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  • Degerlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kalliolevo, Arttu
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsledarnas betydelse i föreningsidrotten: En kvalitativ studie om hur idrottsledare arbetar för att skapa en positiv idrottsmiljö2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of this study was to research how sports leaders organize their activities to get youngsters to stay in the club sports. To answer this, we have focused on examining how sports leaders create a positive sports environment. The specific purpose of the study was to examine the activities of football and wrestling leaders for children and young people in Stockholm. Our research questions are: - What are the similarities and differences between football and wrestling in how coaches organize a positive sporting activity? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they submit obstruction and opportunities in the creation of a positive sports environment? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they see the role and function of sport in society?

    Method

    The research methodology used in this study is the qualitative method of hermeneutics. The sample of respondents consisted of five coaches for children and youngsters, three of them were active in football and two in wrestling. The age range in the respondents' training groups were from seven to 18 years.

    Results

    The results show that, according to the sports leaders, the sport contributes to positive development both at the individual, group and community levels. According to the coaches, children learn skills that help them cope in social situations. The children learn to cooperate and work hard to achieve their goals. All the coaches agree that it is important to be responsive and to have constant communication with their adepts in creating a positive sports environment. In conclusion, a common belief among both wrestling and football coaches is that parents are an obstacle but that in some cases they can contribute to positive sports activities and that sports clubs need engaged parents.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion we can draw from this is that, as a coach, you must be responsive and genuinely interested in the sports of your adepts, both on the training ground and outside. It then leads to the creation of a positive sports environment that will have more people remaining in the club sport.

  • Jakobsen, Douglas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intelligence in Football: Conceptualizations, Developmental Methodologies and Behaviors2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In elite football (also known as soccer), practitioners are in constant pursuit of understanding essential performance parameters and how they can be developed. As every executed football action is governed by a decision, a player’s ability to make intelligent decisions during play is vitally important for success. This concept of a player’s “football intelligence” is complex and at times ambiguous for practitioners both at the elite and sub-elite level. The present work aims to provide some clarity regarding the phenomena of intelligence in football.

     

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 8 well-merited professional coaches from multiple countries were conducted, asking them three main questions; how do they conceptualize football intelligence? What developmental methodologies do they implement to address football intelligence, and in what practical behaviors do players manifest football intelligence? Responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methods.

     

    Results: The results give insight into what can be summarized as components of football intelligence, such as concepts of anticipation and information processing. Additionally, a number of different methodologies including functional training and pedagogical approaches to develop football intelligence emerged. Furthermore, some specific behaviors performed by intelligent players, such as information-seeking actions, were exemplified.

     

    Conclusions: Based on the results, a conceptual framework for better understanding the phenomena and potentially improving practical interactions with football intelligence are presented and discussed. Finally, practical recommendations for coaches and players are suggested, along with suggestions for further academic research.

  • Frykling, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norstad Habeish, Sofiän
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Föräldrars förväntningar på idrott och hälsa: En tolkande fenomenologisk studie av föräldrars upplevelse och betydelse av dagens ämne idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate parents’ experience of the meaning of physical education and health.

    Research questions:

    • How do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school experience the purpose of physical education and health?
    • What do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school describe that they should learn in physical education and health?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach where we interviewed six parents of children in elementary school. We searched for parents’ essence in the analyses with the help of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). 

    Results

    The results of the study show that parents’ experience the purpose of physical education and health (PEH) as physical health promoting for pupils which derives from a concern of children’s leisure time today. Physical activities are seen as means to create healthy bodies that protect children against diseases. Moreover, it is emphasized that PEH also has social benefits. Therefore, pupils shall participate in a variety of activities but also learn about the importance of a healthy lifestyle and to be physically active. In addition, this can help to stimulate a lifelong interest for physical activity throughout the lifespan. The subject should also contribute to pupils becoming more independent through accountability and by having demands and working independently with problem-based learning.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that parents’ experience the purpose of PEH as physical health promoting for pupils because of the concern for children’s inactivity in their leisure time, where the subject also through health promoting contributes to social benefit. PEH also stimulates, according to the parents, learning in other subjects in elementary school. Finally, the parents highlight that the subject develops more independent children and also prepares them for an adult life.

  • Frödeberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tollefors, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skillnad i effektutveckling mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare: Användandet av ett maximalt treminuterstest för att ta reda på maxeffekt, kritisk effekt och arbetskapacitet över den kritiska effekten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka critical power (CP) och om andelen av det totala arbetet som utförs över CP () skiljer sig mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare. Dvs förhållandet mellan den effekt som kan bibehållas under lång tid och den som maximalt kan produceras under de 150 första sekunderna vid ett tre minuters maxtest. Vidare syftar studien till att undersöka om CP, och maxeffekten (Pmax) kan förutsäga prestationen på 100 meter frisim och 400 meter löpning. Frågeställningarna som använts under studien är som följer: (i) Finns det en skillnad i andelen arbete som kan utföras ovanför CP () mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare? och (ii) Går det att via CP, och Pmax förutsäga prestationer på 100 m frisim och 400 m löpning? Hypotesen som användes under denna studie var att sprintlöpare har en större W´/W-kvot än sprintsimmare. Hypotesen bygger på tidigare forskning angående den totala energikostnaden vid sprintlöpning och sprintsimning (Duffield, Dawson & Goodman, 2005; Figueiredo, Zamparo, Sousa, Vilas-Boas & Fernandes, 2011)

    Metod

    För att beräkna CP, Pmax och använde vi oss av ett test där deltagarna, åtta löpare och åtta simmare, under tre minuter höll maximal intensitet vid varje given tidpunkt. Vid löpningen användes direkt effektmätning medan simtestet använde sig av kraftmätning som sedan omvandlas till effekt.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att simmarna hade en signifikant (p= <0,001) högre förmåga att utföra arbete över CP (ES=2,7) än löparna. Vår regressionmodell kan förklara 85% av årsbästat hos simmarna och Pmax verkar vara en mycket bra prediktor för resultat hos både simmar och löpare. Modellen bör dock tolkas med försiktighet då studien hade mycket få deltagare (n=8). 

    Slutsats

    I och med att detta understryks det anaeroba energisystemets avgörande betydelse för prestation, inte bara för sprintlöpare, utan även sprintsimmare, vilket öppnar för nya diskussioner av och modifieringar av träningsupplägg för dessa. Vidare kan testet med fördel användas vid testning av simmare och löpare på sprintdistanser och troligen även på såväl längre distanser som inom andra lokomotiva, kontinuerliga idrotter.

  • Zanteré, Andreaz
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fehrlund, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför väljer elever NIU som gymnasial utbildning?: En intervjustudie kring faktorerna bakom valet till NIU med inriktning handboll.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to investigate students' motives for choosing NIU education with a focus on handball. The questions the study answers are 1. How do the students describe what motivated them to choose NIU education? And 2. How can the students' choice of NIU with handball specialization be understood from a socio-cultural perspective?

    Method

    The study uses a qualitative interview method for first-year students who attend three different sports gymnasiums. The study took a phenomenological approach for understanding the students' experience of the choice of NIU. The study used focus groups with four students in each interview group. The first interview consisted of four guys, the second interview consisted of four girls and the third interview consisted of two guys and two girls. A hand-picked selection to represent the target group was made and the students who participated were randomly asked or selected by their teachers at the school. The interview style used was nondirective with semi-structured interviews to get different perceptions about students' choices for NIU. The study has a deductive approach and aims to get answers in depth.

    Results

    From a socio-cultural perspective, the study could present that the students who were considered most driven and took a longer step in elite practice in handball also have parents with a strong sports background. The parents were involved with all students throughout their upbringing in their practice and were supportive and motivating for the students. The parents provided the students with security and resources so that they could continue their sport. The results also show that the students had a strong internal motivation to practice handball at school to achieve the greatest success in the game. They saw NIU as an opportunity for elite investment and were even more motivated when they were in the school environment.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion is that the choice of NIU as a high school education is based on the students' socio-cultural background. All students have had a socio-economic situation that has given them the opportunity to practice what they find fun in their spare time. Their habitus has taken them into the sporting field and they have had great support from their parents in their choice of handball. As part of the parents' commitment to make the students feel good and to have the chance to invest in what they think is fun, has in itself given the students strong motivation to choose NIU with a focus on handball in high school.

