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  • Dronsfield, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andrén Bahnson, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belastningsskador bland unga fotbollsspelare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om ungdomar riskerar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador på grund utav sitt idrottande. Studiens frågeställningar är:

    1. Tenderar ungdomar som multi-idrottar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador i större utsträckning än ungdomar som har valt att tidigt specialisera sig på en idrott?

    2. Finns det ett samband mellan mängd idrottstimmar i veckan som ungdomar utövar och deras självrapporterade skadefrekvens?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvantitativ ansats med enkät som metod. Vårt urval är begränsat till pojkar i åldrarna 12–14. Fotbollsklubbar inom Stockholmsområdet har valts ut för deltagande. Målsättningen var att samla in 200 enkätsvar genom att besöka fotbollslag på deras träningar, efter bortfall fick vi in totalt 126 svar. Vetenskapsrådets fyra krav för samhällsvetenskaplig forskning har legat till grund för de etiska övervägandena för utformningen av denna studie.

    Resultat

    Studien ger inga signifikanta svar men resultaten visar att fler multi-idrottare skadar sig i större utsträckning än de som specialiserar sig. De ådrar sig fler belastningsskador och har fler skadedagar. Å andra sidan råkar de som specialiserar sig ut för fler traumatiska skador.

    Slutsats

    Det finns tendenser att multi-idrottare ådrar sig belastningsskador i något högre grad än de som specialiserar sig. Det finns också en tendens att träningsvolym korrelerar med skadefrekvens.

  • Dreber, Helena
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital and Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Health-Related Quality of Life 5 Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Young (18-25 Years) Versus Older (≥ 26 Years) Adults: a Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry Study.2019In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To compare changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young (18-25 years) versus older (≥ 26 years) adults up to 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

    METHODS: Data on Short Form-36 (SF-36) and obesity-related problems scale (OP) at baseline and 1, 2, and 5 years after RYGB were extracted from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. Within-group changes and the effect of age group on 5-year changes in SF-36 and OP were analyzed. Effects sizes (ESs) were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 2542 young and 12,425 older adults were included at baseline, and 138 young (20.7% of those eligible) and 1021 older (31.8%) adults were followed-up 5 years post-RYGB. At this time, average to large improvements (ES ≥ 0.5) were observed in physical functioning, physical component score and OP in young adults, and in physical functioning, role physical, general health, physical component score, and OP in older adults (all, p ≤ 0.001). Both age groups displayed negligible to weak (ES < 0.5) or no improvements in mental HRQoL (all, p < 0.55). Older adults displayed greater 5-year improvements than their young counterparts in role physical, general health, vitality, social functioning, physical component score, and obesity-related problems scale (all, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both young and older adults displayed improvements in OP and physical HRQoL 5 years post-RYGB compared to baseline, while mental HRQoL did not improve to the same extent. Greater HRQoL-improvements could be expected in older patients why future research on HRQoL post-RYGB should stratify data on age groups.

  • Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jern, Christina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wallin, Anders
    University of Gothenburg.
    Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 24, article id E5136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High aerobic fitness, more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less sedentary behavior (SED) have all been suggested to promote cognitive functions, but it is unclear whether they are independent predictors of specific cognitive domains. This study aimed to investigate to what extent aerobic fitness MVPA and SED are independently associated with cognitive performance among middle-aged Swedish adults. We acquired device-based measures of aerobic fitness, cognitive performance and percent daily time spent in MVPA and SED in Swedish adults (n = 216; 54-66 years old). Aerobic fitness was associated with better performance at one out of two tests of speed/attention and one out of four tests of executive attention, and with worse performance at one of seven tests of memory. Increasing %MVPA was associated with better performance at one out of seven tests of memory and two out of three tests of verbal ability, whereas increasing %SED was associated with better performance at all four tests of executive attention and four out of seven tests of memory. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness, %MVPA and %SED are partly independent correlates of cognitive performance. To fully understand the association between SED and performance at several tests of cognitive function, future investigations might attempt to investigate intellectually engaging SED (such as reading books) separately from mentally undemanding SED (such as watching TV).

