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  • Åberg, John
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bryta målchansen tidigt: Fysiska tester skapade för målvakter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between youth goalkeepers' results in commonly used standard tests that are intended to measure physical capacity and their performance in match-like actions. The purpose is also to investigate whether the results differ between goalkeepers in two different age categories.

    Research questions:

    • What is the correlation between results in standard tests and match-like actions?

    • Do the results differ between youth goalkeepers at U17 and U19 level?

    Method

    To answer the study's questions, a test battery was created containing physical tests designed for football goalkeepers based on their movement patterns and actions (match-like actions) compared to tests used by today's football clubs (standard tests). With the help of research, together with information we received from coaches and goalkeepers, 6 tests were designed and performed, on 15 goalkeepers, which were recorded with measuring instruments and high-speed cameras. The results were analyzed with two tailed t-test to find a statistical significance between the two age groups and Spearman's test to find a correlation between the standard and realistic tests.

    Results

    The results of the t-test show no significant difference between the U17 and U19 goalkeepers on all tests (p> 0.05). Spearman's test shows that there was no statistic significant correlation between the tests.

    Conclusions

    Both standard and realistic tests have their advantages, but if the purpose is to evaluate the goalkeeper's physical capacity in match-like actions through tests, should these be designed based on the goalkeeper's actions during the match. According to the results of this study, this shows that you should not just use standard tests, but these should be supplemented with tests specifically designed for goalkeepers.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Romerska speglingar2014In: Om människan i rörelse och i vila: Essäer, Stockholm: Oak Meadow Hill Editions , 2014, 1, p. 11-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser kulturella förbindelser mellan Sverige och Italien under 1700-talets senare hälft, och hur dessa äger rum i en kontext av en förändrad natursyn. Allt detta får avtryck runt sjön Brunnsviken norr om Stockholms innerstad.

  • Lutula, Antonio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Resisted Sprint Training in Swimming: A Quasi-Experimental Study on Swedish National Level Swimmers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of resisted sprint training in swimming on maximal swimming velocity and performance characteristics. The aim was also to examine how maximal swimming velocity is related to maximal swim power and maximal dry-land power.

    Method

    Eighteen competitive national level swimmers (9 male and 9 female; age: 18.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass: 72 ± 8.3 kg, height: 177.2 ± 4.6 cm, mean ± SD) were recruited to this study. Subjects were assigned to either resisted sprint training (RST) or unresisted sprint training (UST). Sprint training was performed two times per week during 6 weeks as 8x15m with a 2min send-off interval. RST performed sprint training using individualized load corresponding 10% of maximum drag load (L10), UST performed sprint training with no added resistance. A test-battery including dry-land strength assessment; maximal strength (MxS) and explosive strength (ExS), a timed 25m front-crawl swim and in-water force-velocity profiling was performed prior and following the training intervention. Maximal swim power (Pmax), maximum drag load (F0), theoretical maximum velocity (v0) and slope of force-velocity curve (SFv) was computed though force-velocity profiling.

    Results

    No significant within group differences occurred in neither RST nor UST following the 6-week intervention period in: swimming velocity, MxS, ExS, Pmax, F0, v0, and SFv. Strong correlations were found between swimming velocity and MxS (r = 0.75), ExS (r =0.82) and Pmax (r = 0.92).

    Conclusion

    Resisted sprint training in swimming using L10 did in the present study not elicit any improvements in maximal swimming velocity or examined performance characteristics. Resisted sprint training does not appear to be a superior method of improving swimming performance compared to unresisted sprint training. MxS, ExS and Pmax can be used as robust predictors of swim performance, however only Pmax was found to be casually related to swimming velocity.

  • Rudner, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stegius, Madeleine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vilken inlärningsteori lämpar sig bäst?: en experimentell studie i idrottsundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate what effect the peer teaching model has in connection with sports education in comparison with the control group that exercises the direct instructional model And which of the learning theories has the greatest effect. Our hypothesis is that peer teaching is the learning theory that gives the best effect when learning skills abilities in basketball. The moment is about eye-hand motor skills in the form of basketball.

