1 - 39 of 39
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
  • Gerby, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tuneld, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur är det att vara skadad truppgymnast?: En kvalitativ studie kring psykologiska faktorer i samband med rehabilitering och återgång till idrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda om det finns olika psykologiska faktorer som har påverkat och hjälpt i rehabiliteringen av en långvarig skada hos truppgymnaster. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de tiden som skadad ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv? samt Vad motiverar gymnasten att återgå till idrotten?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju elitgymnaster på hösta nationella nivå deltog i studien där alla hade varit skadade och borta från tävling minst 12 månader. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades. Analysen var deduktiv med self determination theory som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att kategorisera resultatet.                                                                                                   

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det som motiverar deltagarna att återgå till idrotten var de små framstegen, att rehabiliteringen ger resultat och att det går att utvecklas. Det hade även varit viktigt med socialt stöd under rehabiliteringen. Social support har bland annat kommit från tränare, lagkamrater, föräldrar och sjukgymnaster genom att de lyssnat, förklarat och försökt förstå den skadade. Under tiden som skadad har deltagarna i stor utsträckning förändrat sin syn på gymnastik på grund av skadan. De uppskattar idrotten mer och har fått en ökad förståelse. De känslor som deltagarna har tampats med mest med under tiden som skadad har varit frustration, ilska, bitterhet, vilsenhet, ångest, sorg, ledsamhet, oro, uppgivenhet och utanförskap.

    Slutsats

    Vad som hjälper en skadad idrottare att återgå till idrotten beror på individen. Det som visat sig gemensamt för flera av deltagarna har framförallt varit det sociala stödet, förmågan att kunna se de små framstegen i rehabiliteringen och att de identifierat sig med gymnastiken.

  • Åbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sharro, Jessy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag borde utnyttja deras kunskaper": En studie om lärares möte med nyanlända elever i undervisnigen i idrott och hälsa utifrån ett interkulturellt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of the study is to examine the challenges teachers in the subject sports and health is facing in their teaching with newly arrived students. To answer the aim of the study, we have chosen to be based on the following questions: How do teachers describe their work with newly-arrived student in the subject sports and health? -What educational tools do the teachers mention that they use in their work with newly arrived students? – What support do the teachers asks for in the work with newly arrived students?

    Method

    We have been collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews to examine teachers ' meeting with newly arrived students in the subject of sport and health. The selection has been strategically and consists of six physical education teachers who works with newly arrived students. The collected empirical data has been analyzed from an intercultural perspective using the analyses concepts normative, critical and innovative.

    Results

    The results shows that the teachers challenges is to mediate the subject's purpose, get the students to reflect, language difficulties, swimming and girls ' approach to sport and movement. Through educational tools, such as customization and alternative explanatory models do teachers make their teaching more comprehensible to students. All teacher mentions that they have not been prepared to teach newly arrived. They want a forum for exchange of experience with discussions between colleagues about the work of newly arrived students.

    Conclusions

    The challenges that the teachers testify is largely linked to the students ' past experiences and cultural values that permeate the school community both in Sweden and in the students' countries of origin. The teachers are positive and reflect an open-minded and curious approach to students ' diverse cultures. They are also try to use students ' experiences as teaching tools. There are examples of an intercultural approach in the teachers ' statements but in most cases teachers ' descriptions of their work methods stops at a depictions of cultural meetings.

  • Lessner, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Läroboken – en tillgång för paradigmskifte?: En kvalitativ diskursanalys av läroböcker i idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Research shows that questions about what, how and which knowledge should be taught in physical education appears unclear in practice. Previously identified discourses in the subject's practice is not always compatible with the knowledge of the mission. The purpose of this study is to analyze which discourses can be identified in the textbooks for the subject Physical Education, how the order of discourses manifests and the possible development of knowledge these discourses offer. Together it gives us an opportunity to discuss whether these textbooks are an appropriate tool to achieve change or if they reproduce traditional beliefs about the subject's character. To define the aim of this study we point out three questions to examine: Which subject discourses are expressed in the textbooks? How does the order of discourses in the textbooks looks like? What educational philosophical traditions can be linked to the identified discourses?

    The methodology of the study is discourse analysis. The empirical basis of the study consists of two textbooks which are published for 'idrott och hälsa 1 & 2'. An analyze scheme was designed to categorize the discourses expressed in the books. The initial processing of the material was made separately and then we came to a common interpretation framework of identified discourses. The subject discourses that are represented in the books were then analyzed based on regularity and relative dominance. Finally, the identified discourses were placed into education philosophical traditions to broaden the understanding of what type of knowledge the textbooks offer.

    The result shows that nine different subject discourses identified. These are: Activity discourse, (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse, risk discourse, nature meeting discourse, the moralizing discipline discourse, socio-cultural discourse, empowerment discourse and gender divisions discourse. The discourses that get the most space in both books are those we term as the (elite)sports discourse, physiology discourse and risk discourse. These are placed into the essentialist philosophy of education, which is not consistent with the constructionist curriculum. The result shows that physiology discourse and risk discourse has high status in the books. They are the most occurring discourses and figures both as superior and secondary discourses and are also well compatible with each other. However, the constructionist empowerment discourse is interpreted as a superior discourse in the books, giving the textbooks some legitimacy in relation to the curriculum. The constructionist socio-cultural discourse is completely marginalized to some minority parties of the empirical data.

    The conclusion is that the analyzed textbooks largely reproduce the reality that more practice-oriented studies shows. The textbooks are not an asset to the paradigm shift that we request, but depending on how the textbooks are used, teachers might have benefit of some of the content.

  • Jörmyr, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärare i idrott och hälsas upplevelse av sin egen psykosociala arbetsmiljö: Utifrån krav, kontroll och stödmodellen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out the physical education teachers' perception of their own psychosocial work environment on the basis of demands, control and social support. I want to find out what affects the PE teachers' psychosocial work and find out the factors that may obsticel or promote the psychosocial work environment. The study's two questions are as follows:

    • Which factors are the promotion of PE teachers' psychosocial work?
    • What factors obsticels the PE teachers' psychosocial work?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative perspective and has a semi-structured interview form to collect data. The sample consists of five physical education teachers who work in the City of Stockholm with grades 1-9. The result has been interpreted by the control, demands and support model for investigating how the employee perceives his own psychosocial work environment.

    Results

    Results of the study show that the teachers feel they have a great influence in their work, particularly on the subject of sport and health. All teachers also believe that they feel a great social support from colleagues and school management. All teachers had also wanted to have more contact with more people in school if possible. It shows, among other things, that all P.E teachers are visiting the staff room several times a day. All teachers feel stressed, even if not every day then at least once a week. It is rare that students creates this stress, but rather things around teaching. The work also affects leisure time in any way for all P.E teachers, where, among other things, has led to two of the teachers were sick of work-related causes such as stress.

    Conclusion

    To work as a P.E teacher means that no days are ever the same. The results of this study show that some days you feel a high social support, while other days lower. Control is something all P.E teacher in this paper feel in their profession, where they have the opportunity to influence their own work. The demands are reasonable but when you go deeper in their answers we find that stress is something they face every day, which can be directly harmful to one's overall health.