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    City behöver ett universitet1994In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 12 dec, p. 4-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Alfred Nobel och hans okände medarbetare: Alfred Nobel and his unknown coworker2019In: Norrbottens-Kuriren, no 18 december, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Alfred Nobel is the Swedish inventor of dynamite and the testamentator behind the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Prizes. The article “Alfred Nobel and his unknown co-worker” is  a translation of the originally in Swedish published article in the daily Swedish newspaper Norrbottens-Kuriren, in December 18, 2019. It elaborates on the issue of which potential persons that Alfred Nobel himself would have toasted in thankfulness for his life and achievements.  Based on Nobel´s testament, and unknown or very sparsely known sources, the great importance of his coworker, the engineer Alarik Liedbeck, protrudes in a new light. Further news in this article is the fact that Liedbeck was a grandchild of the gymnasiarch Per Henrik Ling, who founded the Swedish Ling Gymnastics, including Medical Gymnastics, or what today is known as physiotherapy. Both of them were related to Alfred Nobel through their relative in common; Olof Rudbeck, the older, who discovered the lymph system. Also the grave of Alarik Liedbeck, side by side with Per Henrik Ling, at the shore of Brunnsviken in the Royal National Urban Park in Stockholm, Sweden, sheds light over this unique outdoor burial place which was created by Ling.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-07 09:00 Aulan, Stockholm
    Ek, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Physical activity among patients with cardiovascular disease: a predictor of hospital care utilisation and mortality in clinical work2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidelines highlight the importance of physical activity (PA) in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) within the healthcare sector. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of PA at moderate-vigorous intensity performed within exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). However, only a minority of patients with CVD participate in exercise-based CR, and it is not known to what extent the guidelines for PA are implemented in clinical work. This leads to a knowledge gap in PA levels among patients with CVD, and the potential association of PA with hospital care utilisation and all-cause mortality. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate PA and its importance for patients with CVD, and to what extent it is promoted during clinical work. The associations between self-rated PA level, changes in self-rated PA level, and sedentary time (SED) with hospital care utilisation and all-cause mortality were explored in three cohort studies (Studies I-III). Data were collected via questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Study I explored everyday PA, physical exercise and SED among patients with CVD (n=1148) prior to admittance to a cardiac ward at two of the hospitals in Stockholm. Studies II and III explored PA (of at least moderate intensity) post hospitalisation, and included 30 644 and 22 227 patients with myocardial infarction (MI), respectively, from the national SWEDHEART registry. Finally, in Study IV, healthcare professionals’ (n=251) stated importance and clinical work to promote healthy lifestyle habits (alcohol consumption, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking) were explored in a cross-sectional study. All healthcare professionals working on cardiac departments in two hospitals in Stockholm were included.

    The main findings were:

    • PA level (everyday PA, physical exercise, total PA level) and SED pre and post hospitalisation for cardiac events were found to be significant predictors of hospital care duration, readmission and mortality. The effects of high PA level and low SED did not differ between CVD diagnosis, sex, age, or comorbid states such as individuals with and without diabetes mellitus type II, kidney dysfunction, hypertension or dyslipidaemia.

    • There were no differences between individuals reporting a moderate or high level of PA or a medium or low level of SED, illustrating that “a little activity is better than nothing” and that the greatest health benefits would be achieved by increasing PA among the most inactive patients with CVD.

    • Changes in PA level during the first year post MI are important. Increased PA lowered the risk of mortality, and decreased PA increased the risk of mortality in patients post MI.

    • Healthcare professionals considered it important to promote lifestyle habits among patients within the healthcare sector in general, as well as in their own clinical work. However, there was a difference between stated importance and clinical practice as only a minority of healthcare professionals asked or provided counselling on healthy lifestyle habits. Our results indicated a relationship between promoting patients’ lifestyle habits in clinical work, and if they perceived clear organisational routines and objectives.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis have a clinical impact. Firstly, asking patients on a cardiac department about their PA level and SED may identify individuals in need of behavioural changes. By identifying and supporting individuals who need to increase their PA level, clinicians may potentially decrease the utilisation of inpatient care and also lower the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with a CVD diagnosis. Secondly, this information is of great predictive value, and PA can be seen as an additional marker of disease severity.

  • Nilsson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Has the second ‘running boom’ democratized running? A study on the sociodemographic characteristics of finishers at the world’s largest half marathon2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that runners differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. However, given the increase in participants at running races, the question arises whether these sociodemographic differences have been erased and if the second running boom has democratized running. An online questionnaire was sent to a randomized sample (n = 2378) of finishers at the 2017 Gothenburg half marathon (Göteborgsvarvet). The self-reported sociodemographic variables were then compared to Swedish national averages. The results show that Göteborgsvarvet finishers are considerably more likely to be men, well-educated and employed, compared to the general population of Sweden. This study indicates, therefore, that half marathon finishers are still distinctly different in terms of sociodemographic variables compared to the general population. These differences need to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn concerning running and its health effects on runners.

  • Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Forsberg, Artur
    Karlsson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Isokinetic muscle torque and endurance in limbs and trunk in children and adolescents: A longitudinal study2019In: Clinical and Medical Investigations, ISSN 2398-5763, Vol. 4, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To measure isokinetic peak torque during elbow, knee and trunk extension and flexion and muscle endurance during elbow and knee extension.

    Method: Muscle endurance and peak torque were measured using Cybex methodology in totally 115 boys and 48 girls from 8 to 15 years of age most of them for five years.

    Results: Knee muscle endurance was mainly unchanged while elbow fatigue index was lightly reduced from 11 to 15 years in both sexes with no difference between sexes. From the youngest ages to adolescence peak absolute (N.m) and normalized (N.m/kg body mass) torque increases in all measures with highest increase in the trunk and lowest in elbow activities. During elbow activity boys are stronger than girls from age 11. For trunk and knee activity the sex differences start at age 14 years. Knee, elbow and trunk extension/flexion ratios as well as knee/elbow both extension and flexion ratios are mainly unchanged with increasing age with no differences between sexes.

    Conclusion: Data indicate that elbow isokinetic strength and endurance profile is partly different from corresponding data during knee and trunk activity.

  • Eklund, Annika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa och välmående i samband med utökad fysisk aktivitet i form av pulspass: Ungdomars uppfattning om hälsa, samt välmående i samband med utökad fysisk aktivitet i skolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how physical activity affects the students' perception of their own health in connection with increased activity at school in the form of pulse passes. - Which health definitions can be identified from the students' story of their health? - How do the pupils experience their well-being in connection with the increased physical activity in the school for their overall health?

    Method

    In order to get answers to the students' perception of the issues in connection with increased physical activity in the form of two 30-minute heart rate passes per week, interviews were conducted. Normal sports lessons are 60min twice a week. The selection group consisted of six 13-year-old girls who attend grade 7. They have a mother tongue other than Swedish and are specifically selected with the help of the students' sports teachers. A previous quantitative sub-study in the research study "Movement for Better Health and Learning" has carried out and which has given remarkably good results regarding well-being in this particular group.

    Results

    The study shows that the girls' perception of the concept of health and what this stands for is about feeling good both physically and mentally. This means that you move and have good eating habits. They also believe that it is important to have good relationships and a good social interaction in order to feel good. They also associate the concept of health with any kind of sports. In connection with increased physical activity in the school, the pupils' perception of their well-being and health is largely that they have more energy to cope with the school work in a better way compared to earlier. They experience increased concentration and strength to keep focus and get more things done in school. The pupils also feel stronger compared to earlier and have also changed their dietary habits, especially with regard to breakfast habits, as they eat more regularly and healthier.

    Conclusions

    The pupils' perception of health as a concept revolves around feeling good both physically and mentally, that you move around and have good eating habits. An important aspect is also to have a good social interaction in order to feel good. Sport and activities are associated with the health concept. The students in the study state that they have improved their school performance through increased concentration ability and perseverance in being able to perform at school. They have improved their eating habits and feel stronger than before.

  • Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Madigan, Daniel
    York St John Univeristy.
    Estimating the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a psychosocial construct that has been extensively studied in athletes. Burnout is a significant threat to an athlete’s mental health and increases the risk of dropout from sport (Gustafsson, Madigan, & Lundkvist, 2017). However, little is known about prevalence of clinical-levels of burnout in athletes. This study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores taken from the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). To do so, cut-off scores were converted from the SMBQ to the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). This provided a cut-off score of 3.14. Data were derived from one cross-sectional sample (N = 1,931) and one 10-week longitudinal sample (N = 186; 10 waves). Analyses focused on the physical and emotional exhaustion subscale of the ABQ. In the longitudinal sample, the stability of the cut-offs was examined (i.e., those athletes scoring over 3.14 for over 50% of the time-points, versus those who never scored above 3.14). For the cross-sectional sample, 13% of athletes scored above the clinical cut-off score. For the longitudinal sample, 7.1% of athletes scored above the cut-off on over 50% of occasions, while 77.6% of athletes never scored above the cut-off score on any occasion. The present findings suggest that the estimated prevalence of athlete burnout differs when cross-sectional data are analysed than when longitudinal data are utilised. The findings reiterate that a significant proportion of athletes are at risk of burnout and that prevalence seem to be similar comparing with student- and working populations.

  • Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

  • Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Intensity of physical activity as a percentage of peak oxygen uptake, heart rate and Borg RPE in motor-complete para- and tetraplegia.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 12, article id e0222542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe VO2peak, explore the potential influence of anthropometrics, demographics and level of physical activity within each cohort; b) to define common, standardized activities as percentages of VO2peak and categorize these as light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels according to present classification systems, and c) to explore how clinically accessible methods such as heart-rate monitoring and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) correlate or can describe light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional.

    SETTING: Rehabilitation facility and laboratory environment.

    SUBJECTS: Sixty-three individuals, thirty-seven (10 women) with motor-complete paraplegia (MCP), T7-T12, and twenty-six (7 women) with motor-complete tetraplegia (MCT), C5-C8.

    INTERVENTIONS: VO2peak was obtained during a graded peak test until exhaustion, and oxygen uptake during eleven different activities was assessed and categorized using indirect calorimetry.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VO2peak, Absolute and relative oxygen consumption, Borg RPE.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2peak was significantly higher in men than in women for both groups, with fairly small differences in relative VO2peak. For MCP sex, weight and time spent in vigorous-intensity activity explained 63% of VO2peak variance. For MCT sex and time in vigorous-intensity activity explained 55% of the variance. Moderate intensity corresponds to 61-72% HRpeak and RPE 10-13 for MCP vs. 71-79% HRpeak, RPE 13-14 for MCT.

    CONCLUSION: Using current classification systems, eleven commonly performed activities were categorized in relative intensity terms, (light, moderate and vigorous) based on percent of VO2peak, HRpeak and Borg RPE. This categorization enables clinicians to better guide persons with SCI to meet required physical activity levels.

  • Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Katedralskolan, Uppsala.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Learning health in Swedish physical education: A critical case study of students’ encounters with physical fitness and health as a learning object2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, p. 227-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfaces between health, physical education and schooling have a long history. Critical questions are being raised about the enforcement of learning a particular health practice in school physical education (PE). The present study departures from a practice-based research project evaluating a pedagogical model. The aim of the case study was to explore upper secondary students' learning and understandings of a specific learning object, aerobic fitness and how this influences health, after participating in a period of a longer lab work in the context of Swedish physical education. A phenomenographic approach was used when analyzing the students' written reports to identify and distinguish the variations of learning outcomes and understandings that emerged. Expectations of physical performance created tensions, and even conflicts, between the student-centred assignments and existing traditions within the field of physical education. The findings underscore the risk of neoliberal logics underpinning health education in the learning culture of PE. Further studies are needed where teaching methods/models and student learning are paid attention to in order to move away from teaching to be healthy towards students learning about health and make sense of themselves as healthy. This may offer new educational perspectives.

  • Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Transitioning from sickness absence to disability pension - the impact of poor health behaviours: a prospective Swedish twin cohort study.2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e031889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between three poor health behaviours (current smoker, high consumption of alcohol and low physical activity levels) and the transition to disability pension (DP) among individuals who have recently been sickness absent. Furthermore, we aimed to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviours increased the risk of transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to DP.

    DESIGN: Prospective twin cohort study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Twins aged 20-46 who had participated in a survey and been on SA (>14 days) in the year preceding baseline (date of answering the questionnaire).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident DP during the follow-up which ended on 31 December 2012 (mean 5.2 years). A national register with full coverage provided data on DP.

    RESULTS: The Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses showed that current smokers had a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP compared with never smokers (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.84). Alcohol use and lack of physical activity as well as poor health behaviour sum score showed no significant associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a current smoker influences the transition from SA to DP. Although non-significant, there were indications that more physical activity and fewer poor health behaviours could reduce the risk of exiting the labour market through DP. Improving health behaviours among people on SA could be a valuable tool for preventing the transition to DP.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons? views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes? situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

  • Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 251-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores learning during game-play of a snowboarding video game intrigued by questions raised in the wake of the increasing mediatisation and digitisation of learning. Correspondingly, we answer to calls for more suitable metaphors for learning to cater for the entangled learning processes that changes related to the increase of digital media may infer. Using a short term sensory ethnography approach, we elaborate on the idea of multisensory emplaced learning and propose an organic metaphor – mycorrhiza – to both methodology and learning. Mycorrhiza refers to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of plants in its environment where fungi are the visible effects of the mycorrhiza. The metaphor provides a way to start to unpack sensory, visual and embodied aspects of learning in the complexities of the digital age. By elaborating on the mycorrhizaic concepts fungus, soil, growth, mycelia and symbiosis we show three interrelated ways of moving through this game: (i) a social and cultural route, (ii) a competitive route, and (iii) an experiential route. With help of the metaphor we discern the symbiotic relations between what appeared in our empirical material as visual and other human and non-human aspects of emplacement.