    Method: A pre- and post test that included 35 shots from the penalty shootout - 4.25m from the baseline was completed. The participants perform 5 exercises tries to then throw 30 tries in 3 blocks (10 tries / blocks). The tries were graded through a scoring system and documented. In total there were 6 occasions, one pre-test, 4 lessons in 60 minutes / lesson, where the group was randomly divided into two groups with a specific learning method per group and a post-test. The selection is based on a target population at grade 5 and uses a non-random selection with a comfort selection on the target population. In the study, a total of 28 students participated, half boys (n = 14) as girls (n = 14). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze any statistically significant interaction term. Thereafter, the main effect was examined for both factors and concluded with a post hoc test to understand any differences.

    Results: The results of the study show that the majority of test subjects in each group have improved their overall result from the first test case to the final result. However, there was not a sufficient change in the result to be able to discern any significant value in any of the groups. This is because the difference between pre- and post-test for the group with the direct instruction model showed no significance (p = 0.758) and the same applies to the group with peer feedback (p = 0.598).

    Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it is not clear which of the two pedagogical approaches is the most effective in delivering desired learning objectives and skills in teaching. By this we mean that there are still no significant measurements that compare different teaching methods and strategies that teachers can use to achieve competency-based results.

  • Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 18, article id E3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

  • Stigson, Helena
    et al.
    Åman, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway and Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Incidence of Acute Injuries among Licensed and Non-Licensed Cyclists using Insurance Registry Data2019In: 2019 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury / [ed] International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have examined acute injuries in competitive cycling or training as compared to other sports. By using nationwide insurance data including all injured cyclist registered in the Swedish Cycling Federation and all reported injuries during exercise race in Sweden, the objective was to examine acute injuries during competitive cycling or training for different types of cyclists. The injury incidence and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment were examined. All cyclists that were injured during 2008-2017 were included (n=1937).

    Among the 2666 licensed cyclists the incidence of cyclists injured during training or competition was 44 per 1000 licensed cyclists per year. Focusing on participants in exercise races, the incidence was annually 1.5 injured cyclists per 1000 participants per year. The most commonly injured body region was the upper extremity (41%), followed by head and neck (18%). In total 9.4% of all injured cyclists sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, non-licensed participants in exercise races were slightly older, and the proportion of females were higher (30% vs. 16%), than among licensed cyclists. The injury incidence among the cyclists was high, and to maintain a healthy and physically active population it is important to make efforts to prevent injuries.

  • Christenson, Anne
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Academic Specialist Center, Stockholm Health Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    “…or else I close my ears” How women with obesity want to be approached and treated regarding gestational weight management: A qualitative interview study.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of helping pregnant women maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent excessive gestational weight gain is well recognized, but pregnant women do not always perceive communication about body weight as respectful or helpful. Furthermore, fear of inducing shame or guilt can prohibit some midwives from talking about body weight, especially if the woman has obesity. We aimed to explore what women of reproductive age with obesity regard to be the most important and relevant aspects when discussing gestational weight management. Methods: Qualitative interview study using focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews with 17 women of reproductive age (19–39 y) with obesity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Importance of obtaining vital medical information; 2) A wish to feel understood and treated with respect; 3) Midwives’ approach is crucial in sensitive key situations, which include bringing up the subject of body weight, weighing, providing weight-related information, coaching lifestyle modification, dealing with emotional reactions and ending a conversation. Conclusions: A majority of the interviewed women wished to receive information about risks about obesity and gestational weight gain, and recommendations on weight management. However, the risk of midwives offending someone by raising the topic may be increased if the pregnant woman believe that gestational weight gain is uncontrollable by the individual. Also, several situations during maternity care meetings can be stigmatizing and make women less receptive to advice or support. Women suggest that a good working alliance is likely to be achieved if midwives have knowledge about the causes of obesity, take interest in the patients’ background, have a non-judgmental approach and refrain from giving unsolicited advice. 

  • Bengs, Dagny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitaktiva sprintkanotisternas rörelseutslag i axelleden under paddling på ergometer i relation till aktiv rörlighet mätt i axelleden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was a) to examine elite flatwater kayakers’ active range of motion (ARoM), b) to detect the extent of their ARoM they use in shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotations (ER) for right and left shoulder under kayaking and c) to examine the impact of how the range change during the racing speed (200, 500 and 1000 m). In addition, the aim was d) to describe competitive flatwater kayakers’ range of motion in the shoulder rotation under the three racing speeds.