  • Wiiand, Tilda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lidholm, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Framgångsfaktorer på nationella idrottsutbildningar inom handboll: en kvalitativ studie av elevernas utvecklingsmiljö ur ett handbollslärarperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vad handbollslärare som undervisar i specialidrott på nationella idrottsutbildningar (NIU) inom handboll anser om sin påverkan på elevernas utveckling. För att uppnå uppsatsens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

    • Hur beskriver handbollslärarna utvecklingsmiljön på Sveriges NIUhandbollsgymnasium?
    • På vilket sätt finns Henriksens omarbetade framgångsfaktorer representerade i elevernas utvecklingsmiljö?

    Metod

    Handbollslärarnas syn på elevernas utvecklingsmiljö undersöks med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod. Insamlingen av data sker i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer där målet är att komma mer på djupet kring ämnet för att få svar på uppsatsens frågeställningar. Intervjuerna genomfördes via telefon för att kunna nå handbollslärare över hela landet. Urvalsgruppen bestod av fem manliga handbollslärare som är anställda vid olika NIU- handbollsgymnasier i Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet i uppsatsen visar en varierande utvecklingsmiljö. Elevantal, kommunikation mellan skola och klubb, avsaknad av förebilder är några av de bristfälliga områden som lärarna anser utvecklas. En stark idrottskultur har visats sig vara betydande för både skolan och kommunen gällande utvecklingsmiljön.

    Slutsatser

    Slutsatserna som kan dras av denna uppsats är att handbollslärare på NIUhandbollsgymnasium ser utvecklingsmiljön som framgångsrik, men de är överens om att det finns utvecklingsmöjligheter. De anser att framgångsfaktorerna förebilder och integrationsarbete med klubbtränare är bristfällig och bör prioriteras för att optimera elevernas utvecklingsmiljö.

  • Papachristou Thulin, Nicole
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Segura, Vanessa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärares syn på hur digitala hjälpmedel påverkar undervisningen samt bedömningsprocessen i idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions:

    The aim of this study was to examine how lower secondary school teachers in physical education work with digital tools in their teaching. The focus of the study includes if teachers believed that digital tools affect their teaching and the assessment process.

    1. How are digital tools used in teaching?

    2. What is the purpose of using digital tools?

    3. What advantages and disadvantages can digital tools in the teaching of physical education have according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    4. How can the assessment process be influenced by digital tools according to the surveyed lower secondary teachers?

    Method:

    The study was carried out through qualitative interviews in which we interviewed five lower secondary school teachers who teach physical education and health, and use digital tools in their teaching.

    Results:

    The results showed that the inclusion of digital tools can have a positive impact on pupils' learning according to the surveyed teachers. Also, the assessment process was experienced to be simplified with the use of digital tools, mainly through video recording. 

  • Sandahl, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Finns det en framgångsmodell för OS?: Recension av boken "Success and Failure of Countries at the Olympic Games" av Danyel Reiche2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 7 februariArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla som är intresserade av idrott har förmodligen på något vis en relation till de olympiska spelen. Som den största och därmed främsta av alla idrottsevenemang, möjligen undantaget världsmästerskapen i fotboll, har de olympiska spelen analyserats sönder och samman ur ett antal olika perspektiv. Mindre är dock skrivet om en faktor som förmodligen funnits på näthinnan hos alla dem som följt Sveriges framgångar och motgångar i de olika evenemangen, nämligen: finns det en framgångsmodell för OS? Den frågan försöker Danyel Reiche svara på i Success and Failure of the Countries at the Olympic Games.

  • Fogelberg, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svärd, Linnea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Saknas hälsoperspektiv?: En kvantitativ studie om hälsoundervisningen i Idrott & hälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study has been to investigate high school physical education teachers teaching in health in Physical Education and health (PEH). Two questions were designed to fulfill this purpose: 1. How do teachers plan their teaching in health? 2. What dimensions of health permeates their teaching approach and plan?

    Method

    The method used was a quantitative survey. A web-survey was designed with the web tool Google Forms. Teachers with at least one year of teaching experience in PEH at high school level was asked to participate. 77 out of 470 asked teachers chose to attend. The teachers were chosen through a strategic selection followed by a complementary selection. In order to systematize collected data Health Literacy (HL) was chosen as the study´s theoretical framework.

    Results

    The results of the study show that health education mainly is pervaded by a salutogenic perspective in which physical health has the greatest focus. The majority of them answered that they integrate health as an area of knowledge in their education. Psychological and social dimensions of health is less common. The teachers' view is that they are working to a high extent with theoretical and practical knowledge within health and also with individual development. Even though they also imply that they work with critical thinking and citizenship, this is to a more limited extent.

    Conclusions

    Teachers in high school work with physical health to a high extent in PEH and they integrate health within their teaching. Eventhough the study shows that the teachers work with critical thinking and society perspectives to a limited extent. These areas are considered to be important to reach a deeper knowledge, which pupils need to take responsibility for their health in the present and future. Therefore teaching contributes to shallow and unilateral perspectives of health. Consequently it is important that more perspectives are used. Furthermore the study concludes that the theory of HL can work as a framework in order to develop strategies for health education. A proven theory could contribute to the teachers' ability to form a more deepened health education.

  • Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David W.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with an exercise intervention in depressed adults2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, 10-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exercise is beneficial for depression, but less is known about its impact on post-intervention physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of this paper was to determine the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention influenced habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. Methods Accelerometer data was collected pre- and post-intervention from depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week intervention groups: light (n = 21), moderate (n = 25) and vigorous (n = 22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in time spent sedentary and in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); time accumulated in sedentary and MVPA bouts; and, number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time. Results Overall sedentary time decreased while light activity time increased across all intervention groups but not significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced MVPA minutes (−8.22, 95% CI: −16.44, −0.01), time in MVPA bouts (−8.44, 95% CI: −14.27, −2.62), and number of activity bouts (−0.43, 95% CI: −0.77, −0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced time in MVPA bouts (−6.27, 95% CI: −11.71, −0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (−6.07, 95% CI: −9.30, −2.84). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group. Conclusions The exercise intervention led to an increase in overall light physical activity and decrease in sedentary time, though neither change was statistically significant. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention groups was associated with reductions of time in MVPA bouts, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

  • Espejo Reveco, Simon Manuel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Torres Villagran, Cristobal Alexis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det livslånga lärandet: en studie om hur idrottslärare arbetar för att skapa ett bestående intresse hos elever för fysisk aktivitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to examine how physical education teachers work to create a permanent interest for physical activity among students and try to identify in which grade these teachers feel that physical education affect students will to be physically active. In our study we have two different questions. These questions are the following:

    • How do physical education teachers see the teaching as a way to create interest in lifelong learning in physical activity among students?
    • How do physical education teachers create preconditions that frame learning and interest in physical activity that can be implemented in leisure time?

    Method

    The study had a qualitative approach where interviews were chosen as the main instrument. The present study took place in Stockholm, where five qualified physical education teachers were interviewed in different communities of the city. Two of the teachers were also educated in other school subject.

    Results

    Almost everyone work with a broad of activities with differences in the content. They have everything between ballgame to activities that prepare them for the “reality”. There were also some teachers who emphasized the importance to cooperate with other teachers for the purpose to mediate a lifelong learning towards physical activity. Most of the teachers experienced that communication among students, the active collaboration between teacher/student and formative assessment played a big role in the learning process.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of the study is that many of the teachers are not working consciously to promote a lifelong learning for physical activity for the students. With that said, we still want to emphasize that their efforts and strategies applied in teaching can promote an interest in physical activity in leisure time also in the long term.       

