anpassas så att skadade elever i största mån ska utöva sin rehabilitering i anslutning till gruppen för att den skadade eleven ska känna sig inkluderad. Detta också för att specialidrottsläraren ska kunna ge stöttning och feedback under lektionstimmarna i skolan.

  • Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska insitutet.
    Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.2018In: Current Obesity Reports, E-ISSN 2162-4968, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 204-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity.

    RECENT FINDINGS: This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  • Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id E792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

  • Viol, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad anser gymnasieelever om olika undervisningsstilar i Idrott och hälsa?: - En kvantitativ studie av Mosstons 11 undervisningsstilar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to study upper secondary school students’ experiences and perceptions of Mosston's teaching styles.

    Issues:

    - Which of the 11 teaching styles do the students have the most experience of?

    - What teaching styles do the students think would be the most fun?

    - What teaching styles do the students think they should learn the most through?

    - What teaching styles do the students think would motivate them to learn?

    Method

    151 questionnaires were collected from upper secondary school students. The sample is based on a convenience selection in selecting schools and an additional sample selection in the selection of classes to get all three school years in upper secondary school. The statistics program SPSS version 25 for Mac was used. Significance level was set to p <0.05. First, descriptive analyzes were performed on all data. As the data was ordinal and the number of participants few, a non-parametric test needed to be done. Therefore Friedman's two-way analysis of variation was chosen. To analyse the significant difference, a Wilcoxon character ranks test was made to see between which styles there was a significant difference.

    Results

    The students had the most experience of the so-called practice style and least experience of self-teaching style. Most fun the students thought that the practice style would be, while the convergent discovery style would be least fun. Most instructive and motivational, the students thought that the practice style would be, while the self-teaching style appeared to be the least instructive and motivational.

    Conclusion

    More studies of the subject of teaching styles are required, and then qualitative character supplementary questions can be asked. One conclusion from the study is that it is not possible to determine whether the results are related to the students having the most experience of the practice style.

  • Lundgren, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Personlig träning och beteendeförändring: Hur personliga tränare arbetar med motivation för att främja klienternas beteendeförändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund

    Detta examensarbete undersökte hur fem personliga tränare i Sverige arbetar med motivation för att främja sina klienters beteendeförändring under perioden sex månader och framåt. Det teoretiska paradigmet var utformat av self determination teorin (självbestämmande teorin) och den transteoretiska modellen.

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur personliga tränare arbetar för att främja sina klienters beteendeförändring sex månader och framåt, för att sedan kunna utvärdera deras arbetssätt utifrån teori inom beteendeförändring och motivation. För att uppnå syftet med uppsatsen formulerades följande huvudfrågeställning: Hur arbetar personliga tränare med motivation för att främja sina klienters beteendeförändring sex månader och framåt?

    Metod

    Studien utgick från en kvalitativ metod med en deduktiv ansats, fallstudie gjordes på gymkedja X där fem personliga tränare intervjuades via telefonintervjuer. I empirikapitlet framställs intervjupersonernas svar som även jämförs med varandra. Till sist kommer analysen där empirin tolkas utifrån tidigare forskning och relevant teori inom området, olika samband mellan teori och empiri framställs.

    Resultat

    Följande områden viktiga för en lyckad beteendeförändring: Förflyttning mot inre motivation, få klienterna att uppleva att det nya beteendet är en naturlig del av livet, stärka klienternas vinster med fysisk aktivitet samt förebygga återfall.

    Slutsats

    Intervjupersonerna ansåg att arbetet med relationen till klienterna och klienternas relatering till kunskap och miljön där beteendeförändringen äger rum är det viktigaste. Arbetet kring detta ger de personliga tränarna bra förutsättningar för att sedan öka klienternas kompetens och autonomi vilket innebär att klienterna i sin tur drivs mer av inre motivation vilket resulterar i en lyckosam beteendeförändring.

  • Grönquist, Kenny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Drogproblematikens vara eller icke vara i gymnasieskolan: En studie om två gymnasieskolors drogförebyggande arbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the problem of drugs that may exist in the school environment at upper secondary schools. Furthermore, there is an aim to investigate how school staff carry through with the drug preventive work. Is there a drug problem at the schools? What preventive drug work is in affect at the schools? What is the effect of the drug preventive work at the schools?

    Method: The study is qualitative with an inductive approach, where fact based interviews with semistructured structure has been chosen as the method of collecting empiri. The selection for the study comprises two upper secondary schools in the Stockholm area, which differ in admission points where a PE teacher, curator and principal was interviewed at the respective schools. The selection for the study where a convenience selection in combination with a hand-picked selection. The interviews were processed with a hermeneutic approach and empirin was analyzed on the basis of system theory and the salutogenic perspective.

    Results: The results show that the schools have a drug problem regarding pupils where drug problems may be more or less visible. Overall, respondents perceive that students today have a more liberal view of drugs than before. All respondents agree that the principal has ultimate responsibility, but that all school staff must contribute to the work. The structure of the drug prevention work differs from the two schools, and this can be seen in the light of the fact that one school has a more open problem. All respondents pushes the importance of a good school environment and that this is the most effective method for successful drug prevention work. The respondents mention that there is a problem with confronting students as they often deny and that custodians can get upset. Respondents also argue that there is no structure and clear framework for how the drug prevention work should be realized. 

    Conclusion: A conclusion that can be drawn from the system theory is that the Swedish school system from macro systems down to micro systems has too many closed self-referencing systems and where communication, which is the key in the system theory, is inadequate between the different system levels. Nevertheless, the willingness of the two schools is to work more with the drug prevention, and the focus is on creating a safe and developing school environment that goes hand in hand with the salutogenic perspective.

  • Österberg, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitfotbollsklubbarna i Stockholms NIU-verksamhet: en kvalitativ studie av klubbarnas verksamhet på gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och beskriva hur de elitföreningar i Stockholm som bedriver specialidrott fotboll i skolan upplever samarbetet med de olika skolorna. Syftet är också att undersöka och beskriva vilka svårigheter respektive utvecklingsmöjligheter föreningarna upplever.

    Gymnasieskolans ramar och regler måste föreningarna förhålla sig till men vägen dit och prioriteringarna kan se olika ut. De frågeställningar som användes är:

    • Hur beskriver föreningen sitt samarbete med gymnasieskolan?
    • Hur upplever föreningen att målet att utbilda elitspelare påverkas av samarbetet med gymnasieskolan?
    • Vilket utvecklingsområde är det viktigaste i samarbetet med gymnasiet?