    Method

    Eight elite sprint kayakers (four women and four men 22,5 ±3,8 year, 1.80 ±0,11m, 81 kg ±14 kg) participated in the study. The range of motion in shoulder joint rotations were measured with two different methods; ARoM was measured with a goniometer in a supine position and a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture measured under kayaking on a kayak ergometer. Data from a 3D motion capture analysis was collected with an optoelectronic system with 12 infrared cameras which captured the motion from markers attached on the participants under kayaking on 200, 500 and 100o m racing speed. The average value was analyzed from ten stroke cycles under every speed and the data was processed and the calculations were done with Visual3D and MATLAB.  

    Results

    The elite kayakers’ average values and standard deviation (±) of ARoM in shoulder IR was 46°(±16°) and 39° (±10°) and in ER 75° (±13°) and 86° (±5°) for respective left and right side. All participants had decreased ARoM in shoulder IR. No significance difference in ARoM was detected for the sides (left/right) in neither IR nor ER (F=0.87, p=0.38).Either no significant differences were detected between the left and right side under kayaking in shoulder IR under racing speed (F= 0.63, p=0.45), however racing speed had a significant difference for range of motion in shoulder internal rotation (F=6.46. p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater range of motion. Shoulder ER was not affected neither on racing speed (F=3.59, p=0.94) or side (left/right) (F=1.76, p=0.23). Racing speed had a significant difference in the percentage the elite kayakers used of their maximal ARoM in shoulder IR during kayaking (F=6.48, p=0.01); the higher the speed/ shorter distance, the greater percentage used. The elite kayakers´ utilized a very small percentage of their ARoM in shoulder ER during paddling; 0-1%.  

    Conclusions

    No difference was detected between left and right side in shoulder rotation within elite kayakers, the result was independent of the racing speed. All elite kayakers´ had an obvious decreased range of motion in shoulder IR. The decreased IR is probably compensated by other structures in the shoulder/ scapula under kayaking, due to that elite kayakers’ use more than 100 % of their ARoM under kayaking. Earlier studies have showed that decreased IR in shoulder joint is a risk factor for injuries in kayakers. The results from this study can give valuable information for elite kayakers and their teams about what happens in the shoulder joint during paddling. They may use this information to recognize the importance of increasing the range of motion in shoulder IR, to be able to decrease any compensational movements in the shoulder joint and therefore reduce the risk of pain and injury under kayaking.

     

  • Holm, Lars
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dideriksen, Kasper
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Rie H
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Doessing, Simon
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bechshoeft, Rasmus L
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Højfeldt, Grith
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Reitelseder, Søren
    Institute of Sports Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An exploration of the methods to determine the protein-specific synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in humans.2019In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 17, article id e14143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the methods to determine human in vivo protein-specific myofibrillar and collagenous connective tissue protein fractional synthesis and breakdown rates. We found that in human myofibrillar proteins, the protein-bound tracer disappearance method to determine the protein fractional breakdown rate (FBR) (via 2 H2 O ingestion, endogenous labeling of 2 H-alanine that is incorporated into proteins, and FBR quantified by its disappearance from these proteins) has a comparable intrasubject reproducibility (range: 0.09-53.5%) as the established direct-essential amino acid, here L-ring-13 C6 -phenylalanine, incorporation method to determine the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (range: 2.8-56.2%). Further, the determination of the protein breakdown in a protein structure with complex post-translational processing and maturation, exemplified by human tendon tissue, was not achieved in this experimentation, but more investigation is encouraged to reveal the possibility. Finally, we found that muscle protein FBR measured with an essential amino acid tracer prelabeling is inappropriate presumably because of significant and prolonged intracellular recycling, which also may become a significant limitation for determination of the myofibrillar FSR when repeated infusion trials are completed in the same participants.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Are health effects of cycling underestimated due to inaccurate estimates of the physical activity?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The enclosure is a summary of my perspectives as Discussant at the symposium: “Cycling and health in Europe and beyond – explaining and updating the evidence base” at the 10th HEPA Europe Health Enhancing Physical Activity Europe Conference at Southern University of Denmark in Odense, Denmark, August 28-30, 2019. Contributors to the symposium were Drs Adrian Bauman, Sylvia Titze, Niamph Murphy and Pekka Oja.