  • Kaldoyo, Patricia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Aphram, Petra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motivation till ämnet idrott och hälsa: en studie om motivation ur gymnasielevers perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how high school students will be motivated of in physical education. The questions for this study look at how students experience that following factors affect their motivation:

    • Performance
    • Grades
    • Feedback
    • Interaction
    • Teacher

    Method

    In this qualitative interview study, six students participated in the age of 18-19. An interview guide based on Self determination theory was used to answer the questions of the study. The participants were randomly selected from a convenience sample and come from two different high schools in the Stockholm area.

    Result

    The participants in this study considered that feedback was important to get from their teachers because they felt seen and thus more motivated. The interaction of both teachers and students were considered to be important for promoting motivation. Grades were considered an important factor in motivating them to participate and want to get good grades. Most of the students did not see performance as something that motivated them. Most students agreed that teachers have a big impact on their motivation.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion of this study have concluded that the following factors: performance, grades, feedback, interaction and teacher affect students' motivation to physical education. These factors have an impact on students' internal and external motivation. Our conclusion is that the various factors have an impact on students' motivation and all of these have an important role in how students will experience physical education.

  • Dahlin, Michell
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lomas, Alex
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Styrketräning eller plyometrisk träning?: Effekterna av två olika typer av träningsprogram på unga fotbollsspelare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka effektiviteten av två olika träningsinterventioner, plyometrisk träning och styrketräning, på unga elitfotbollsspelares sprinttid, hopphöjd, drop jump index (DJI), riktningsförändringsförmåga (COD) samt effektutveckling i knäböjshopp (SJ). Studiens frågeställning var: Ger interventionsperioderna några effekter på ungdomsfotbollsspelares sprintförmåga (0-5 m, 0-10 m och 0-15 m), COD, hopphöjd och index i DJI samt effektutveckling i SJ?

    Metod

    24 stycken unga manliga fotbollsspelare deltog i en träningsintervention under 4 veckor. Deltagarna lottades in och tränade i tre olika grupper: Plyometrigrupp (PG), Styrkegrupp (SG) och Kontrollgrupp (KG). Träningarna bedrevs två gånger i veckan innan ordinarie fotbollsträning. PG och SG följde ett träningsupplägg som var vetenskapligt förankrat. För- och eftertester genomfördes för att undersöka träningsprogrammens effekt. Testerna som utfördes var sprint, drop jump (DJ), knäböjshopp (SJ) och riktningsförändringsförmåga (COD).

    Resultat

    PG och SG fick signifikanta förbättringar i DJI (p = 0,033 respektive p = 0,003). PG fick även signifikant (p = 0,006) ökning i effektutveckling medan SG endast visade på tendens (p = 0,073). PG visade även på en tendens till förbättring i 0-5 m (p = 0,097) och 0-15 m (p = 0,059). KG påvisade en tendens till förbättrat resultat i DJI (p = 0,072).

    Slutsats

    Studien visar att både ett fyra veckors plyometriskt träningsprogram och ett styrketräningsprogram kan utveckla fysiska egenskaper hos unga fotbollsspelare. Det plyometriska träningsprogrammet visade sig vara mest effektivt. Ytterligare forskning krävs där fler träningsmetoder undersöks under en längre träningsintervention för att skapa en större medvetenhet kring träningsmetoders påverkan på unga fotbollsspelare.

  • Olsson, Joanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Swedish Elite Swimmers Blood Glucose Levels During Recovery: A Descriptive Study Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to form a descriptive picture of Swedish national elite (SNLE) swimmers blood glucose (BG) levels in relation to their nutritional intake. 

    - Do SNLE swimmers have BG level in a normal range of ≥3.9 mmol/L when measured during a six-day period?

    - Is there a relationship between the SNLE swimmers blood glucose levels and how often or when they eat, and how they perceive their workout effort?

    Method

    Four test subjects, three females and one male, were recruited based on their competitive level, National Championship qualifying cut, geographical location, in Stockholm, and amount of swimming workouts completed weekly, seven on average. The test subjects wore a Continuous Glucose Monitor for a week and in addition a brief meal journal and perceived effort (ranking) of each workout was recorded. The data gathered was analyzed based on three main variables; time spent LOW (blood glucose level below 3.9mmol/L), amount of meals, and ranking.

    Results

    This study found that three out of four test subjects had occurrences of a LOW during the week. The test subjects spent on average 1.75 ±1.26 days with a LOW, the average time spent with a LOW per day was 37.3 ±29.7 minutes, the average amount during the whole week was 224 ±177 minutes, and the percent of the whole week spent with a LOW was 2.59 ±0.02%. In addition to this a correlation was found between (total) time spent LOW and (total) amount of meals with an R-value of 0.99, an R2 of 0.979, and P-value of 0.044.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that three test subjects spent time with a LOW and indicates similar results should be found in the general population of SNLE swimmers, however, this is definitely in need of further research. The results also indicated that there is a relationship between the amount of meals ingested and the BG level over the full six-day period but not on a daily basis. A regression analysis between (total) time spent LOW and (total) number of meals showed correlations with statistical significance, however, there was too small of a data sample (N=4) to draw conclusions based from this. This study forms a descriptive picture of the situation, which could serve as a platform for further research in this field, and give a first glance at the possible potential use of CGM systems within the sports nutrition field. 

  • Bergqvist, Linnea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Objectively measured physical activity in three-year-old children: Associations with BMI, gender and parental socioeconomic status2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe levels and patterns of three-year-old children´s physical activity. Furthermore, to investigate if there were any weight status-, gender- and parental SES differences in three-year-old children’s physical activity levels, using objective and subjective measurements from Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project (Early STOPP).

    Methods

    Data from 93 children, three years of age, included in the Early STOPP study was used. Children wore an actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for at least four consecutive days including one weekend day. Average activity in counts per minute (CPM), time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed (5 s epoch) and used to examine differences between gender, weight status (ISOBMI according to Cole et al) and socioeconomic status (SES). For this reason an index measuring SES was created using subjective data; parental reported information on living conditions and background characteristics, from the Early STOPP study. Differences between weekdays and weekend days was also examined.   

    Results

    The result showed neither any differences in PA between gender nor weight status and no differences between SES-groups. There was a difference in PA levels between weekdays and weekend days and a difference in PA between housing types. The children spent more time being active on weekdays and children living in apartments were more active than children living in villas. Children spent approximately 67% of their time being sedentary and an average of 12,5 minutes in MVPA.

    Conclusion

    The study concludes that PA-levels in children three years of age are low. There was a difference between housings, suggesting that parents/guardians play an important role in young children’s PA. However more research is needed to fully understand the PA-behavior of young children and their parents. The absence of PA differences between genders implies that gender differences later in childhood is an effect of social structures rather than innate differences. Objectively measured PA on children at this age is rare and therefore this study contributes to the knowledge regarding young children’s PA-behavior. Furthermore there is also a need to establish agreed upon definitions for SES and of thresholds to use when examining PA with accelerometer.