  • Jacques, Tiago Canal
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bini, Rodrigo R.
    La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australien.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    BILATERAL TENDON STRAIN DURING A 5-KM RUNNING TIME-TRIAL2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Dickinson, Andrew
    et al.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rainbow, Michael J.
    Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Image Resolution Affects Tracking in vivo Biplanar X-ray Images of the Human Foot During Dynamic Motion2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hegyi, Andras
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Peter, Annamaria
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil J.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Azcarate, Laura
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandamas, Paul
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muscle contributions to body mass centre acceleration during the first stance of sprint running2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Holm, Lennart
    Tre slag för den Gustavianska parken1996In: Landskap Utblick, ISSN 0281-7462, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln redogör för främst Sture Koinbergs skisser för ett utvecklat parklandskap vid Haga - Brunnsviken - Ulriksdal i Kungl. Nationalstadsparken, och inom ramen för Kommitténs för Gustavianska Parken medborgarplanering åren 1992-1996, med tre utställningar på Konstakademien i Stockholm (Kring Brunnsvikens stränder I-III).

  • Mikaels, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Imponerande om oskrivna kvinno(frilufts)liv: Recension av boken The Palgrave International Handbook of Women and Outdoor Learning (2018)2019In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 15 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hellström, John S.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    “- How does it feel right now?”: A narrative analysis of sports-interviews after performance2019In: The Society of the Study of Narrative Annual Conference, ISSN / [ed] James Phelan, Georgetown: Ohio State University Press, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Success stories and heroic tales are recurrently investigated narrative genres in literature (Propp, 1998), journalism (Lule, 2001) and, not the least, in sports (Hellström, 2014). In sports, we repeatedly hear athletes explain their performance at half-time or give us reflections on a recently completed competition. However, these stories are not produced in a social vacuum; they are part of a discursive framework and a product of time and place. The trajectories for a legitimate success story is limited and specific storylines are repeated and holds a specific dramaturgical structure. The heroic story typically follows a temporal structure, from a beginning to an end, where events and performances function as phases of a narrative journey towards a defining triumph (Hoebeke et al. 2011). Which performances that constitutes the highlight of an athlete’s career will always be culturally determined, since cultures produces heroes according to their own specific values and traditions (Whannel, 2002). Thereby, the “personal” story is both a contextually specific narrative and a culturally shared narrative.

     

    Aims and empirical material

    In this paper, we are seeking to investigate how success stories in sports as a central part of the athletes identity work, and how these stories also serve as symbols for values and morals of a wider sporting society (Kilger, 2017). Many narrative scholars within the area of sports have been interested in retrospective studies of sports heroes or historical media studies of successful athletes (Hargreaves, 2000; Hellström, 2014; Whannel, 2002). In this study, we would like to pay particular attention to how personal narratives are built ´in-action´ and study which narrative elements are recurrent in the interviews and how is the own performance explained. Accordingly, we are interested in how such narratives of success and failure are co-constructed in the interview interaction and how they are structured. By investigating which master narratives that the participants recruit in their personal stories, this can help us to uncover shared normative storylines in elite sports. Moreover, we would like to illuminate how the athletes are using ´temporal-identity´ in the interviews as a way to construct a legitimate story of performance.

     

    The data set will include after-performance media interviews from Swedish television (SVT) during the FIS Cross Country World Championships. More specifically, we are seeking to analyze between 15-20 after-race television interviews with Swedish athletes during the FIS Cross Country World Championships 2019 in Falun, Sweden.

  • Nilsson, Avlant
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björnson, Elias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Nielsen, Jens
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise.2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 5072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles are tailored towards ATP synthesis. When exercising at high work rates muscles convert glucose to lactate, which is less nutrient efficient than respiration. There is hence a trade-off between endurance and power. Metabolic models have been developed to study how limited catalytic capacity of enzymes affects ATP synthesis. Here we integrate an enzyme-constrained metabolic model with proteomics data from muscle fibers. We find that ATP synthesis is constrained by several enzymes. A metabolic bypass of mitochondrial complex I is found to increase the ATP synthesis rate per gram of protein compared to full respiration. To test if this metabolic mode occurs in vivo, we conduct a high resolved incremental exercise tests for five subjects. Their gas exchange at different work rates is accurately reproduced by a whole-body metabolic model incorporating complex I bypass. The study therefore shows how proteome allocation influences metabolism during high intensity exercise.

  • Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Glitch i Idrottslandet: en kritiskkreativ undersökning av queeranden inom svensk idrott(svetenskap)2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant story in critical sports research is that sport is characterised by heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity norms. These norms are manifested in sexism, homophobia, homonegativity and racism which affect all athletes, regardless of identity. Although important, this is a story that risks reinforcing ideas of how all sport “is”. The thesis is a response to calls from feminist theorists and sport researchers who argue that we need to move away from a logic of negativity built into critical theory and instead put our analytical tools to the task of constructing alternative possible scenarios. The aim of the thesis is to explore what some major strands within contemporary feminist theory can accomplish in relation to dominating stories about gender, sexuality and scientific knowledge production in sport research. More specifically, I explore how the concepts of figuration and intra-action can open up for other possible sport (science) worlds.

    The thesis consists of a frame-story and four articles, which in turn are based on three substudies. In the first substudy I interviewed boys and men who engage with horses and in horse riding. By engaging in a sport, equestrianism, that in Sweden is dominated by girls/women and female coded, they transgress and challenge – glitch – ideas of how Real sports boys/men should be, live and act. The interview stories from this study are enacted in various ways in article I and IV. In the second substudy I interviewed elite athletes with experiences of living non-straight and who in that way glitch heteronormativity in sports (sometimes also homonormativity). These stories make up the heart of the figurations presented in article II. In the third substudy, I explored athletic bodies that, due to intersex variations, glitch the idea that the only way of being a body (in sport) is to be male or female. This analysis is presented in article III.

    The thesis is populated by horseguys who challenge stereotypical masculinity norms, sporting contexts that turn heteronormativity up-side-down and inside-out, athletic bodies that implode binary gender and a researcher I glitching a scientific (writing) genre. The figurations presented in the thesis open up for queering elsewheres, where engaging in sport can serve as a condition of possibility for same-sex attractions/relations and non-normative ways of being a boy/man, and where creative writing – in the form of fiction, poetry and genre mixing – can be used as a method of inquiry.

    Through the concept of intra-action, the thesis also makes visible that “matter matters”. Firstly, I show how engaging materially with horses allow and encourage boys/men to be less constrained by dominant gender norms – in other words, that human-horse relations are entangled with, and affect, boys’ and men’s doing of gender. Secondly, I make visible how athletic bodies “strike back” in relation to ideas of binary gender, glitching a dominant medico-scientific story (in sport) telling us that the only way of being a body is to be male or female. Thirdly, I enact – in form and content – how the researcher is always already entangled in scientific knowledge production.

  • Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Berlin, Anita
    Karolinska institutet.
    School-based obesity prevention for busy low-income families: Organisational and personal barriers and facilitators to implementation.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e0224512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little research has targeted multiple-level barriers and facilitators in school-based parental support programmes. This qualitative study aims to describe barriers and facilitators, at organisational and personal levels, that teachers and parents in disadvantaged settings in Sweden perceived as influencing the implementation of the Healthy School Start II (HSS II) intervention.

    METHODS: Data collection, analysis and interpretation were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 14 parents and ten teachers within the HSS II trial. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis in a deductive step using the three CFIR domains-inner and outer setting, and personal characteristics-followed by an inductive analysis.

    RESULTS: The theme 'being on the same page-getting burdened teachers and parents to work on common ground' was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to the structure of the schoolwork and curriculum, involvement from other staff and school management, the practical school workday, perception of high family needs but low parental interest, insufficient resources in the families, and teacher's personal knowledge, interests, and opinions about health and food. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived family needs and resources, parents' health knowledge, consensus about healthy behaviours and ability to cooperate, and school involvement in health issues and the intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions should facilitate parents' and teachers' work on common ground, with activities suitable for a stressful and burdensome workday and everyday life. This could be achieved by integrating evidence-based practices within school routines, and including activities that are practicable despite parents' stressful lives, and that increase parental consensus about promoting health. Strategies to increase involvement of parents in families with high needs are necessary. Also, this study suggests an expansion of the CFIR to capture the interface between different micro-level organisations, and account for several delivering/receiving organisations.