  • Blackwood, Sarah J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Isoproterenol enhances force production in mouse glycolytic and oxidative muscle via separate mechanisms.2019In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fight or flight is a biologic phenomenon that involves activation of β-adrenoceptors in skeletal muscle. However, how force generation is enhanced through adrenergic activation in different muscle types is not fully understood. We studied the effects of isoproterenol (ISO, β-receptor agonist) on force generation and energy metabolism in isolated mouse soleus (SOL, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, glycolytic) muscles. Muscles were stimulated with isometric tetanic contractions and analyzed for metabolites and phosphorylase activity. Under conditions of maximal force production, ISO enhanced force generation markedly more in SOL (22%) than in EDL (8%). Similarly, during a prolonged tetanic contraction (30 s for SOL and 10 s for EDL), ISO-enhanced the force × time integral more in SOL (25%) than in EDL (3%). ISO induced marked activation of phosphorylase in both muscles in the basal state, which was associated with glycogenolysis (less in SOL than in EDL), and in EDL only, a significant decrease (16%) in inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP turnover during sustained contractions (1 s EDL, 5 s SOL) was not affected by ISO in EDL, but essentially doubled in SOL. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, ISO has a minor effect on force generation in EDL that is associated with a decrease in Pi, whereas ISO has a marked effect on force generation in SOL that is associated with an increase in ATP turnover. Thus, phosphorylase functions as a phosphate trap in ISO-mediated force enhancement in EDL and as a catalyzer of ATP supply in SOL.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, article id 105799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

  • Fainstein, Nina
    et al.
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Tyk, Reuven
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Touloumi, Olga
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Lagoudaki, Roza
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Goldberg, Yehuda
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Agranyoni, Oryan
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Navon-Venezia, Shiri
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grigoriadis, Nikolaos
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ben-Hur, Tamir
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Einstein, Ofira
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel..
    Exercise intensity-dependent immunomodulatory effects on encephalomyelitis.2019In: Annales Hindemith, ISSN 0570-1791, E-ISSN 2328-9503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the intensity-dependent effects of ET on the systemic immune system in EAE remain undefined.

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the systemic immune modulatory effects of moderate versus high-intensity ET protocols in protecting against development of EAE; (2) To investigate whether ET affects autoimmunity selectively, or causes general immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Healthy mice performed moderate or high-intensity treadmill running programs. Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE was utilized to examine ET effects specifically on the systemic immune system. Lymph node (LN)-T cells from trained versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE severity was assessed, by clinical assessment and histopathological analysis. LN-T cells derived from donor trained versus sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for proliferation assays by flow cytometry analysis and cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression using real-time PCR. T cell-dependent immune responses of trained versus sedentary mice to the nonautoantigen ovalbumin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli-induced acute peritonitis were examined.

    RESULTS: High-intensity training in healthy donor mice induced significantly greater inhibition than moderate-intensity training on proliferation and generation of encephalitogenic T cells in response to PLP-immunization, and on EAE severity upon their transfer into recipient mice. High-intensity training also inhibited LN-T cell proliferation in response to ovalbumin immunization. E. coli bacterial counts and dissemination were not affected by training.

    INTERPRETATION: High-intensity training induces superior effects in preventing autoimmunity in EAE, but does not alter immune responses to E. coli infection.

  • Livebrant, André
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En hållbar soldat: Rekryters fysiska förberedelser inför Grundläggande militär utbildning kopplat till muskuloskeletal skadeprevalens2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga rekryters fysiska förberedelser inför genomförandet av Grundläggande militär utbildning kopplat till skadeutfall under utbildningen. Detta kan bidra med information i ett försök att identifiera möjliga lösningar på den problematik med skadeutfall som finns i dagsläget.

    - Hur ser rekryters fysiska förberedelser ut inför GMU?

    - Vilka faktorer bidrar till att de fysiska förberedelserna ser ut som dom gör?

    - Finns det kopplingar mellan graden av fysiska förberedelser och prevalensen av muskuloskeletala skador hos rekryterna?

    - Finns det skillnader i skadeutfallen mellan män och kvinnor?

    Metod

    Kvantitativ enkätstudie utfördes på 100 rekryter från regementet Livgardet i Stockholm. Den gavs ut i pappersform och innehöll totalt 22 frågor. De svarande bestod av 71 män och 29 kvinnor mellan 18 och 35 år. Enkäten genomfördes efter avslutad Grundläggande militär utbildning (GMU), vilket är en 3 månader lång grundkurs som samtliga svenska soldater genomgår innan de utbildar sig mot en mer specifik befattning.