  • Querat, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hjärtrytmsvariabilitet och quarterbackprestation: En kvantitativ undersökning av sambandet mellan mätvärdet hjärtrytmsvariabilitet och kastprecision2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning

    Hjärtrytmsvariabilitet (HRV) är oscillationer i hjärtfrekvensen, dvs. ett mått på hur tiden mellan hjärtslagen varierar slag-för-slag. Litteraturen pekar på samband mellan hög HRV och prestationsförmåga i domäner som IQ-test och pistolskytte, men begränsad forskning har gjorts på sambandet mellan HRV och mer fysiskt krävande prestationsdomäner.

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka mätningar i hjärttrytmsvariabilitets förmåga att förutspå quarterbackprestation inom domänen prickskytte. Arbetet kretsar kring frågeställningarna:

     Finns det en korrelation mellan HRV och quarterbackprestation?

     Orsakar musik en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i resultaten?

    Metod

    Under två testtillfällen fick försökspersoner (n=7, ålder: 16-22) genomgå ett prickskyttetest bestående av 30 kast på måltavla (⌀=50cm) på 7,5m avstånd. Före prickskyttetestet gjordes en 3 minuters HRV-mätning före och efter standardiserad uppvärmning. Uppvärmningen bestod av löpning och kast (10-15 min). Korrelationsanalyser gjordes mellan prickskytteresultat och värden för HRV från de 4 mätningarna.

    Resultat

    Korrelationsanalysen Pearson Correlation visade ett negativt samband mellan två uppmätta HRV-värden efter uppvärmning och kastprestation (r=-0,828, p=0,022 respektive r=-0,914, p=0,004).

    Slutsats

    Resultaten visar att det finns en korrelation mellan HRV och quarterbackprestation, strax före test. Dessa resultat talar eventuellt för att HRV går att användas som en metod för att mäta spelares grad av beredskap, men en mer omfattande studie med fler försökspersoner krävs för att med säkerhet kunna bedöma sambandet mellan HRV och kastprecision hos quarterbacks.

  • Piech, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Grants, Juris
    Cherenkov, Dmitriy
    Gatatulin, Alexey
    Smaliakou, Dzmitry
    Lindberg, Ulf
    Family Influence On Sport Activity Patterns During Early Adolescence: A Comparative Approach2016In: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912, Vol. 7, no 2, 3-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of research is to examine and describe young individuals who participate in extended sport education program. The main focus concerns family influences on the development of the investigated youngsters´ sportive patterns. Data were collected through online and paper (whenever appropriate) questionnaires (elite sport training in secondary higher education – models of success in sport with pupils from a selection of sport schools in respective countries). Coaches from sports schools representing all participating countries (Poland, Sweden, Latvia, Russia and Belarus) were interviewed. The results indicate that the influence of parents and physical education teachers on the decision to join a sport club and to continue sport career is rather low. Main reasons behind joining a sport club are: the desire to become an athlete, sport idols, and the subjects’ own will. Staying in a sport club and pursuing a career is also determined by previous achievements in the field and good coaches. The parents´ past engagement in psychical activities was not systematic. The subjects consider local sport facilities and a number of accessible sport clubs and sports coaches to be of high importance at the early stage of their engagement in sport.

  • Manselin, Tom A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Södergård, Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lindholm, Peter
    Karolinska institutet.
    Aerobic efficiency is associated with the improvement in maximal power output during acute hyperoxia.2017In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 5, no 2, e13119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between aerobic efficiency during cycling exercise and the increase in physical performance with acute hyperoxic exposure (FiO2 ~31%) (HOX) and also tested the hypothesis that fat oxidation could be increased by acute hyperoxia. Fourteen males and four females were recruited for two sessions, where they exercised for 2 × 10 min at 100 W to determine efficiency. HOX and normoxia (NOX) were administered randomly on both occasions to account for differences in nitrogen exchange. Thereafter, a progressive ramp test was performed to determine VO2max and maximal power output (Wmax). After 30 min rest, workload was set to 80% of maximal power output (Wmax) for a time to exhaustion test (TTE). At 100W gross efficiency was reduced from 19.4% during NOX to 18.9% during HOX (P ≤ 0.0001). HOX increased fat oxidation at 100 W by 52% from 3.41 kcal min(-1) to 5.17 kcal min(-1) (P ≤ 0.0001) with a corresponding reduction in carbohydrate oxidation. Wmax increased by 2.4% from 388.8 (±82.1) during NOX to 397.8 (±83.5) during HOX (P ≤ 0.0001). SaO2 was higher in HOX both at the end of the maximal exercise test and TTE. Subjects with a high level of efficiency in NOX had a larger improvement in Wmax with HOX, in agreement with the hypothesis that an optimum level of efficiency exists that maximizes power production. No association between mitochondrial excess capacity and endurance performance was found; increases in oxygen supply seemed to increase maximal aerobic power production and maintain/increase endurance capacity at the same relative workload.

  • Kristiansson, Beata
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    30 minuter högintensiv idrott, räcker det?: en studie om gymnasieelevers syreupptagningsförmåga2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om 30 minuters högintensiv träning kan förbättra syreupptagningsförmågan (VO2-max) i större utsträckning än vid en lektion som tillbringas i måttlig till kraftig fysisk aktivitet (MVPA).

    Frågeställningar

    1. Vilka elever visar störst förändring i VO2-max?

    2. Är det tillräckligt att träna högintensiv träning två gånger i veckan under en 6 veckors period för att se en förbättrad VO2-max?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes under en 6 veckors period med gymnasieelever som valt fotboll som profilidrott. Gruppen bestod av 11 elever, 9 pojkar och 2 flickor, i åldrarna 16–18 år som under studien delades in i två grupper. Den ena gruppen fortsatte med ordinarie undervisning i profilidrotten, medan den andra gruppen utförde högintensiv träning under 30 minuter. Alla elever startade med att utföra två tester av VO2-max, Beep-test samt Ekblom-Bak test. Båda testerna har färdiga testprotokoll och tar hänsyn till kön och ålder. Eleverna som valde att utöva den högintensiva träningen under tidsperioden på 6 veckor utförde två högintensiva pass i veckan. Ett av dessa var förkoreograferat av Les Mills som är ett världsledande företag inom gruppträning. Studien avslutades med nya VO2-max tester som utfördes med samtliga elever för att sedan sammanställa ett resultat 

    Resultat

    Eleverna som utförde den högintensiva träningen förbättrade VO2-max med 4 % enligt Beep-testet efter en 6 veckors period i jämförelse med eleverna som fortsatte med ordinarie undervisning som försämrade VO2-max med 6 %. De som visade högst procentuell förbättring var flickorna som deltog i studien med en ökning av VO2-max med 7 %. Ekblom-Bak testet visade inga signifikanta skillnader i någon av grupperna.

    Slutsats

    Högintensiv träning kan enligt studien ha en positiv inverkan på gymnasieelevers VO2-max i större utsträckning än vid ordinarie undervisning inom ramen för MVPA. 

  • Dupree, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motivation i varje zon?: En studie av motivationens och tränarbeteendens påverkan hos elever på elitishockeygymnasier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka tränarbeteenden som föredras av elever på svenska elitishockeygymnasier samt att få en inblick hur motivationen är hos dessa elever. 

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur uppfattar eleverna olika tränarbeteenden?