    Metod

    Studiens ansats är kvalitativ och den datainsamlingsmetod som använts är semistrukturerade enskilda intervjuer. Enligt Bryman (2011) tillåter semistrukturerade intervjuer att respondenternas svar leder till eventuella följdfrågor. Studiens intervjuguide är uppbyggd tematiskt.

    Resultatet

    Resultatet visar att de undersökta föreningarnas förhållningssätt till både studier och fotbollsträningen i gymnasiet är att det är ett helhetskoncept. Skillnaderna i hur föreningarna prioriterar finns men målet är detsamma. Som helhet är klubbarna nöjda med sina respektive samarbeten och förslag på utvecklingsmöjligheter finns hos samtliga.

    Slutsats

    Den Nationella Idrottsutbildningen, NIU, kanske inte är den perfekta lösningen men fungerar i de undersökta föreningarna väl. Formerna för utbildningen, faciliteterna och andra resurser håller hög klass rakt igenom. Det finns anledning för vidare studier i ämnet för att utvecklingen ska ske i hela landet.

  • Wikås, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Imagery - the power of the mind: En intervention om visualiseringens påverkan på truppgymnasters upplevda nervositet inför tävling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studien avsåg undersöka om visualisering kan påverka eventuell nervositet och självförtroendet hos gymnaster inför tävling i truppgymnastik, samt huruvida PETTLEPmodellen kontra traditionell visualisering1 ger olika resultat. Följande frågeställningar avses besvaras genom studien:

    1. Har visualisering enligt PETTLEP-modellen någon påverkan på nervositet och självförtroende inför en tävling?

    2. Skiljer sig eventuell nervositet och självförtroende inför en tävling hos gymnaster beroende på om PETTLEP-modellen eller traditionell visualisering används?

    Metod

    19 deltagare (ålder 17,09, ± 0,92) fullföljde studien. De placerades i en interventions- (IG) och en kontrollgrupp (KG) utan randomisering. IG genomgick ett PETTLEP-program (nio sessioner under tre veckor). Visualiseringen utfördes cirka 15 minuter före träning i ett rum intill hallen. IG guidades av studiens författare. KG utförde två sessioner med traditionell visualisering. I studien användes Immediate Anxiety Measurement Scale (IAMS), the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ) och en manipulationscheck som mätinstrument.

    Resultat

    En mixed ANOVA visade att den enda signifikanta skillnaden var självförtroendets påverkan, p = > .05. Självförtroendets påverkan ökade från M = -0,13 till M = 2,00 för IG. Intensiteten av mental och fysisk nervositet ökade hos KG från M = 3,90 respektive M = 3,70 vid första tillfället till M = 5,20 respektive M = 4,90 vid sista tillfället. Intensiteten av fysisk nervositet och självförtroendet ökade från M = 3,87 respektive M = 3,88 till M = 4,38 respektive M = 4,50 för IG. Den mentala nervositetens påverkan ökade från första till sista tillfället för IG (M = -0,5 resp. M = 0,75). Frekvensen av mental och fysisk nervositet för KG ökade från M = 3,70 resp. M = 3,60 till M = 4,90 resp. M = 4,40.

    Slutsats

    Självförtroendets påverkan på prestationen ökade hos IG medan KG minskade. Det kan inte fastställas att studiens innehåll var den enda bidragande faktorn till resultatet. Ett flertal skillnader kunde utläsas (ej signifikanta), men trend och effektstorlek talar för en viss förändring på ett fåtal av resultaten. Således behövs mer forskning inom området.

    1Traditionell visualisering, till skillnad från PETTLEP-modellen, tar inte hänsyn till neurovetenskapligt framtagna rekommendationer så som PETTLEP-modellen gör

  • Lidin, Matthias
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Rydell-Karlsson, Monica
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Long-term effects on cardiovascular risk of a structured multidisciplinary lifestyle program in clinical practice.2018In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of premature death world-wide with factors like abdominal obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia being central risk factors in the etiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk after 6 months and 1 year, in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk enrolled in a lifestyle multidisciplinary program in a clinical setting.

    METHOD: Individuals with increased cardiovascular risk were referred from primary health care and hospitals to a program at an outpatient clinic at a department of cardiology. The program consisted of three individual visits including a health check-up with a physical examination and blood sampling, and a person-centered dialogue for support in behavioural change of unhealthy lifestyle habits (at baseline, 6 months and 1 year). Furthermore, five educational group sessions were given at baseline. Cardiovascular risk was assessed according to Framingham cardiovascular risk predicting model.

    RESULTS: One hundred individuals (mean age 59 years, 64% women) enrolled between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol decreased significantly over 1 year. In parallel, cardiovascular risk according to the cardiovascular risk profile based on Framingham 10-year risk prediction model, decreased with 15%. The risk reduction was seen in both men and women, and in participants with or without previous cardiovascular disease.

    CONCLUSION: Participating in a structured lifestyle program over a year was associated with significant improvement in multiple cardiovascular risk factors and decreased overall cardiovascular risk.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (ClinicalTrial.gov ID: NCT02744157 ).

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health.2018In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.

  • Nilsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Phunipananta Muñoz, Antonio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gymnasieelevers psykiska hälsa, fysiska aktivitet och studieresultat: En kvantitativ studie av korrelationen mellan psykisk hälsa och fysisk aktivitet samt mellan studieresultat och fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka psykisk hälsa, fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat bland gymnasieelever i årskurs tre. I studien har följande frågeställningar använts.

    - Vilken inverkan har uppskattad fysisk aktivitet på studieresultat? Finns det någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnor?

    - Hur påverkas elevers uppskattade psykiska hälsa av fysisk aktivitet? Finns det någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnor?

    - Hur påverkar elevernas fysiska aktivitetsnivå deras självkänsla?