    Resultat

    65 % av rekryterna ökade sin träningsdos eller förändrade sina träningsvanor då de blev antagna till GMU. En tredjedel av de svarande uppgav att de fått för lite eller ingen information från Försvarsmakten om hur de fysiskt bör förbereda sig inför GMU. Prevalensen av skador korrelerade med hur vältränad individen var samt dess idrottsliga bakgrund. 40 % av deltagarna skadade sig under GMU. Av dessa uppgav en fjärdedel att skadan var så omfattande att den begränsade deras möjlighet att ta del av utbildningen.

    Slutsats

    En bakgrund präglad av hög fysisk aktivitet under flertalet år minskar risken för skada under GMU. Anpassad träning under 1-6 månader tycks inte kunna påverka skadeutfallet. Givet detta bör Försvarsmakten ge rekryten mer tid för individuell träning, ställa tydligare krav på fysik förmåga kopplat till specifik tjänst och åtgärda den kunskapsbrist kring relevant träning inför GMU, som studien har identifierat.

  • Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Op 't Roodt, Jos
    Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands..
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults - the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study.2019In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

    METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

    RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

    CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

  • Körting, Clara
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schlippe, Marius
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petersson, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pennati, Gaia Valentina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Zhao, Kangqiao
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In vivo muscle morphology comparison in post-stroke survivors using ultrasonography and diffusion tensor imaging.2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 11836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle architecture significantly influences the performance capacity of a muscle. A DTI-based method has been recently considered as a new reference standard to validate measurement of muscle structure in vivo. This study sought to quantify muscle architecture parameters such as fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (tm) in post-stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to quantitatively compare the differences with 2D ultrasonography (US) and DTI. Muscle fascicles were reconstructed to examine the anatomy of the medial gastrocnemius, posterior soleus and tibialis anterior in seven stroke survivors using US- and DTI-based techniques, respectively. By aligning the US and DTI coordinate system, DTI reconstructed muscle fascicles at the same scanning plane of the US data can be identified. The architecture parameters estimated based on two imaging modalities were further compared. Significant differences were observed for PA and tm between two methods. Although mean FL was not significantly different, there were considerable intra-individual differences in FL and PA. On the individual level, parameters measured by US agreed poorly with those from DTI in both deep and superficial muscles. The significant differences in muscle parameters we observed suggested that the DTI-based method seems to be a better method to quantify muscle architecture parameters which can provide important information for treatment planning and to personalize a computational muscle model.

  • Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Exempel på integrering av idrott och biologi1986In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 4, p. 29-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Tesch, Per
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bodybuilding: Effekter och skaderisker1982In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 79, no 24, p. 2355-2357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity, Health and Sustainable Development: Perspectives on the Role of Green Areas2005In: Forests, trees, and human health and well-being: proceedings / [ed] Dr. Christos Th. Gallis, Thessaloniki, Greece: SIOKIS Medical and Scientific Publishers , 2005, 1, p. 223-228Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Mereman, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Uppfattad skaderisk hos friidrottare på landslagsnivå: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Recent studies of Swedish track and field athletes have shown that there is a substantial risk of injury. None of these studies have investigated the potential role of how athletes perceive their injury risk, and how it may play a part in the occurrence and prevention of sport injures. The aim of the study was to explore how Swedish track and field athletes perceive their injury risk, and examine the potential correlation with prior injury experience using a quantitative design.

    Method

    The sample comprised 69 Swedish junior elite track and field athletes. The athletes filled out a two-part online questionnaire. The first part requested relevant personal information including gender, track and field event and previous injuries in the past 12 months; the second part consisted of "The Perception of Risk of Injury Scale", but modified accordingly to the targeted sport. For the statistical analysis, the R version 3.5.2 software was used and the results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's non-parametric test.

    Results

    52 out of the 69 athletes in the study reported at least one injury during the past 12 months, and the most commonly reported period of time lost due to injury was between eight and 28 days. Non-significant results (p=0,095) were found between gender and perceived injury risk. If an athlete reported more than one injury in the past 12 months, they perceived their re-injury risk (p<0,025) to be higher. Significant results were found between perceived injury risk and the severity of the injury (p<0,006), with a negative correlation (r=-0,32). When the severity of the injury increased, the tendency of perceived injury risk decreased.