    2. Hur ser motivationen ut hos eleverna?

    3. Finns det några skillnader mellan könen i dessa två variabler?

    4. Finns det några skillnader mellan de olika spelpositionerna inom ishockey?

    5. Finns det ett samband mellan specifika tränarbeteenden och viss motivationstyp?

    Metod: Deltagare i denna kvantitativa studie var elever på landets elitishockeygymnasier som fyllt 18 år. Undersökningen genomfördes i form av en webb-enkät i Google Forms. Enkäten har bestått av två redan färdiga enkäter, Leadership Scale for Sports och Sport Motivation Scale-II. Enkäten har skickats till de ansvariga för respektive elitishockeygymnasium i landet som sedan förmedlat enkäten vidare till eleverna. Resultatet från enkäten har bearbetats i statistikprogrammet SPSS version 24 där T-test, korrelationer, one-way ANOVA samt Cronbach’s alfa har genomförts. 

    Resultat: Autokratiskt beteende var det minst uppskattade beteenden och positiv feedback det mest uppskattade.  Den motivationstyp som förekom i högst grad hos undersökningsgruppen var inre motivation och i lägst grad förekom amotivation. En statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan könen i föredragna tränarbeteenden visades, då kvinnorna i högre grad föredrog demokratiskt beteende jämfört med männen. Mellan de olika positionerna fanns det statistisk signifikant skillnad inom amotivation, där målvakterna visade mer amotivation än backarna. Samband av medel-styrka kunde ses mellan inre motivation och träning/instruktion samt positiv feedback, men även mellan extern reglering och träning/instruktion. Fler samband med låg styrka kunde påvisas.

    Slutsats: De mest föredragna tränarbeteendena samt motivationstyperna har påvisats. Även skillnader och samband har framkommit. En viktig slutsats är att de undersökta variablerna hänger ihop och har en stor påverkan på varandra, då idrottarnas motivation påverkar tränarens beteende, samtidigt som tränarens beteende påverkar idrottarnas motivation.

  • Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Almström, Peter
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Markstedt, Anders
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impacts of air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, 55-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people’s home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 minute bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in more than 111 000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.

    Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 µg m-3 decrease in NOx, this corresponds to more than 449 (95% CI: 340 - 558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172 - 617) and 185 (95% CI: 158 - 209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Kempe Bergman, Matthis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Gör idrotten som Idrotten vill?: Barn- och ungdomsidrottens utformning i retorik och praktik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om idrottsrörelsens policydokument Idrotten vill och dess väg från visionär retorik, beslutad i styrelserum och på stämmor, till praktisk handling när idéerna ska realiseras av tränare i lokala föreningar. Riktlinjerna har i stort sett varit desamma under de 20 år som gått sedan beslutet om Idrotten vill togs. Forskning visar dock att riktlinjerna inte alltid är normgivande, och att idrotten inte självklart gör som Idrotten vill. Kunskap saknas om i vilken utsträckning  föreningsledare och tränare känner till idrottsrörelsens övergripande riktlinjer samt varför andemeningen i Idrotten vill inte är vägledande i alla sammanhang.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka i vilken mån centralt formulerade idéer i Idrotten vill har fått genomslag på lokal nivå där barn- och ungdomsidrotten utformas och utövas. Ytterligare ett syfte är att studera tränares erfarenhet av hur riktlinjerna följs, samt att analysera vilka övergripande idéer som det verkar vara svårast att tillämpa. Följande frågor är centrala: I vilken utsträckning har idrottsföreningar egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott och vad utmärker dessa? Vad känner tränare till om de övergripande idéerna i Idrotten vill, och vad anser de om idéernas genomslag? Vilka idéer verkar svårast att tillämpa och hur legitimerar tränare sina ställningstaganden i relation till dessa idéer? Förhoppningen är att resultaten ska tillföra ny och värdefull kunskap om hur arbeta för att öka kännedomen om och tillämpningen av Idrotten vill kan ske.

    En utgångspunkt är att resultatet av riktlinjernas genomslag har att göra med vad tränare känner till om de övergripande idéerna, vilka faktiska möjligheter de har att praktisera och konkretisera riktlinjerna och av enskilda ledares uppfattningar om hur och varför barn ska idrotta. För att besvara frågorna har flera metoder använts och olika urval av ledare har skett enligt följande: en kartläggning av policydokument och tillhörande riktlinjer från 100 slumpvis utvalda föreningar i alpin skidåkning, fotboll, ishockey, konståkning och tennis, intervjuer med 15 tränare från både bredd- och elitinriktade föreningar i ovan nämnda idrotter samt enkätsvar från 466 tränare i ett 40-tal idrotter från föreningar i 13 distriktsförbund.

    Resultaten visar att drygt hälften av föreningarna har utformat egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott. Riktlinjerna varierar dock stort i omfattning och vad de innebär är sällan konkretiserat. Även om ett fåtal tränare känner till Idrotten vill som dokument betraktat, verkar merparten vara bekanta med de övergripande idéerna. En majoritet av tränarna anser också att riktlinjerna mestadels är vägledande vid utformningen av idrott för unga, särskilt då de själva är ansvariga. Däremot sympatiserar inte alla tränare med alla riktlinjer. Särskilt frågan som rör värdet av tidiga satsningar och selektion kontra en mer lekfull inriktning med mindre fokus på tävlingsresultat delar tränarkåren. Frågan engagerar och väcker känslor. Tränarna är eniga om att det gäller att hålla de ungas idrottsintresse vid liv – men hur det ska ske finns det skilda uppfattningar om.

  • Svennberg, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Grading in physical education2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis the aim is to investigate different aspects of what teachers value when grading in Swedish physical education (PE) and to analyses how sociological background factors impact students’ grades. Grades in PE have included aspects other than those prescribed in the grading criteria, for instance motivation and effort. Teachers sometimes find their value-setting difficult to articulate and refer to a “gut feeling”. In order to explore both explicit and implicit forms of value-setting, the Repertory Grid interview technique is employed.

    The thesis includes four sub-studies, three interview studies with Swedish PE teachers and a fourth study based on registry data from the Swedish National Agency for Education. The data of all students leaving nine-year compulsory school in 2014 (n=95317) is analysed to explore how sociological background factors, such as migration background, parents’ education, school provider and gender, affect PE grades.

    The results reveal aspects of grading that are not detectable in the official description of the grading assignment and highlight problems that teachers need to address when grading. Four themes are discerned in the teachers’ grading practices: motivation, knowledge, confidence and social skills. The implementation of a new national curriculum with specified knowledge requirements seems to improve the alignment with the national criteria, but there is still a gap between policy and practice. The knowledge requirements for movement are often interpreted as performances in competitive sports, even if the teachers try to find other interpretations. The odds ratio for getting a higher grade in PE is greater for the variables migration background and parents’ education than for the other investigated variables. The concepts formulated by Bernstein are applied to explore the relations between teachers’ grading practices and cultural and political influences and to discuss how the tensions between different interests could affect teachers’ grading.

    The conclusion is that the gap between policy and practice confirmed in this study is related to tensions between the interests and purposes of different agents, all of whom strive to influence steering documents and practice. Cultural and political influences need to be considered and facilitate discussions about how to understand which knowledge is valued in PE and who has better possibilities to assimilate it.