    Metod

    I studien användes en kvantitativ metod som gick ut på att göra en enkätundersökning på gymnasieelever som gick i årskurs tre. Kontakt togs med gymnasieklasser som går i årskurs tre för att genomföra undersökningen. Urvalet skedde genom ett bekvämlighetsurval. Eleverna går ett studieförberedande program och svarade på frågor som handlar om elevernas psykiska hälsa, fysiska aktivitet och deras betyg. Totalt samlades 189 godkända enkäter in. Resultaten analyserades med hjälp av Excel och SPSS.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar på låg korrelation mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat bland gymnasieeleverna. Det visas även en låg korrelation mellan psykisk hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Det fanns endast en korrelation bland kvinnornas fysiska aktivitetsnivå kontra studieresultat, det samma gällde psykisk hälsa kontra fysiska aktivitet, bland männen fanns ingen korrelation. Självkänsla och fysisk aktivitetsnivå hade också en låg korrelation.

    Slutsats

    Dataanalysen från undersökningen visar att det inte är någon större korrelation bland de mätningar som genomförts i studien. Enligt studien är det endast ett mindre samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat och slutsatsen som kan dras utifrån detta är att det är möjligt att uppnå höga betyg trots att man inte är fysiskt aktiv. Samma sak gäller även mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykisk hälsa, då korrelationen där är relativt låg. Korrelationen är också relativt låg mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykisk hälsa och slutsatsen som kan dras utifrån det är att det är möjligt att ha en god psykisk hälsa och prestera bra i skolan trots låg fysisk aktivitet.

  • Tasci, Tiglath
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Koria, Cherbel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vidskeplighet inom elitidrott: En kvalitativ studie om förekomsten av vidskepelser inom idrottsvärlden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine what kind of superstitions can occur within the world of sports and why these superstitious thoughts occur. The set of questions in this study are: Which rituals are executed? Does the rituals differ between individuals, group of individuals and/or sports, in this case football, tennis, ice hockey and floorball? Which are the underlying factors to the execution of the rituals? Are the rituals executed because of superstition (specific experience/fears) or are they executed as a reference to specific knowledge or reasoning?

    Method

    A qualitative research has been made, containing of six interviews with professionals from four different sports. The selection was based on comfort since we executed the interviews with professionals within our vicinity.

    Results and conclusion

    The study shows that superstition occur intentional and unintentional within world sport. It has also shown that superstition vary a lot depending on individual and sport. The study has shown that superstitions can be all from a specific diet that is intentional superstition, to perform a cross with the hand unintentionally. The study shows that superstitious rituals occur because the individuals that perform a sport want to feel comfortable or to get a sense of control during a situation that is not manageable. Furthermore has the study shown that the underlying factors to superstitions also are to increase the professionals´ performance and in some cases even to prevent injuries?

  • Storm, Mårten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det målgörande bollinnehavet: En studie om hur målen görs i Svenska Superligan i innebandy för herrar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad som händer under det målgörande bollinnehavet under spel fem mot fem i herrarnas SSL i innebandy samt att se hur stor andel av målen som görs på kontring och vad som skiljer lagens agerande vid kontringsmålen jämfört med de andra målen. De målgörande bollinnehaven studeras utifrån följande frågeställningar: Var vinner laget bollen? Hur vinner laget bollen? Vad händer efter bollvinsten? Hur lång är durationen på bollinnehavet? Varifrån görs målen?

    Metod

    Data samlas in genom strukturerade observationer av de första fem omgångarna i herrarnas SSL säsongen 2017–2018, totalt 30 matcher. Matcherna kodas enligt beskrivningen under rubrik 4.1

    Resultat

    Svaren på frågeställningarna 1–4 skiljer sig mellan de mål som gjordes genom kontring och de mål som gjordes på annat sätt. Vid kontringsmålen vanns ofta bollen genom en duell på egen planhalva och tre-fyra spelare attackerade sedan direkt. Vid de mål som inte gjordes på kontring startade det ungefär lika många bollinnehav på den offensiva planhalvan som på den defensiva. Bollen flyttades ofta till en ny yta direkt efter erövring och anfallsspelet karaktäriserades ofta av en hög rörlighet och många inbladade spelare innan avslut. Det gjordes många mål på mycket nära avstånd till målburen. Zon 5C1 var det område där flest mål gjordes. 

    Slutsats

    Under de målgörande bollinnehaven var intensiteten generellt hög, mycket hände på kort tid. Spelarna agerar samlat och bestämt i omställningarna. Spelarna fattade beslut och agerade snabbt och rörligheten på samtliga spelare var ofta hög. Det agerades nästa alltid snabbt direkt efter bollvinst, därefter blev det antingen en kontring, där spelarna gick rakt och snabbt mot motståndarens mål, eller ett anfallsspel där bollen flyttades till en ny yta för att börja bygga upp ett anfall.    

  • Mattsson, Casey
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sandström, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Damerna först!: En kvantitativ jämförelse av ett damallsvenskt lag och det svenska damlandslaget2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to compare a Swedish top league soccer team to the Swedish national team during a competitive game. Comparisons included measurements in player load, total distance covered, high-speed running (HL), very high-speed running (MHL) and sprint (S). The research questions were: Is there a difference in player load and total distance covered between the teams? Is there a difference in player load and total distance covered between different playing positions? Is there a difference in HL, MHL and S in performed and meters covered between different positions and between the two teams?    

    Method

    The number of participants were eight female soccer players (age 27±1,8, length 168±4,7, weight 65±4,7). They played in the top of the league during the season of 2017. A GPS system (MinimaxX S4) was used to collect data. The game was played on nature grass in the last round of the season. The National team values were supplied by SVFF where 12 players participated (age 28±4,5, length 174±5, weight 64±4,2).

    Results

    The Swedish league team had 186 higher player load than the National team where no significant difference was found. Furthermore, the Swedish league team’s midfielders were loaded 19 % more than the national team’s. The Swedish league attackers were loaded 33 % more than the national team’s. The difference in player load between the defenders was 7 % higher for the Swedish league team’s. The Swedish league team covered 15 % more meters in total distance where no significant difference was seen. All players in the Swedish league team covered the longest distance. There were no significant difference between number of performed and meters covered in HL, MHL and S. The Swedish league team covered 1 % more meters HL and 13 % more meters MHL than the National team. The National team covered 3 % more meter S than the Swedish league team. The National team performed 19 % more HL and 9 % more MHL than the Swedish league team. In total, the National team performed more HL, MHL and S than the Swedish league team.     