    Conclusions

    A history of previous injury has a small correlation to perceived injury risk. This study comes one step closer to understanding the potential impact of perceived risk of injury on occurrence of actual injury. With this knowledge, it may be possible to reduce the negative perceptions concerning re-injury in athletes with higher perceptions of injury risk. Finally, awareness of reinjury should be increased among athletes with a history of severe injury.

  • Fernström, Erik
    et al.
    Forsell, Claes
    Henriks, Anders
    Linder, Sven-Gunnar
    Petersson, Gunnar
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Die Gebirgsexpedition Trantre1979Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [de]

    Im Winter 1978 wurde die Gebirgsexpedition „Fjällmarsch TranTre“ von sechs jungen Männern auf Skiern durchgeführt. Er begann am 1. März in Transtrand und ging entlang der schwedischen Bergkette bis nach Treriksröset. Dann reisten sie nach Süden zum Torne Träsk bahnhof, den sie am 27. April erreichten.

    Sie wanderten 50 Tage lang und legten eine Strecke von 1500 km zurück. Die jungen Männer dokumentierten ihre Skireise und die verfassten Texte handeln von ihren Vorbereitungen, der Reiseroute, den Etappen, der Ausrüstung, dem Gepäck, dem Essen, den Campingplätzen, der Fußpflege, den Skiern, dem Wetter, der Sonne, der Kälte, dem Schlaf sowie den Tieren und der Natur.

    Die körperliche Anstrengung wurde wissenschaftlich untersucht und führte zu vier Veröffentlichungen, die nachfolgend als verschiedene Einträge in digitales wissenschaftliches Archiv (DiVA) aufgeführt sind:

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1982. Training-induced increase in myofibrillar ATPase intermediate fibers in human skeletal muscle. Muscle & Nerve 5:628-636.

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1983. Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration. Clin. Physiol 3:141-151.

    • Schantz, Peter. 1986. Plasticity of human skeletal muscle - with special reference to effectsof physical training on enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotypicexpression of slow and fast isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, Acta Physiol Scand, vol 128, Suppl.558, pp 1-64. 

    • Schantz, Peter. 1980. Långtur - om 150 turåkning längs den svenska fjällkedjan. Stockholm: Trygg-Hansa.
  • Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids2019In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles contain a mixture of type I and type II fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. Little is presently known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular responses of these different fiber types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise in combination with intake of essential amino acids (EAA) on mTORC1 signaling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibers. Five strength-trained men performed two sessions of heavy leg press exercise. During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution of EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibers dissected out and weighed (range 0.95-8.1 mu g). The fibers were homogenized individually and identified as type I or II by incubation with antibodies against the different isoforms of myosin. They were also analyzed for both the levels of protein as well as phosphorylation of proteins in the mTORC1 pathway using Western blotting. The levels of the S6K1 and eEF2 proteins were similar to 50% higher in type II than in type I fibers (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between fiber types with respect to the level of mTOR protein. Resistance exercise led to non-significant increases (2-3-fold) in mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as a 50% decrease (P < 0.05) in eEF2 phosphorylation in both fiber types. Intake of EAA caused a 2 and 6-fold higher (P < 0.05) elevation of mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation, respectively, in both type I and type II fibers compared to placebo, with no effect on phosphorylation of eEF2. In conclusion, protein levels of S6K1 and eEF2 were significantly higher in type II than type I fibers suggesting higher capacity of the mTOR pathway in type II fibers. Ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in both fiber types, but with considerable variation between single fibers of both types.

  • Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reexamination of Accelerometer Calibration with Energy Expenditure as Criterion: VO2net Instead of MET for Age-Equivalent Physical Activity Intensity.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 15, article id E3377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerometer calibration for physical activity (PA) intensity is commonly performed using Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) as criterion. However, MET is not an age-equivalent measure of PA intensity, which limits the use of MET-calibrated accelerometers for age-related PA investigations. We investigated calibration using VO2net (VO2gross - VO2stand; mL⋅min-1⋅kg-1) as criterion compared to MET (VO2gross/VO2rest) and the effect on assessment of free-living PA in children, adolescents and adults. Oxygen consumption and hip/thigh accelerometer data were collected during rest, stand and treadmill walk and run. Equivalent speed (Speedeq) was used as indicator of the absolute speed (Speedabs) performed with the same effort in individuals of different body size/age. The results showed that VO2net was higher in younger age-groups for Speedabs, but was similar in the three age-groups for Speedeq. MET was lower in younger age-groups for both Speedabs and Speedeq. The same VO2net-values respective MET-values were applied to all age-groups to develop accelerometer PA intensity cut-points. Free-living moderate-and-vigorous PA was 216, 115, 74 and 71 min/d in children, adolescents, younger and older adults with VO2net-calibration, but 140, 83, 74 and 41 min/d with MET-calibration, respectively. In conclusion, VO2net calibration of accelerometers may provide age-equivalent measures of PA intensity/effort for more accurate age-related investigations of PA in epidemiological research.

  • Haraldsen, Heidi Marian
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Halvari, Hallgeir
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Solstad, Bard Erlend
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Abrahamsen, Frank E.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The Role of Perfectionism and Controlling Conditions in Norwegian Elite Junior Performers' Motivational Processes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptualized within the framework of self-determination theory, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled (non-self-determined) motivation and (b) performance anxiety through basic psychological need frustration (frustration of competence, autonomy, and realtedness), and if these relations would be moderated by controlling teaching/coaching conditions. We used a cross-sectional moderated mediation design and purposefully selected Norwegian elite junior performers (N = 171; mean age = 17.3; SD age = 0.94) from talent development schools, who completed an online questionnaire to report their perceptions of the study variables. Associations were examined using structural equation modeling. The results showed that perfectionistic concerns were positively associated with controlling conditions, basic needs frustration, controlled motivation, and performance anxiety. Reported controlling teaching/coaching conditions moderated the positive indirect relationship between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled motivation and (b) performance anxiety through competence need frustration. Specifically, these indirect associations were evident for performers reporting moderate or high levels of controlling teaching/coaching conditions. In contrast, there were no indirect associations via competence need frustration for those performers who reported low levels of controlling conditions. In conclusion, the results indicate that perfectionistic concerns appear to be a vulnerability factor that exposes elite junior performers to higher risks of entering a debilitative motivational process. This seems especially likely when exposed to controlling teaching/coaching conditions. Coaches and teachers working with elite junior performers should avoid using controlling mechanisms and instead foster autonomous functioning.

  • Spiegl, Ondrej
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The effects of new Edea and Graf figure skating boots and used Graf boots on the kinetics and kinematics of landing after simulated on-ice jumps2019In: Footwear Science, ISSN 1942-4280, E-ISSN 1942-4299, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in training intensity and the number of active participants and competitors in figure skating has been accompanied by an increasing frequency of injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different brands of skates as well as the usage of the skates modify the kinetics and kinematics of the landing impact from a jump. New Graf Edmonton (NG), old used Graf Edmonton (OG) and new Edea Concerto (NE) skates were compared. Twelve participants completed six jump trials from 30 cm and 50 cm high boxes, respectively in all three skates and landed on a section of artificial ice placed on a laboratory floor. Landing kinematics (Oqus4 system, Qualisys, Sweden) and kinetics (force plate: Kistler, Switzerland; insoles: Pedar, Novel, Germany) were examined. Each participant acted as their own control for statistical comparison between the skates. The results confirmed that the kinetics and kinematics of the landing are affected by wearing different skates. During landing impacts in NG, participants had significantly greater dorsiflexion at initial contact (IC) and peak dorsiflexion of the ankle, peak flexion of the knee and also greater in-skate plantar forces (PF) than in NE, which may increase the risk of injury. In OG, participants had significantly greater peak flexion of knee and longer time from IC to first peak dorsiflexion (TP) of the ankle than in NG. The differences observed may be due to the different construction designs, such as height of the heel, used materials, and stiffness of the skates, which may affect injury occurrence.

  • Lönnberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Sweden..
    Improved unhealthy lifestyle habits in patients with high cardiovascular risk: results from a structured lifestyle programme in primary care2019In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Physical activity, healthful dietary habits, and not smoking are associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined how counselling to improve poor lifestyle habits might be carried out in clinical practice. In Swedish primary care, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated into everyday clinical practice. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to describe a novel lifestyle intervention programme in primary care; and (2) to evaluate change in unhealthy lifestyle habits over 1 year in men and women with high cardiovascular risk who participated in the lifestyle intervention programme. Method. A single-group study with a 1-year follow-up was carried out. A total of 417 people was enrolled, median age 62 years (54% women), with either hypertension (69%), type 2 diabetes mellitus, or impaired glucose tolerance. The 1-year intervention included five counselling sessions that focused on lifestyle habits, delivered by a district nurse with postgraduate credits in diabetes care and the metabolic syndrome. All patients were offered in-depth counselling for one or more lifestyle habits when needed. Lifestyle habits were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Total change was assessed using a nine-factor unhealthy lifestyle habit index. Results. Favourable, significant changes were observed for physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, and stress over 1 year. Similar improvements were seen for both sexes and type of diagnosis. Conclusions. The results support the utility of a multifactorial, structured approach to change unhealthy lifestyle habits for cardiovascular risk prevention in a primary care setting.

  • Ibrahim Ahmed, Wesam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sam- eller särundervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa?: En kvalitativ studie om vad lärare samt elever tycker om sär/samundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to investigate what students in grade 9 and teachers think of the two forms of teaching co-or single gender education. In addition, the study should investigate what pros and cons the students and teachers associated with these types of teaching.

    Issue

    • What are the advantages / disadvantages with co-or a single gender education?
    • What kind of teaching do students and teachers prefer?

    Method To achieve the purpose and get answers to the questions, data is collected through interviews. This type of method is relevant because the study is based on reaching an understanding of what the pupil / teacher thinks and likes about each type of teaching. The theoretical point of the study is the socio-cultural perspective and Hirdman's theory of the gender system.

    Results

    The teachers agreed that co gender teaching is an important form of teaching from a social perspective, but that there are advantages and disadvantages of the form of teaching. All teachers who participated in the study expressed a desire to somehow get a mix of co- and single gender education in the subject of sport and health. The majority of the students preferred single gender education, but on the question of the type of teaching they developed the most, the views differed. Some argued that single gender education is preferable, whileothers believe that co- gender education is the best.

    Conclusion

    What appeared in the study was that the majority of students prefer single gender education, and that they see this form of teaching as positive for their teaching and their development. At the same time, 3 out of 4 teachers find that a combination of co- and single gender education is preferable. The clear advantages of single gender education are that the girls get more peace and space to develop, while the disadvantages are that they at the same time lose the social aspects.

  • Westin, Jakob
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande: Finns det något samband?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och Frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen var att mäta sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande inom ett begränsat urval av gymnasieelever. Undersökningen syftade också till att mäta respondenternas psykiska välbefinnande, stillasittande och fysiska aktivitet samt att mäta sambandet mellan respondenternas stillasittande och psykiska välbefinnande.

    • Hur psykiskt välmående, stillasittande och fysiskt aktiva är respondenterna?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande?

    Metod

    Som metod för studien användes en kvantitativ metod med enkäter. Den byggde på färdiga frågor från Socialstyrelsen (2010) och WHO (2010) och gick ut till 86 respondenter i gymnasieålder. 82 godkända enkäter från respondenterna analyserades genom IBM SPSS Analytica för att mäta sambanden. I korrelationsanalysen användes Spearmans RhoRho för att undersöka samband. Undersökningen ägde rum på ett skolområde i Uppsala, Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att 42 procent av respondenterna utför mindre fysisk aktivitet än den rekommenderade dosen om 150 minuter i veckan. Resultatet visade också att 51 procent av respondenterna var stillasittande 10 timmar eller mer, varje dag. I välbefinnande-indexet fick 39 procent av respondenterna ett resultat som rekommenderade kontakt med vården.

    Samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande fick en positiv korrelationskoefficient på 0,443 (p=0,000), vilket tyder på att det finns ett moderat samband. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation.

    Slutsats

    Den studerade populationen rör sig mindre än genomsnittet i Sverige och sitter mer än genomsnittet i Sverige. Det finns ett tydligt moderat samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande, men det går inte att förkasta andra påverkansfaktorer. Min slutsats är att det krävs en vidare studie för att säkerställa sambandet mellan variablerna, där fler parametrar mäts och analyseras. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation., men det går inte att avfärda att dikotomiseringen av data påverkade resultatet.