  • Hallquist, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Tranaeus Fitzgerald, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Responsibility for child and adolescent's psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries2016In: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, ISSN 2288-176X, Vol. 12, no 6, 589-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communica-tion as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordi-nator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibili-ty for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be com-municated to participants who are involved in children’s and adoles-cent’s sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.

  • Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes?: A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach.2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 4, 314-326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences before, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant's experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event, the aftermath, recovery and reflection on the event, sampling of new avenues, enlightenment, and career rebirth. The findings reinforce the high demands placed upon elite coaches, the subsequent threats to physical and mental well-being, and the importance of having robust psychological skills and suitable social support to cope with these demands. Implications for preparing and supporting coaches for successful career transition are discussed.

  • Kellgren, Henrik
    Cure of inflammation of the lungs by the manual treatment1876Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Dollevoet, Kim
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Allt vi gör är lite fejk känns det som…": En kvalitativ intervjustudie med nio högstadieelever kring friluftslivsundervisning och bedömning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this qualitative study is to examine outdoor education and the assessment of knowledge within outdoor education at a high school. 

    • What are students perceptions of outdoor education in high school?
    • What are students perceptions of assessment in outdoor education in high school?

    Method

    This study consists of three qualitative group interviews with a total of nine high school students, three students from year 8 and six students from year 9. The interviews are semi-structured and covers three areas which contain questions about students' definition of outdoor activities, students' perceptions of outdoor education and students' perceptions of the assessment within outdoor education. The interviews were recorded and transcribed after which an analysis could be done.

    Result

    Students define outdoor education similar to the swedish national definition from Friluftsgruppen and being outdoors in the nature is very important. The students find it hard to remember what kind of task where include in their outdoor education, but the parts orientation and ice skating are the most common. Furthermore, they sometimes met CPR, lifesaving and swimming, but not to the same extent. Most students say that assessment in orientation is done by how students perform on different tracks. The assessment within ice skating is somewhat unclear, and is not as common.  Students give suggestions to develop the assessment and require thereby a more clear structure around the assessment in outdoor education. Students report that they should know what is required of them and that they should get a better idea of what they need to do to achieve a certain grade.

    Conclusions

    How teachers work with the curriculum is, based on the students perceptions, analyzed with help of the ”läroplansteori” which stands for the formulation, transformation and realisation of the curriculum. The curriculum-goals are discussed and the fact that there is a lack of education around planning, realize and organization of outdoor education is established. This study shows that development within outdoor education is required, but how and in what form is hard to say with only these results. The knowledge of assessment within outdoor education is insufficient. More research is needed to get a better view of how teachers work with the curriculum and that kind of support they need to develop their work with assessment within outdoor education

  • Källvant, Lovisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att klargöra, dela och förstå lärandemålen och framgångskriterierna i idrott och hälsa: en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av idrottsdidaktiska böcker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka hur nyckelstrategin ”att klargöra, dela och förstå lärandemålen och framgångskriterierna” beskrivs i idrottsdidaktisk litteratur. Följande frågeställning syftar till att uppfylla syftet: Hur skildras nyckelstrategin i de idrottsdidaktiska böckerna? Den övergripande frågeställningen förtydligas med följande frågor: 1) Nämns nyckelstrategin explicit i texterna? 2) Finns det spår av nyckelstrategin i texterna?

    Metod

    För att uppfylla syftet och besvara frågeställningarna analyserades fyra idrottsdidaktiska böcker med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Insamlandet av relevant material har gjorts manuellt utifrån ett antal kodningsprinciper. Efter insamlandet av data kodades materialet och sorterades in i teman.

    Resultat

    Analysen visar att nyckelstrategin inte nämns explicit i någon av texterna, däremot finns det spår av nyckelstrategin i texterna. Dessa spår förmedlar i princip samma innehåll som nyckelstrategin. Dock är det tveksamt om läsare kommer att förstå detta som viktiga aspekter eller veta hur de ska arbeta med detta som lärare då det relevanta innehållet inte har en framträdande roll i böckerna.

    Slutsats

    Det verkar fortfarande, även fast uppdaterade böcker inom ämnet nyligen publicerats, finnas en brist på information om bedömning för lärande och nyckelstrategin ifråga i den här typen av böcker. Det finns ett behov av mer forskning om hur vi kan arbeta med bedömning för lärande inom ämnet och även ett behov av att detta förmedlas till lärare i ämnet.

  • Jovanovic, Milan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Simundervisning för muslimska flickor: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa arbetar med att inkludera muslimska flickor i simundervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to depict how various teachers work with the inclusion of Muslim girls who, because of religious or cultural reasons, cannot or may not participate in swimming lessons.

    Problem description

    How do teachers include pupils who have difficulties in participating in swimming lessons?

    How do teachers assess students whom for religious reasons cannot or may not participate in swimming lessons?

    Method

    I have chosen a qualitative approach with interviews as study method. Four different teachers have been interviewed. These teachers work in various schools in a medium sized city where there are nationalities from 160 of the world's 192 countries. The interviews were conducted on a definite time and place at each school. I used audio recording at all interviews in order to ensure that no misinterpretation could be made of the interviewees' responses.

    Results

    All teachers have their own way of ensuring that the Muslim girls, who due to religious or cultural reasons could not participate in swimming lessons, were included. Furthermore, teachers used similar approaches e.g. offering the opportunity to use "burkini". The differences among the schools are that some teachers do not consider the inclusion of these students to be a problem while other teachers have students who require special education. Students who do not attend swimming lessons due to religious or cultural reasons fail in physical education and health, which all teachers have agreed.

    Conclusions

    All teachers use similar methods to ensure that Muslim girls attend the swimming lessons. This may indicate that there are a limited number of opportunities to use. Communicating with the students seems to be a winning concept in order to illustrate the importance of swimming lessons. Parents should also be notified to make it easier for teachers to get the students to participate in the education.

  • Jovanovic, Milan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa hos elever i årkurs 82016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka årskurs 8-elevers inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar

    • Vad motiverar eleverna att delta på idrottslektionerna?
    • Varför är en del elever omotiverade att delta på idrottslektionerna?

    Metod

    Denna studie är en kvalitativ studie. Jag har intervjuat fem elever i årskurs 8, som svarade på frågor rörande deras motivation till ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att eleverna som är motiverade till att idrotta i skolan finner idrotten meningsfull, men också att idrottens moment i skolan är begripliga och hanterbara utifrån ett KASAM-perspektiv. Detta påvisas bland annat genom att vissa elever är medvetna om vad idrott och hälsa har för positiva effekter på hälsan. Vidare framgår det att elever som idrottar på fritiden har högre motivation till idrottsämnet. I resultatet framgår även en motsägelse. Vissa elever tycker inte ämnet idrott och hälsa är roligt och ser ingen anledning till att vara delaktiga i undervisningen, mera än för betyget. Dessa elever kan sakna delar av meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet utifrån ett KASAM-perspektiv.

    Slutsats

    Motiverade elever karaktäriseras av att ha en idrottsbakgrund på fritiden. Skolans uppdrag är att nå alla elever och för att uppnå detta måste även omotiverade elever involveras i undervisningen. Det kan ske genom att de får påverka innehållet i undervisningen, att de får möjlighet att röra sig på sin egen färdighetsnivå vid individanpassad studiemiljö och att de får stimulans exempelvis genom positiv återkoppling från läraren.