    Conclusion

    No significant difference was found between the two teams. Although, the National team covered higher number of S performed and meters which is in accordance to previous surveys which shows more high-speed actions is performed in higher competition levels during a game. The survey should be expanded to further examine the demands for women’s soccer. 

  • Brattsell, Ann-Christin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Excentrisk träning av quadriceps i kombination med träning av höft- och bålmuskulatur vid patellar tendinopati: en pilotstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes over time during eccentric quadriceps training with a previously unstudied exercise dosage in combination with hip and core exercises for a period of 12 weeks in patients with patellar tendinopathy. The outcome measures were: pain, self-evaluated symptoms, functions and ability to participate in sport, functional jumptest and patellar tendon tissue changes.

    Method: This was an uncontrolled pilot study. Twelve patients diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy using clinical testing and ultrasound imaging participated in the study voluntarily (2 female and 10 men, mean age 29.2 years, duration of symptoms > 3 months). To evaluate the intervention a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure pain at rest and during activity. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score (VISA-P) was used to evaluate self-assessed symptoms, function and ability to participate in sport. One-leg hop test for distance (OLH) was used as a functional test. Changes in the patellar tendon were examined using ultrasound imaging and colour doppler. Measurements took place at baseline and at 12 weeks. The exercise program contained eccentric quadriceps training (drop-squat on one leg) standing on a decline board, quadriceps stretching in combination with hip and core exercises performed 3 times per week for twelve weeks. P-value was set at < 0.05 and a tendency was included between 0.05 < p < 0.1

    Results: At 12 weeks a significant reduction of pain was observed at rest (from 64 to 11.5) and during activity (from 80 to 21) as well as improved VISA-P scores (from 44 to 71.5). A significant improvement was observed on the functional hop test (from 103 to 132 cm). No significant changes in the patellar tendon were observed with ultrasound imaging. Although there was a tendency towards structural improvement of the patellar tendon (p=.083) after 12 weeks of intervention.

    Conclusion: After twelve weeks of intervention a significant improvement was observed with respect to pain and function. It would be of interest to examine long-term changes of this combined training program. These results may be used as a foundation for a future randomised controlled intervention study.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Albrektsson, Görgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärares syn på kunskap och lärande i bollspel2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AIM

    The aim was to study teachers of physical education and their view of knowledge and learning in ball games in secondary school (grades 7-9). The more precise questions were: (1) What do the teachers describe as knowledge in ball games? (2) How do teachers expose learning in ball games for students? (3) In what way do teachers design their lessons in ball games for the students? (4) How do teachers create participation and involvement of students when teaching in ball games?

    Method

    The empirical data were collected through interviews with four experienced teachers in physical education, three men and one woman. The respondents worked in grades 7-9. The theoretical framework is inspired by Pierre Bourdieu's theory of habitus, field and capital and these concepts have been used in the analysis and interpretation of data.

    Results

    The teachers think that ballgames can contribute with knowledge for life. They also emphasize the importance of understanding the difference between different types of ballgames. The teachers’ schedule the specific game to make it visible for the students, and during the lessons they focus on the specific ballgame, not on the learning described by the syllabus. The teachers want to plan the different ballgames more than once to help the students to understand and practice. Recurrent answers from the interviews are that the influence from the students is varying. No teacher, among the respondents, gives the students control over the teaching, but in some cases there are skilled and active students that can give tips and help with the lessons.

    Conclusions

    The teachers have a strong (sports) habitus which is related to knowledge and experiences from the sports area. This knowledge is, as described by themselves, perceived as a worthful capital which can be used as a symbolic capital when teaching. Bourdieu’s theories about habitus and capital can be related to the way teachers talk about their experiences and instruction. The way of instructing and demonstrating can be derived to habitus, where the teachers do not need to think about how to do it, it is from former experiences ‘just there’. The teachers’ knowledge is thereby considered as an asset in some situations, which is related to the fact that the subject of Physical Education and Health is within or strongly affected by the social area that organized sport constitutes. A sporting habitus gives, in this case, a (sports) capital that can be converted to a symbolic capital. A symbolic capital that is also valued by others. We can see a risk with this type of transfer of standards and values related to valid knowledge according to Bourdieu’s theory. This can also effect the strategies for teaching for teachers with another kind of habitus and capital, for example, from outdoor life, as this type of knowledge can be seen as less legitimate. This latter should be given attention in the PEH teacher education.

  • Höglund, Rebecca
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wiiand, Tilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kompetens före kön: En kvalitativ studie av kvinnliga specialidrottslärares upplevelser i ett mansdominerat yrke2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The study aims to clarify female teachers knowledge and experience of working in a male dominated profession as a school sports teacher. The study will answer the following questions.

    • Why have the teachers chosen to work as a school sports teacher?
    • How do the teachers get affected by the fact that there are few female colleagues in the subject of school sports?
    • How do the teachers get affected by working in an environment with an overrepresentation of men?

    Method

    Eight female school sports teachers were hand-picked with certain criterias. With a qualitative focus, this study used semi-structured interviews in order to reach a deeper understanding of the knowledge and experience of working in the subject of school sports. Historian Yvonne Hirdmans gender system and stereotypes model was used to investigate what happens when women enter the male dominated profession as school sports teacher.

    Results

    The results of the study showed that the teachers work with school sports because of their interest in sports. The women are not affected by the fact that there are fewer female than male teachers in the subject of school sports. They feel like a minority in club sports. The women highlight, the lack of interest in the profession among girls and correlates it to the existing jargon in club sports. The females are satisfied with their current working situation, but they get affected by working in a male dominated environment because they have to assert themselves. Also, some of the women believe that if they would have opposite sex, according to their knowledge and experience, they would work with sports, but they were not convinced that it would be in school sports and few of them believe that they probably would get offered other jobs in club sports, for example national head coach or club director.

    Conclusion

    The eight women chose to work in school sports because of their interest in sports. The women are not affected by the fact that there are few female teachers in the subject of school sports, but they feel like a minority during club sports.

  • Mohammadi, Aras
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Utveckling av barns sociala egenskaper genom lek2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:

    Syfte:

    Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på hur viktig leken är för idrottsläraren när det gäller att påverka barnens sociala och emotionella utveckling under idrottslektionerna. Syftet är också ta reda på vad idrottslärare anser att barn kan utveckla för sociala egenskaper genom lek och andra former av fysisk aktivitet, samt hur motoriken kan påverka och bidra till att utveckla barnet socialt och emotionellt.