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Hur stadens utformning lockar till cykling2020In: Transportforums abstraktsamling, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Jag har valt att fokusera på fyra övergripande faktorer som jag bedömer som avgörande viktiga för att stimulera till ökad cykling. Dessa är, utan att jag anger dem i prioritets-ordning: (1) kombinationsresor, (2) avståndsrelationer, (3) målpunkter, och (4) färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    Litteraturstudier.

    Resultat och slutsats

    Kombinationsresor. Rapporten ”Ökad cykelpendling, men hur? – en undersökning om stockholmares attityder till cykling” är utgiven av Utrednings- och statistikkontoret vid Stockholms stad. Av den framgår att stockholmarna skulle vilja kunna ta med cykeln på buss, tunnelbana eller pendeltåg, vilket naturligtvis ska ses mot bakgrund av att det handlar om en storstad med långa avstånd till många målpunkter.

    Vid vissa tider och vissa stationer kan man idag ta med sig cykeln på en del av pendeltågen i Stor-Stockholm. Men när det gäller tunnelbanan är det tvärstopp, till skillnad från i storstäder som Köpenhamn och Oslo.

    Avståndsrelationer. Efter andra världskriget genomförde L.M. Ericsson en resvaneundersökning bland alla anställda, och konstaterade att 60 % cyklade till arbetet. Med dagens regionförstoring blir man nyfiken på hur det kan te sig idag, och i vilken utsträckning avståndsrelationerna mellan bostad och arbete medger cykling till arbetet. Om det vet man ganska mycket när det gäller de som tar bilen till arbetet i Stor-Stockholm. Johansson och medarbetare (2017) kunde nämligen geokoda adresserna för bostad- och arbetsplatserna för c:a 350 000 bilister och därefter beräkna färdvägsavstånden och hur många som hade högst 30 minuters cykelfärd till arbetet. Det visade sig att c:a 111 000 bilister, dvs. ungefär 30 %, hade så korta avstånd. Med andra ord; potentialen till ökad cykling är mycket stor.

    Målpunkter. Det torde inte råda någon tvekan om att en blandstad är idealisk för cykling. Med det menar jag att t.ex. bostäder, arbetsplatser och affärer inte ligger i olika delar av staden, utan blandas. Detta skapar förutsättningar för både kortare avstånd mellan olika målpunkter, och en mer levande stad.

    Färdvägsmiljöer. Jag är uppvuxen mitt i Stockholms innerstad, och minns hur jag vid 12 års ålder fick cykla själv till vårt landställe som låg 16 km bort i Nacka. Idag skulle det vara en omöjlighet på grund av så mycket mer trafik. Ja det är till och med så att många av våra studenter på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan inte vågar cykla i Stor-Stockholm. Oftast visar det sig att de då kommer från landet eller mindre orter och städer.

    För att förstå vilka miljöfaktorer det är som är kritiska för att både skapa en trafikmässig otrygghet – trygghet respektive motverka – stimulera cykling har vi vid Forskningsgruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö vid GIH (www.gih.se/rhm) utvecklat färdvägsmiljöskalan ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale”. Vid min presentation kommer jag ge exempel på viktiga miljövariabler, men kan redan nu nämna att både grönska och skönhet har den verkan att de stimulerar till cykling.

    Summering. Det är viktigt att på olika sätt stimulera till ökad cykling. Stadsplaneringen behöver söka stöd i den framväxande kunskapen om cykling, hälsa och miljö när städer och olika kommunikationsmedel planeras, eller planeras om.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hoff, David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: Legitimation strategies in WADA’s athlete guides2019In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 7, no 1-2, article id 100147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough’s critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen’s four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system.

  • Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • Girma Wondimu, Desalegn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien: Kartläggning av ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva hur barn- och ungdomsfotbollen är organiserad i Addis Abeba, Etiopien, med ett speciellt fokus på ungdomsfotbollen. Uppsatsen kommer att redovisa ledares, tränarnas och ungdomars beskrivning av ungdomsfotbollen. Frågeställningarna är: Hur beskriver tränare, ledare och ungdomar ungdomsfotbollens organisation samt dess hinder och möjligheter, i Addis Abeba Etiopien.