  • Carlbom, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Malmstedt, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nytta eller nyttig?: Elev och kropp i särskolan åren 1946–20112020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine how the view of the pupil and the body is depicted in the curriculum for compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (“Särskolan”) in 1946–2011. Five research questions are used to fulfill the aim of the study:

    How is the pupil in “Särskolan” depicted in the different curriculums?

    How is the pupil viewed in the different curriculums for “Särskolan”?

    What is the view on the body in the different curriculums?

    How should the body be used and which qualities are supposed to be developed?

    If and how the view on the pupil and the body has changed over time? The last research question concern historical continuity and change for the study’s entire time frame (1946-2011).

    Method

    The method was a content analysis grounded in the hermeneutic field. To answer the research questions a coding scheme was utilized for analysis. The scheme connected the source material, theoretical framework and aim of the study. The theory applied was The Civilizing Process.

    Results

    The curriculum of 1946 and 1959 attempts to train the pupil to become normal. The pupil should be removed from the home and is not considered a citizen. Up until the curriculum of 1973 the view of the body was dualistic, with a split between body and soul. The curriculum of 1973 points toward a more humanistic view, where the pupil’s individual need is the basis for development. 1973 can also be seen as the turning point for the view of the pupil and the body in “Särskolan”. The curriculum depicts the body as a tool for achieving wellbeing. The curriculum for 1990 and 2011 shows that the home is given substantial responsibility for raising the pupil. Body and soul generate each other.

    Conclusions

    Both continuity and change is found in the curriculums for “Särskolan”. Society has been civilized and the view on normal and abnormal has changed alongside society. The pupil and the body has changed from 1946’s idea of normalizing the pupil through training to 2011’s idea of finding strength in differences. A continuity is found in the curriculums’ need to categorize people as “different”

  • Widerdal, Micael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Joel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommer du på lektionen?: lärares syn på och hantering av elevers frånvaro i idrottsämnet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze physical education (PE) teachers´ methods in handling, and attitudes towards, absent students. The study will answer the following questions:

    • How do PE teachers describe what is important and meaningful in teaching PE?
    • How do PE teachers explain the reasons behind students being absent and how can these reasons be understood?
    • What repertoire emerges when PE teachers talk about their coping strategies of absent students?

    Method

    A qualitative approach is used in order to elaborate and produce as profound insight as possible. By conducting eight semi-structured interviews data was collected and analyzed inductively. Convenient sampling was used to reach respondents whom all have experience of working with students in primary school geographically covering south-, mid-, and north of Sweden. The interviews were transcribed word-for-word prior to being analyzed. The theoretical framework used to interpret the result is based on Antonovsky´s Sense of Coherence and Bourdieu’s concepts of capital and habitus.

    Results

    All teachers emphasize the importance of a good teacher-student relationship and that a positive attitude towards PE is key in creating meaning. In addition, inclusion strategies are mentioned as important. Teachers with longer experience emphasize the importance of communicating with frequently absent students whereas teachers with shorter experience mention adjusting the level of difficulty according to students´ level of competence as a key factor in maintaining attendance.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion of this study is that the most common causes of student absenteeism are social relations, school setting, and mental ill-health among students. Another conclusion is that the length of the teachers´ work experience affects their view of absence. The present study also show that there are differences in how teachers handle student absenteeism. 

  • Johansson, Emilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norén, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Träning genom appar: En diskursanalys av normkonstruktion i träningsappar2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how training apps produce training connected to a wider set of norms in society. The questions that the essay are seeking to answer are:

    • What representations of the gender are made visible in the material? 
    • What requirements for the subject's being are linked to these representations?
    • In what way are materials and environments produced? 
    • What representations about body and exercise are left unproblematic?

    Method

    Three training apps were analyzed based on the methodological approach of discourse analysis. The empirical material critically examined and identified four themes of representations: gender, exercise and body ideal, exercise exercises, and material. The representations were analyzed on the basis of Foucault's theory of power and the concept of governmentality, which was then used in the discussion of the study's results.