    Metod:

    Undersökningen har handlat om idrottslärarnas uppfattningar vad det gäller det sociala utvecklandet genom lek. Valet av tillvägagångssätt föll på den kvalitativa metoden. Lärare har intervjuats och spelats in med bandspelare för att kunna få en bättre återspegling. Totalt sett har fyra olika lärare intervjuats. Kolbs utvecklingsteori har använts som teoretiskt perspektiv. Detta perspektiv handlar om upplevelsebaserat lärande, som innebär att man skaffar sig nya kunskaper och erfarenheter genom upplevelse.

    Resultat:

    Lärarna ansåg att barn kan utveckla flera sociala egenskaper genom lek. Det finns många sociala egenskaper. Ett exempel är empati genom att samspela med andra. Ömsesidighet, gemenskap, samarbeta, visa hänsyn och hur man uppför sig är ett fåtal av de egenskaper barn kan utveckla. Lärarna ansåg dessutom att motoriken är en viktig del av det sociala utvecklandet. De menade att genom att ha god motorik, kan barn delta i leken och känna sig trygga i en grupp. Lärarna tyckte att lek innebär att ha kul och känna rörelseglädje Lek innebär även att komma till en annan värld. Lärarnas undervisning präglas av leken då den är ett viktigt redskap för dem när det gäller inlärning.

    Slutsats:

    Leken är viktig, för att det är där barnen utvecklar dessa sociala egenskaper som de tar med sig under hela uppväxten. Motoriken är en viktig del av utvecklingen, eftersom om barnet inte kan röra sig på ett visst sätt, kan det kanske inte vara med och leka med de andra. Leken betyder otroligt mycket för idrottslärarna eftersom att den kan hjälpa barnet att utveckla vissa egenskaper, bland annat empati, hänsyn och samarbete. Det är genom leken dessa sociala egenskaper utvecklas.

  • Mikaels, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    En bildningsresa genom danskt turfriluftsliv: recension av avhandlingen Muligheder og begrænsninger for friluftsliv: Et studie fra Det Sydfynske Øhav av Jakob Haahr (2016)2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 28 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Zhou, Guang-Quan
    et al.
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Yi
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Ruo-Li
    Karolinska Institute & Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Zhou, Ping
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zheng, Yong-Ping
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institute.
    Chen, Qiang
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Automatic Myotendinous Junction Tracking in Ultrasound Images with Phase-Based Segmentation.2018In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 3697835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) obtained by ultrasound imaging is crucial to quantify the interactive length changes of muscles and tendons for understanding the mechanics and pathological conditions of the muscle-tendon unit during motion. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts its application in human motion analysis. This paper presents an automated measurement of MTJ displacement using prior knowledge on tendinous tissues and MTJ, precluding the influence of nontendinous components on the estimation of MTJ displacement. It is based on the perception of tendinous features from musculoskeletal ultrasound images using Radon transform and thresholding methods, with information about the symmetric measures obtained from phase congruency. The displacement of MTJ is achieved by tracking manually marked points on tendinous tissues with the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm applied over the segmented MTJ region. The performance of this method was evaluated on ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius obtained from 10 healthy subjects (26.0±2.9 years of age). Waveform similarity between the manual and automatic measurements was assessed by calculating the overall similarity with the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC).<italic> In vivo</italic> experiments demonstrated that MTJ tracking with the proposed method (CMC = 0.97±0.02) was more consistent with the manual measurements than existing optical flow tracking methods (CMC = 0.79±0.11). This study demonstrated that the proposed method was robust to the interference of nontendinous components, resulting in a more reliable measurement of MTJ displacement, which may facilitate further research and applications related to the architectural change of muscles and tendons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • Gustavsson, Catharina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Dalarna University, Mälardalen University.
    Nordqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Mälardalen University.
    Bröms, Kristina
    Uppsala University.
    Jerdén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Dalarna University.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, Karolinska Institutet, University of Gothenburg.
    What is required to facilitate implementation of Swedish physical activity on prescription? - interview study with primary healthcare staff and management.2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The method, Swedish Physical Activity on Prescription (SPAP), has been launched in Swedish healthcare to promote physical activity for prevention and treatment of lifestyle related health disorders. Despite scientific support for the method, and education campaigns, it is used to a limited extent by health professionals. The aim of the study was to describe the views of health professionals on perceived facilitators, barriers and requirements for successful implementation of SPAP in primary healthcare.

    METHODS: Eighteen semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in SPAP, i.e. ten people working in local or central management and eight primary healthcare professionals in two regional healthcare organisations, were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: We identified an overarching theme regarding requirements for successful implementation of SPAP: Need for knowledge and organisational support, comprising four main categories: Need for increased knowledge and affirmative attitude among health professionals; Need for clear and supportive management; Need for central supporting structures; Need for local supporting structures. Knowledge of the SPAP method content and core components was limited. Confidence in the method varied among health professionals. There was a discrepancy between the central organisation policy documents declaring that disease preventive methods were prioritised and a mandatory assignment, while the health professionals asked for increased interest, support and resources from management, primarily time and supporting structures. There were somewhat conflicting views between primary healthcare professionals and managers concerning perceived barriers and requirements. In contrast to some of the management's beliefs, all primary healthcare professionals undisputedly acknowledged the importance of promoting physical activity, but they lacked time, written routines and in some cases competence for SPAP counselling.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides knowledge regarding requirements to facilitate the implementation of SPAP in healthcare. There was limited knowledge among health professionals regarding core components of SPAP and how to practise the method, which speaks for in-depth training in the SPAP method. The findings highlight the importance of forming policies and guidelines and establishing organisational supporting structures, and ensuring that these are well known and approved in all parts of the healthcare organisation.

  • Forss, Alexandra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Berglund, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag tycker att kunskapskraven är jätteotydliga...": en kvalitativ studie om elevers förståelse för vad de ska kunna sista året i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether pupils in grade nine know what is expected of them in the subjects of PE and health, swedish and mathematics. Another purpose of the study is to find out when, where and how knowledge requirements are conveyed and concretized from teacher to pupils.

    • What do the pupils know about what is expected of them in the different subjects?
    • When, where and how is the knowledge requirements from teacher to pupil conveyed?
    • What are the similarities and differences between the different subjects?