    Metod

    Både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod har använts. Studien genomfördes dels med intervjuer med sex personer där två tillhör fotbollsfederationen, en är från kommunen, två är ungdomstränare och en sportchef på en klubb i Etiopiens första liga, dels via en enkätundersökning med två ungdomslag i åldrarna  13–17 år.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av intervjuerna och enkäterna visar att endast viss begränsad organisation finns. För åldrarna 6–12 år finns i Addis Abeba eller i Etiopien ingen organisation likt exempelvis Sveriges statsstödda barn- och ungdomsverksamhet. I denna åldersgrupp görs enbart tillfälliga lösningar genom klubbarna och federationen, eller av barnen och ungdomarna själva genom spontanfotboll. För de lite äldre pojkarna, 13-15 år, finns skolfotboll  samt så kallade ”projekt”, men ingen organisation eller några fotbollsföreningar. Ungdomsfotbollen har många utmaningar. Det saknas resurser, utbildade tränare, lämpliga fotbollsplaner, materiel, utrustning, lokaler och träningstider. Det saknas också en tydlig policy hos Etiopiens och Addis Abebas fotbollsfederation som prioriterar ungdomsfotbollen och som visar hur den bör organiseras. Det finns dock stora möjligheter till förbättring. Enkäten visar att intresset och motivationen är stort. 

    Slutsats

    Ungdomsfotbollen i Addis Abeba är organisatoriskt outvecklad och uppvisar brister i struktur, prioritering och långsiktighet. Detta behöver åtgärdas om man vill nå en hållbar ungdomsfotboll i Etiopien.  

  • Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gun
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Almali, Leyli
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är hälsa för högstadieelever?: En intervjustudie om flickor och pojkar och deras uppfattning om begreppet hälsa i årskurs 92019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this survey is to investigate what students in grade 9 thinks what health is. How they relate to health in the subject physical education and what image they have on the subject.

    Questions

    • What do students in grade 9 think about what they learn about the notion of health.
    • How do the teachers convey their knowledge to the students about health.
    • Do the students have a pathogen or a salutogenic perspective of health.

    Method

    To answer the questions the survey used a qulitative method with interviews. Six students from grade 9 and 3 teachers in physical education participated in the study. The interviews were semistructured because the content and questions were decided before hand but the follow up questions were adapted to the people that participated.

    Results

    The students perceived the notion of health in the subject differently. Some students connects the notion of health to different physical activities whilst some students thinks about nutrition as an important part of health. All the participating teachers used theory sessions to educate about health. However, the content could differ between the teachers. The image of what the students think about health is mainly from a salutogenic perspective. 5 of 6 students said they interpreted that they had a salutogenic perspective and only one person thought about health from a pathogen perspective.

    Conclusions

    The students interpreted the notion of health differently. The teachers used theory sessions when they educated about health. Both students and teachers thought about health from mainly a salutogenic perspective.

  • Nilsson, Hampus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Makten och skolan: Debatten om skolan inför riksdagsvalet 20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to analyze how the parties in the Swedish parliament debated the matter of  the Swedish school prior to the 2014 election. The question for the survey was:

    • How did the parties debate school governance?

    • How did the parties debate grades and results?

    • How did the parties debate the question of independent schools?

    • How did the parties debate the role of teachers and the status of teacher profession?

    Method

    The empirical material consisted of 1) debating articles written by party leaders or school political spokesmen. 2) Swedish public service hearings with party leaders 3) party election programs. The method for analysis Arne Naess´ (1970) argumentative analysis described by Bergström och Boréus (2005) searching for thesis, pro- and contra arguments. The selection of the empirical material was made through hand picked selections. Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.

    Results

    The study showed that the Moderate party argued for shared responsibility between the state and the municipalities. The Centre party, the Social democrats, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Liberal party argued for a nationalization. The Liberal party argued for grades starting from grade 6 at the same time as arguing for written reviews giving a more descriptive picture of the pupil. The Social democrats, The Centre party and the Liberal party used PISA surveys supporting their argument in the question of grades. The Christian democrats were in favour of independent schools. Similarly, the Centre party argued for continued legislation allowing share-out for owners of independent schools. The Social democrats and the Left party argued for banning share-outs. The Social democrats, the Liberal party, the Green party argued for strengthening teachers ‘role and status primarily by raising teacher´s and increasing the time spent teaching while decreasing administrative work.

    Conclusions

    The Social democrats, The Liberal party, the Swedish democrats, the Green party and the Left party wanted nationalize the Swedish school. The Christian democrats, the Liberal party and the Centre party were in favour of share-outs while the Social democrats, the Green party and the Left party opposed share-outs. The Liberal party argued for grading pupils at a lower age. The Social democrats argued for the introduction of career opportunities which would lead to teachers being becoming more separated from their teaching assignments. The question of the school could not be divided into left or right wing politics.

    Naess´ argumentative analysis was less suited for analysing the parties ‘electoral programs than the hearings and articles, as the text, by their nature, rarely were argumentative.