  • Yttergren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Bolling, Hans
    Kvinnor, karriär och familj: En studie av svenska kvinnliga gymnastikdirektörers yrkeskarriärer och livsöden kring sekelskiftet 19002016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, ISSN ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 2, 185-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women, careers and family: A study of the professional careers and lives of Swedish female gymnastics directors around the year 1900

    This article analyses the professional careers of Swedish female gymnastics directors around the turn of the nineteenth century by means of a collective biographical study of the 25 women who graduated from the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics (RCIG) in Stockholm in 1893. The institute was held in high repute in Sweden and abroad and was one of the first institutes in Sweden to provide higher professional education for women.

    The investigation is based primarily on the unique correspondence between the women. A correspondence book circulated among them between 1893 and 1943 and it contains a total of almost 500 letters amounting to thousands of handwritten pages. The study shows that the women, who with the odd exception came from the upper echelons of society, had good opportunities to pursue a career after graduating from the RCIG. As graduates they earned a double degree and were qualified to work as both physical education teachers and as physiotherapists. This double professional authorization meant that the prospect of obtaining work was good in both Sweden and abroad. Their services were requested throughout the world.

    The labour market for gymnastics directors is thus an early example, maybe the first, of a well-functioning international labour market for Swedish women with higher professional education. No less than 16 out of 25 women made their way abroad to work during the first decade after graduation. There are several reasons for the women’s ability to make a career. The treatment methods of Swedish gymnastics – physical education and physiotherapy – were the height of fashion at the turn of the nineteenth century and there was great demand for the RCIG graduates. There was also a large international network of Swedish gymnastics directors. The women remained faithful to their choice of occupation, even if their career tended to be discontinued upon marriage. When they graduated in 1893 none of the women were married. Half of them married later on. In most cases marriage had a negative effect on their professional careers; family life and a professional career could not be combined.

  • Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Spännande resultat och intressanta metodologiska överväganden i svårgenomtränglig text: recension av boken Paragrafer, pokaler och politiska inkast: Idrottsdistriktet Värmland 1900–1940, omvärld och formering av Bode Janzon2016In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, 14 decArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    How Wii Teach Physical Education and Health2016In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 4, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of educational computer games in physical education (PE) has become more popular in recent years and has attracted research interest. The aim of the article is to investigate how physical activities and images of the human body are offered by the game. The results show how the “teacher” constituted in the games is one who instructs and encourages the players to exercise and think about their bodies, but not a “teacher” who can help students to investigate, argue, or discuss images of health and the human body. We argue that the use of a wide range and variety of ways of teaching would make the teaching richer and offer a deeper understanding about the body and health.

  • Holmqvist, Rasmus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Afola, Philippe
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Instruktörers syn på motivation: En kvalitativ studie om hur instruktörer i yoga och crossfit motiverar sina deltagare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Att undersöka hur yoga- och crossfitinstruktörer försöker motivera sina deltagare med utgångspunkt från basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) i Self determination theory (SDT).

    1. Vilka metoder använder sig instruktörerna av för att skapa motivation?

    2. Finns det någon skillnad mellan instruktörernas sätt att instruera sina deltagare och vad skiljer dem i så fall åt?

    3. Hur uppfylls autonomi/meningsfullhet, tillhörighet och kompetens?

    Metod

    En kvalitativ intervjumetod användes där åtta informanter rekryterades, där hälften var yogainstruktörer och andra hälften var crossfitinstruktörer. Intervjun utformades för att undersöka instruktörernas arbetssätt i relation till BPNT i SDT. Induktiv dataanalys genomfördes för att belysa instruktörernas arbetssätt.

    Resultat

    Crossfitinstruktörerna kunde ge praktiska exempel på sitt arbetssätt i detalj. De ville gärna jobba med progressionsutveckling samt förmedla träningskunskap till deras deltagare. Det kunde påverka autonomistödet till deltagarna då crossfitinstruktörerna behövde vara mer strikta och noggranna i sitt ledarskap för att minska skaderisken. Tillhörighet och känsla av kompetens fick deltagarna genom att ingå i grupper och jobba med varandra. Yogainstruktörerna styrde bort fokus från kompetens i utförandet då de ansåg att prestation inte ingick i deras aktivitetsform. Genom att jobba utifrån sina egna förutsättningar i en autonomistödjande miljö visade de på fysiska och mentala fördelar med träningen. Yogainstruktörerna jobbade inte aktivt med begreppet tillhörighet i träningsformen.

    Slutsats

    Aktivitetsformerna skiljde sig i hur de uppfyllde begreppen i BPNT, där yogainstruktörer förmedlade mer autonomi till sina deltagare och där crossfitinstruktörer förmedlade kompetens i högre grad genom progressions- och prestationsutveckling. Arbetet kring tillhörighet skilde sig mellan träningsformerna. Yogainstruktörerna arbetade inte aktivt med tillhörighet bland deltagarna. Crossfitinstruktörerna arbetade mer med att integrera deltagare med varandra och att skapa en familjär känsla i gruppen.

  • Strömberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Caro, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En studie om idrottares motivation under skadetiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur idrottare upplever sin tid som skadade och vad som motiverar dem att rehabilitera och sedan fortsätta satsa efter skadan. Vår hypotes var att de utövare som rehabiliterat sig och sedan fortsatt att satsa drivs av en inre motivation men kräver även yttre stöd/yttre motivation från tränare eventuella lagkamrater och annan social omgivning.

    • Hur ser motivationen ut hos skadade idrottare?
    • Hur upplever idrottare tiden som skadad?

    Metod

    Data insamlingen till studien skedde kvalitativt genom semistrukturerade intervjuer som spelades in med hjälp av diktafon samt dator. Målgruppen var idrottare som var skadade eller har varit skadade och genomgått rehabilitering. Respondenterna var fyra stycken, hälften kvinnor, hälften män och hälften tränade lagidrotter samt andra hälften individuella idrotter. Ålderspannet hos respondenterna var mellan 21 – 29 år.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att respondenterna styrdes av inre motivation i sitt idrottsutövande, men i rehabiliteringen av yttre motivationer. Det framkom att omgivningen var en faktor som kunde påverka respondenternas motivation både positivt och negativt. Samtliga respondenter uppgav att de kände att stödet från omgivning hjälpte dem att hålla uppe motivationen och brist av socialt stöd kan leda till försämrad motivation, så kallad amotivation. Respondenterna upplevde tiden som skadad känslomässigt jobbigt speciellt vid skadetillfället och uppgav att deras idrottsföreningar inte tillämpade mental träning i samband med rehabilitering av idrottsskada.

    Slutsats

    Studien visade på att idrottsskador kan vara känslomässigt komplexa och av resultatet finner vi ett samband mellan yttre motivation och behovet av stöd. Desto mer yttre motiverad en idrottare är ju mer stöd och uppmärksamhet krävs för att hålla motivationen hög. Resultatet visade att det inte förekommit någon medveten psykologisk hantering i träningsplaneringen vid skadesituationer från respondenternas förbund. Mental träning var något som efterfrågades av respondenterna I samband med idrottsskador.

  • Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå universitet.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Impact of Season and Oral Contraceptive use on Cortisol Levelsin Physically Active Women2016In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 3, no 2, 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When athletes optimize their physical performance, an imbalance could occur between the strain of training, time for recovery and the athlete’s individual tolerance of stress that could lead to overreaching and overtraining syndrome. Cortisol has been suggested to be a biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome, since it is thought to indicate stress. This study aimed to provide normative data on cortisol levels, hence investigate seasonality and impact of oral contraceptive use to elucidate if cortisol could be used as a diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in female athletes. The women, divided in two groups, oral contraceptive users (n = 15) and non-users (n = 18), were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling for cortisol testing and a Profile of Mood State questionnaire (POMS) as a subjective measure of overreaching and overtraining syndrome.Findings indicated seasonal variations in cortisol levels, with different pattern in oral contraceptive users to non-users and moreover, higher cortisol levels in users to nonusers irrespective of season. No differences in seasonal variation in Global POMS score within the groups and no differences in Global POMS score between the groups were detected. Due to seasonality, impact of oral contraceptive use on cortisol levels, methodological considerations and standardization, as well as due to no convincing relationship to Global POMS score, cortisol is not suggested to be an optimal biological, diagnostic marker to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

  • Belcher, Romel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärarnas arbete med dans i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa inom specialskolan för döva och hörselskadade2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Avsikten med denna studie är att undersöka hur pedagoger i idrott och hälsa inom specialskolan för döva och hörselskadade elever arbetar med momentet dans och därtill undersöka om elevernas hörselnedsättning påverkar arbetet av momentet dans. De centrala frågeställningarna som används i studien är följande:

    • Hur arbetar pedagogerna i specialskolor för döva-och hörselskadade med dans i ämnet idrott och hälsa?
    • Hur påverkas ämnet dans i idrott och hälsa av elevernas hörselnedsättning?

    Metod

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts med två pedagoger. Kvalitativa intervjuer möjliggör att vid behov förtydliga frågorna i studien och att ställa följdfrågor, detta för att undvika eventuella missförstånd och för att öka möjligheten till att förstå pedagogernas svar på ett djupare plan. Resultatet från intervjuerna utgjorde underlag för den enkät med nyckelfrågor som senare skickades till andra pedagoger. Svaren bearbetades och analyserades utifrån David Kolbs upplevelsebaserade inlärningsteori.

    Resultat

    Resultaten från studien visar att pedagogerna inom specialskolan har olika förhållningsätt till hur de arbetar med dansen i idrott och hälsa. Studiens resultat pekar dock på att pedagogerna anser att det är viktigt att lära ut dans till eleverna men att det krävs rätt förutsättningar för att det ska bli meningsfullt och motiverande för eleverna. Pedagogerna lyfter även fram hörseln som en viktig aspekt i arbetet med dans. Bristen på förmågan att höra musiken för både pedagoger och elever är ett hinder som nämnts men att musiken spelar en stor roll och skall ändå användas i undervisningen för att eleverna ska känna basen och uppleva dansen som mer meningsfull.

    Slutsats

    Det framgår i läroplanen att dansen ska vara en del av ämnet idrott och hälsa. Alla pedagoger som intervjuats i studien anser också att det är viktigt att lära ut dans till eleverna. Dock lyfter några pedagoger fram att bristen på förmågan att höra kan vara ett hinder i arbetet med dans i idrott och hälsa för döva och hörselskadade elever i specialskolorna. En slutsats som man kan

    dra av detta är att pedagogerna upplever att bristen på förmågan att höra som ett hinder i arbetet med dans, eller möjligen saknar de rätta verktygen, i form av rätt golv som stärker känslan av basen eller utbildning i hur man undervisar dans till elever med hörselnedsättning, för att arbetat med dans i specialskolorna för döva och hörselskadade elever.

  • Lanferdini, Fábio J
    et al.
    Bini, Rodrigo R
    Figueiredo, Pedro
    Diefenthaeler, Fernando
    Mota, Carlos B
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Vaz, Marco A
    Differences in Pedaling Technique in Cycling: A Cluster Analysis.2016In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, no 7, 959-964 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To employ cluster analysis to assess if cyclists would opt for different strategies in terms of neuromuscular patterns when pedaling at the power output of their second ventilatory threshold (POVT2) compared with cycling at their maximal power output (POMAX).

    METHODS: Twenty athletes performed an incremental cycling test to determine their power output (POMAX and POVT2; first session), and pedal forces, muscle activation, muscle-tendon unit length, and vastus lateralis architecture (fascicle length, pennation angle, and muscle thickness) were recorded (second session) in POMAX and POVT2. Athletes were assigned to 2 clusters based on the behavior of outcome variables at POVT2 and POMAX using cluster analysis.

    RESULTS: Clusters 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 6) showed similar power output and oxygen uptake. Cluster 1 presented larger increases in pedal force and knee power than cluster 2, without differences for the index of effectiveness. Cluster 1 presented less variation in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, pennation angle, and tendon length than cluster 2. However, clusters 1 and 2 showed similar muscle thickness, fascicle length, and muscle activation. When cycling at POVT2 vs POMAX, cyclists could opt for keeping a constant knee power and pedal-force production, associated with an increase in tendon excursion and a constant fascicle length.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increases in power output lead to greater variations in knee angle, muscle-tendon unit length, tendon length, and pennation angle of vastus lateralis for a similar knee-extensor activation and smaller pedal-force changes in cyclists from cluster 2 than in cluster 1.

  • Svensson, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommersialisering inom barn- och ungdomsidrott: En kartläggning av utbud och inställningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research question: The aim of this study is to survey the occurrence of commercial operators within child and youth athletics in Sweden, and to analyze what activities they provide and whom they are aimed towards. The aim is also to examine the attitude of National Governing Bodies in regards to commercial operators. The central questions are: What range of commercial operators exists today within organized child and youth athletics? How has commercial interest in a range of sports and has this changed over time? What attitude do the National Governing Bodies have towards the commercial operators?

    Method: The study uses both a quantitative and a qualitative data collection. Data has been collected through surveying commercial operators via the internet. This study covered the sports of basketball, dance, football, gymnastics, floorball, ice hockey, equestrianism and tennis. The investigation is categorized and presented according to the logic of L-M Engström. The main areas of covered in the investigation were: playing level, training and experience in order to clarify directions and audiences. Semi-structures interviews were also conducted to underline the opinions of the National Governing Bodies.

    Results: The number of newly registered commercial operators within sport has increased since the mid-1990s. The largest increase occurred between 2011 and 2015 when more than 60 new commercial operators were registered, an increase of 154 percent compared to the period 2006-2010. In all the studied sports there are commercial operators as supplements for those who want to practice more outside regular sports association while athletes who take part in dance, gymnastics, equestrianism and tennis can do all the training at a commercial operator. Commercial operators rarely offer competitive activity, but through partnerships with non-profit organizations athletes could be able to compete. The concern is based in that they believe that commercial operators lack sufficient knowledge to engage children and young athletics. The unions also believe that commercial operators can make the sport less accessible because specific audiences or increased costs likely to exclude groups in society.

    Conclusion: Commercial actors in child and youth athletics have primarily a supply that provides increased training opportunities. Free competition means that the sports movement cannot affect the commercial operators whose activities both compete and complement the sports clubs.