    Method

    A qualitative interview method has been used to answer the study's purpose and questions. Three focus group interviews have been conducted with four pupils in each group. The selection has been developed based on the convenience principle and interviews have been conducted at two different schools in the Stockholm area. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and then the material was interpreted on the basis of a thematic content analysis. The results are then discussed using the sociocultural perspective and previous research.

    Results and conclusions

    The pupils have some understanding of what is expected of them in the subjects of PE and health as well as swedish, while understanding is worse in mathematics. Knowledge requirements are communicated mostly orally and/or via some kind of aids, such as a smartboard or paper. This usually occurs before every new moment. Sometimes pupils also get examples of how a task looks at an E, C, and A-level. The teachers in the different subjects are described to work similarly, except for the mathematical subject where pupils almost can not see the knowledge requirements. There are many similarities between the subjects, but what seems like a difference is that the pupils have a much worse understanding of the mathematical subject. In addition, the differences seem to be what the teacher is and how he chooses to do rather than having something about the subject to do. What seems extra important is that teachers explain the knowledge requirements and make them concrete so that the pupils understand what the different values mean.

  • Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Avhandling som på ett intressant sätt väver samman olika sociologiska perspektiv på mäns tal om och förståelse av hälsa, kropp och fysisk aktivitet: recension av avhandlingen “I have a pacemaker and hip replacement, but I’m up and running”: Rural Norwegian men’s meanings related to health, body and physical activity av Stein Egil Kolderup Hervik2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 15 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Karlefors, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Searching for the ‘How’: Teaching methods in Swedish physical education2018In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, focus in educational research – as well as in policy – seems to have shifted from teaching to learning. As a result of this, we know little about what different teaching methods are used in the subject, and how. The purpose of this article is to explore how different teaching methods are used in Swedish secondary physical education. Video recorded physical education lessons in eight Swedish secondary schools were used to identify different teaching methods. Kirk’s (1996) elaboration of the Spectrum of teaching styles formed the basis of the analysis. In subsequent interviews, teachers (8) and students (24) were asked questions about teaching and learning in the subject. All of the five methods that Kirk (1996) outlined were identified in the lessons, but they were very unevenly used. The task-based method was the most frequent one, while the guided discovery method was hardly used at all. The impression was that the teachers did not seriously consider the selection of methods in relation to objective, content and group of students. The students, for their part, described a situation where they were often left to their own devices regarding what they were supposed to learn. Based on the analysis, we argue that teachers need guidance to improve and develop their deliberate use of teaching methods in general, and especially student-centred methods. This is necessary if the goals of the subject are to be achievable for all students. We conclude that the marginal focus on teaching methods in physical education is not related to a parallel increase of the interest in student learning in the subject. On the contrary, the low interest in the use of different teaching methods seems rather to be related to a low interest in what students are to learn in the subject.

  • Börjesson, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjukhusskolan, en plats för idrott och hälsa?: En kvalitativ studie av sjukhusskolans utformning och förutsättningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of this study is to get an understanding of hospital education. This means that this study is about how the teaching is designed and what affects the teacher’s tuition, as well to gain an understanding of how physical and health education is conducted at the hospital school. The purpose was expressed in three questions: 1. What factors affect the teaching of the hospital teacher at the hospital school? 2. Does the hospital teacher use physical and health education when teaching and what experience do the teachers have for physical activity when they're teaching? 3. What opportunities and limitations do the hospital teachers experience for physical activity?

    Method: The study material is collected via semistructured interviews. The selection is based on a strategic selection of participants. Selection criteria are based on that the teacher works at a hospital school. The theoretical starting point of this study is curriculum theory and frame-work factor theory.

    Results: The results show the five factors are affecting the teaching at the hospital school. These factors are student group, design, local, content and time. The majority of teachers at the hospital school do not use physical and health education when they’re teaching. The occasions when teachers uses physical activity vary. The children's state of sickness and local access con-sider teachers to be the factors that affect possible use of physical education.

    Conclusion: Teaching at the hospital school is essentially based on what the student's home school imposes. Swedish or Swedish as a second language, Mathematics and English gets a large focus when teaching at the hospital school. Physical frameworks, regulatory frameworks as well as transformation and realization processes affect the teaching at the hospital school.

  • von Schewelov, Martinique
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vadå tekniska och taktiska förmågor?: En studie om hur specialidrottslärare förhåller sig till bedömning av tekniska och taktiska förmågor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers in the subject "Specialised physical" education relate to assessment of technical and tactical skills in a chosen sport.

    Questions at issue

    • How are technical and tactical skills assessed?
    • Other than technical and tactical skills, what factors play a part in the assessment of the subject Specialized physical education?

    Method A qualitative method was implemented on five of Sweden’s tennis coaches teaching in the subject Specialized physical education. The questions formed for the interviews where semi structured in aim of making sure more detailed answers could be given and supplementary questions could be posed. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory with the concepts Habitus, Capital and Field where used as a theoretical framework.

    Results The coaches experienced difficulties with interpreting and using curricula and assessment tools presented by Skolverket. Therefore, they also find difficulties in knowing what to assess regarding tactical and technical skills. The coaches mainly work with technical, tactical and physical skills, mental development, work effort and behaviour. These are also the factors that are most noted when it comes to assessment in the subject.

    Conclusion The coaches in this study experience difficulties in relating to both The national agency for education curricula and the assessment tools regarding assessment of the specific abilities technique and tactics. Many of the coaches therefore base their assessment on their personal habitus, meaning, they build their teaching and assessment methods on their own experiences and their own beliefs of what should be taught and learnt by the students. Despite some differences in both educational background and training philosophy amongst the coaches, they all work and relate to technical and tactical skills in more or less equivalent ways and with equal goals. Viewed from Bourdieu’s notions, the coaches could therefore be considered being in the same field, with a equivalent capital.

  • Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Gymnastics as Remedy: A Study of Nineteenth Century Swedish Medical Gymnastics2018In: Athens Journal of Sports, E-ISSN 2241-7915, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examined a form of 19th century globally spread physiotherapy known as Swedish medical gymnastics. The goal of the research was to determine the aim of medical gymnastics, its elements and its performance style. The study also investigated why medical gymnastics had such a large global impact? Applying a qualitative text analysis, the results showed that medical gymnastics, through individually tailored movements, aimed to restore health, which for various reasons had declined. Furthermore, the treatment made particular use of passive movements carried out by someone other than the patient. Even massage was included. However, there were also active movements, under the supervision of or supported by a gymnast. As for the global spread, two factors contributed to this: first, its scientific and philosophical foundations were typical of the period; and second, recent graduates of the Royal Central Gymnastics Institute in Stockholm went abroad to promote Ling gymnastics, the type of gymnastics to which medical gymnastics belonged. Medical gymnastics treatment became an important source of income for both the graduates and the Royal Central Gymnastics Institute. This led, ultimately, to many people coming into contact with this form of gymnastics. Yet another reason was its rootedness, both in the past and in the future, where physical exercise remains of major importance for maintaining or regaining health.

  • Grönstedt, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Viksell, André
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pulsträning för ökad inlärning?: En tvärsnittsstudie om hur och varför lärare arbetar med pulsträning i skolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur och varför ett specifikt antal lärare arbetar med pulsträning för ökad inlärning bland skolelever.

    • Hur motiverar lärarna valet av att tillämpa pulsträning i skolan?

    • Hur ser upplägg av lektioner ut gällande pulsträning kopplat till inlärning?

    • Hur utvärderas interventioner vad gäller pulsträning kopplat till inlärning?

    Metod

    Arbetets frågeställningar är angripna utifrån en kvalitativ ansats där fem lärare intervjuades för att få reda på hur och varför de arbetar med pulsträning i skolan. Samtliga lärare är specifikt utvalda utifrån en ändamålsenlig urvalsgrupp. Intervjuerna var semistrukturerade där samtalen utgick från en intervjuguide med specifika teman som berörde ämnet.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att lärarnas huvudsyfte med att tillämpa pulsträning i skolan är att öka inlärningen samt viljan att förbättra betygen hos skolans elever. Det finnas skillnader mellan lärarna vad gäller exempelvis lektionsinnehåll, ekonomiska bidrag till arbetet och hur stor plats pulsträning har på de skolor respektive lärare arbetar på. Samtidigt finns stora likheter i arbetet. Samtliga lärare menar att stöd från skolledningen är viktigt för ett lyckat arbete och förklarar vikten av att göra pulsträning obligatorisk på skolan och inlagt på elevernas scheman. För tillfället utvärderar lärarna i studien arbetet utifrån egna upplevelser, men tre av fem lärare har målsättningar att utvärdera arbetet med hjälp av meritvärden, nationella prov och betyg.

    Slutsats

    Anledningarna till att lärarna i studien valt att tillämpa pulsträning i respektive skola har visat sig vara att öka inlärningen samt viljan att förbättra betygen hos skoleleverna. Lärarna tar upp att ökad mängd fysisk aktivitet är bra för elevernas hälsa men det verkar samtidigt inte vara en anledning som övertygar skolledningen att starta upp pulsträning i skolan. Lärarna i studien har en målsättning att arbeta med pulsträning utifrån vad forskning visat ha störst effekt på ökad inlärning, men att detta inte är en självklar möjlighet då förutsättningarna mellan lärarna skiljer sig. Studien har endast studerat fem specifikt utvalda lärare och kan därför inte generalisera arbetet i allmänhet.

  • Lindgren, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Arenhäll, Matilda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrott och hälsa i grundsärskolan: en läroplansteoretisk studie om möjligheter och begränsningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose with this essay has been to, through an interview study, investigate the Swedish special school's syllabus in physical education from a curriculum theory perspective. The purpose of the study led to the following, more detailed, research questions: In what ways do the syllabus guide physical education teachers in their teaching in special secondary school? What are the similarities and differences between the syllabus in physical education for secondary school and the special primary school? How do teachers work with inclusion? What type of in-service training is offered to teachers? What meaning do teachers assign grades and assessment?

    Method

    The study has a curriculum theory perspective and is based on Lindes arenas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six teachers in Sport and Health (IDH) and a teaching counselor. The selection of respondents took place through a convenience sample as well as through a snowballeffect. The interviews were transcribed and later compiled in the results.

    Results

    The results indicated to that the teachers lack a clear description of the aim of physical education in relation to the special schools students, and an authentic content, as well as a clear purpose of the function of grades in the special secondary school. Furthermore, the results indicate that teachers have difficulties with working and interpreting the syllabus due to lack of guidance. Teachers also express that they want different forms of help in their work in, primarily through in-service training within special education. The Education counselor motivates the similarities between the two syllabuses with equivalency but further motivation is lacking.

    Conclusion

    Teachers try as far as possible to convey the aim and goals of the subject to their students, as this facilitates teaching and learning. They encounter problems in different forms when parts of the syllabus are open for interpretation and they cannot find any help. A need for further in-service training and a clearer guidance of the syllabus is something that the teachers want more of. According to the study, the interaction between the formulation and interpretation arena is absent. Teachers are forced to exclude some content and some parts of the curriculum. This is because they consider it to be too difficult to implement content from the curriculum for the students.

  • Cardinale, Daniele A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll. Elite Performance Centre, Bosön.
    Gejl, Kasper D
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Ekblom, Bjorn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Reliability of maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in permeabilized fibers from the vastus lateralis employing high-resolution respirometry.2018In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e13611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to assess the impact of various factors on methodological errors associated with measurement of maximal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in human skeletal muscle determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers. Biopsies were collected from 25 men to assess differences in OXPHOS between two muscle bundles and to assess the correlation between OXPHOS and the wet weight of the muscle bundle. Biopsies from left and right thighs of another five subjects were collected on two occasions to compare limbs and time-points. A single muscle specimen was used to assess effects of the anesthetic carbocaine and the influence of technician. The difference in OXPHOS between two fiber-bundles from the same biopsy exhibited a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 10.5 pmol · s-1  · mg-1 and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.2%. The differences between left and right thighs and between two different time-points had SEMs of 9.4 and 15.2 pmol · s-1  · mg-1 and CVs of 23.9% and 33.1%, respectively. The average (±SD) values obtained by two technicians monitoring different bundles of fibers from the same biopsy were 31.3 ± 7.1 and 26.3 ± 8.1 pmol · s-1  · mg-1 . The time that elapsed after collection of the biopsy (up to a least 5 h in preservation medium), wet weight of the bundle (from 0.5 to 4.5 mg) and presence of an anesthetic did not influence OXPHOS. The major source of variation in OXPHOS measurements is the sample preparation. The thigh involved, time-point of collection, size of fiber bundles, and time that elapsed after biopsy had minor or no effect.

  • Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Andersson, Victoria
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andréasson, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Physical activity as treatment for alcohol use disorders (FitForChange): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults.

    METHODS: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.

  • Spång, Elias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sömnsvårigheter, oro och skador, en vardag hos RIG-Elever: En deskriptiv och analytisk kvantitativ undersökning av sårbarhetsfaktorer hos elever på riksidrottsgymnasier (RIG)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to get a descriptive view of the area and to investigate possible relationships/differences between the three selected vulnerability factors for students who study sports at a Riksidrottsgymnasium (RIG). The study aimed to answer the following

    questions: 1) To what physical injury rate (overload or traumatic injury) have RIG students had in the past year? 2) To what extent do RIG students experience anxiety before and during competition / match? 3) To what extent do RIG students experience sleep difficulties? 4) What are the relationships or differences between the three selected vulnerabilities? 5) What differences in rate of injury, type of injury, insomnia and anxiety are between grades?

    Method

    Electronic survey was used as a tool for measurable data through closed questionnaires. The form that the study used for the electronic survey was CSAI-2 (Anxiety), ISI (Injury) and physical injury severity according to the same definition as Tranæus (2013). The invitation to participate in the study was sent to all RIGs in Sweden, a total of 40 schools. Out of these 40 schools 18 schools accepted to participate in the study, 8 schools voted to not participate and 14 did not respond. Of the total population, 336 high school athletics students participated in 24 different sports. The answers from the questionnaire are presented in a descriptive quantitative character and an analytical part.

    Results

    In the population, 70 percent were absent due to physical injuries, of which 41 percent were absent from training, competition or match longer than one week. 48 percent of all students had an overload injury and 22 percent traumatic injury in the past year. 15 percent showed significant sleep disorders. Self-confidence had an average of 22.3 ± 5.9 points, somatic concern, 18.6 ± 5.6 points, cognitive concern, 17.6 ± 4.8 points. Statistical analysis showed significant results between injury absence, ISI and CSAI-2 aside from somatic concern and injuries. Regarding differences between grades, the results showed no diferences in any aspects.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of this study is that physical injuries are associated with sleep disorders and that anxiety is correlated negatively with both physical injuries and sleep. The result can help teachers and coaches to understand these factors may need to be noted at the start of young elite athletes.

  • Pussinen, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Test och resultat för kvinnliga artistiska gymnaster i de olika fysiska delkapaciteterna: En studie om hur länder med världsledande gymnaster testas jämfört med vad den aktuella forskningen säger2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med arbetet är att skapa en förståelse för vilka krav som ställs på dagens kvinnliga artistiska gymnaster, samt få inblick i och förståelse för hur andra länder jobbar med fysisk testning och vad som skiljer deras tester och resultat från tillgänglig forskning. Följande frågeställningar avses besvaras genom studien.

    Frågeställning 1: Hur testas kvinnliga artistiska elitgymnaster i de olika fysiska delkapaciteterna?

    Frågeställning 2: Vad bör kvinnliga artistiska elitgymnaster prestera i de olika fysiska delkapaciterna?

    Metod

    Tio länder tillfrågades om att vara med i studien. Länderna hör till några av världens främsta inom kvinnlig artistisk gymnastik. Insamling av material skedde genom mejlkontakt med landslagstränare och/eller förbundskaptener för de aktuella nationerna. En enkät med öppna frågor skickades ut till deltagarna. De insamlade svaren innehållsanalyserades kvalitativt. 

    Resultat

    Fem länder svarade helt eller delvis på hur de testar sina kvinnliga artistiska gymnaster fysiskt, samt vilka resultat gymnasterna gör på de olika testen. Insamlade resultat visar att en kvinnlig artistisk gymnast på elitnivå bör ha en aerob effekt på ca 60 ml/kg/, bör kunna springa 20m sprint på 3.05 s och aktivt kunna uppvisa 180° bendelning. För maximal-, snabbhets- och uthållighetsstyrka utfördes många olika test, ex chins 1RM där gymnasten utförde övningen med 0,67 x kroppsvikten, stillastående handstående 60 s, 4m repklättning utan ben på 6,47 s. D-poängen i de olika redskapen bör ligger mellan 6,26-6,59 poäng. 

    Slutsats

    Att testa gymnaster fysiskt är vanligt förekommande inom den kvinnliga artistiska gymnastiken. Testerna för de olika delkapaciteterna är unikt utformade i de olika nationerna, men gemensamt är att alla länder lägger mycket tid på att testa gymnasterna i delkapaciteten styrka.

  • Eriksson, Joel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Olin, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Varför skulle man?": En studie om hur IKT används i idrott och hälsa samt hur lärarna ser på det2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim with the report is to examen to which extent, in which ways and for what reasons ICT is being used or not used by newly graduated teachers in physical education. The questions have been formulated as follows

    • Is ICT included in newly-educated teachers' lessons in physical education? In such case how and to what extent?
    • What are the views of newly graduated teachers on using ICT in teaching?

    Method: The report is built on two methods. One method is a qualitative semistructured interview done on four different newly graduated teachers where the teacher has been working for a maximum of three years. The other method is a observational study done on twelve lessons led by the four teachers in the interviews.

    Results: The results showed that the use of ICT among the four teachers varied between almost no use of ICT up to almost half of the lessons. The most occuring ICT useage were in the shape of music, video recordings, video playbacks and different presentation tools. The advantages of ICT were a good helper, variation and time savings when used continuously. The drawbacks of ICT that were mentioned were accessibility and initially timeconsuming.

    Conclusions: ICT use in physical education varies for different teachers at different schools. Factors that affect the teachers from above are for example unclear curricula, the schools guidelines, resources and the resources availability. The teachers capital and habitus will affect how susceptible the teacher are towards the introduction of ICT.

    New graduates are positive about ICT but they don't take advantage of the oppertunities as much as the would like. Mainly because of the school resources, availability, lack of time and/or the guidelines. A possible solution that is being debated for is a state or municipal resource bank that makes it easier for teachers to save time and helps easing the introduction of ICT in teaching.