    Results

    The results of the study shows that gender representations are co-constructed interacts with a specific normative training culture that primarily focuses on aesthetic aspects based on a prevailing societal epistemology. In this normative framework men work-out mainly for muscle building while women should get balanced bodies. The apps emphasize well-trained instructors and focus on the pathogenic approach by projecting the calorie burn based on a given goal that the app has developed without adapting to the user's individual goals. The training apps contain exercises that assort to prevailing traditional gender norms of society. The exercises performed by men are often advanced with technical names based on biceps exercises, while the women's exercises mainly contain the seat and leg muscles. The apps are designed based on external attributes that interact with the prevailing training culture. The training is performed by well-trained people in developed training clothes based on society's fashion in different gym-like environments.

    Conclusions

    This study has shown how these apps reproducing traditional norms that exist in the training culture and produce stereotypical ideas about training and body ideal and gender. Accordingly, the training exercises, the materials and the environments are based on traditional gender norms of society. Therefore, it is important to understand the difference between digital teacher resources and commercial apps in order to secure the quality of the education and to avoid changing the students self -perception. 

  • Karapidakis, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lubner, Leo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsans betydelse i ämnet idrott och hälsa: En studie om hur lärare uppfattar hälsouppdraget i ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to understand how teachers in the subject physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject's health assignment. The following issues will be addressed:

    1. How do teachers define and interpret the concept of health?
    2. How do teachers interpret and work with the subject's health assignment?
    3. What do teachers think about the subject's health assignment?

    Method

    To answer the study's purpose and issues, interviews were conducted based on a qualitative approach. The study consists of semi-structured interviews that have been conducted on six legitimate and active teachers in the subject of physical and health education, who are active in primary school. The study's theory is based on Antonovsky's health theory. The analysis process is done through a thematic analysis, while the interpretation is based on a hermeneutic approach to the material.

    Results

    The study's results indicate that teachers see health with a holistic perspective. However, teachers do not follow their own views on health in their health education, but instead adopt the health perspective they feel the curriculum has. The teachers' interpretation is that the syllabus wants to convey a physical health view where the focus is on combating ill health through physical activities. Therefore, they relate to health education with this physical approach while a holistic view of health remains in the background. However, the teachers say that they wish that the syllabus had a holistic view that they could use in their teaching, since they did not perceive the health work based on the syllabus's health view as meaningful.

    Conclusions

    Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how teachers in physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject of health education. The teachers perceive that the subject's health work must be designed according to a pathogenic approach to health, which the teachers follow. In particular, it highlights that the teachers experience the syllabus as difficult to interpret if it is to convey a holistic view of health. These insights, to the extent that they are examined more closely, may benefit the design and teaching of the subject.

  • Fredholm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engqvist, Christoffer
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet i skolan: En studie om implementering av fysisk aktivitet i grundskolan utöver ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation process of physical activity in addition to the topic of sport and health at four primary schools.

    The research issues were:

    • What is the school's incentive for increased physical activity?
    • What preparations were made by the school?
    • What type of activity is most prominent?
    • What role does evaluation play in the implementation process?
    • What are the decisive factors in an implementation process?

    Method: In the work, a qualitative approach was applied, and the empiricism has been gathered through interviews with four individuals who are in some way responsible for increasing physical activity at each school. The interviews have been of a semi-structured nature and analysed with the aid of Normalization Process Theory, which is a theory in implementation research.

    Results: The result shows that sedentary was the most common cause of the introduction of more physical activity and that in half the cases the directive came from the school management. The most common activity was linked to a classroom environment and was not scheduled. Everyone who participated in the study uses some form of evaluation and all state scheduling as a vital aspect of the implementation process.  

    Conclusion: The fact that school management was positive and supported the implementation was what distinguishes a successful implementation process against a less successful one, as they manage over scheduling and allocation of resources.

  • Kouru, Linette
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Olby, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Det är väl ett sådant ämne där det kan lysa igenom lite, lite tydligare”: en kvalitativ studie om könsmönster och heteronormativitet i idrott- och hälsaundervisningen2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim with this study was to examine gender patterns and heteronormativity in the school subject physical education and health from a teacher and student perspective.

    • How do the teachers work to counteract gender patterns in their physical and health education?
    • How do the students experience their teachers counteracting gender patterns in their physical and health education?
    • How can the teachers’ in physical and health education and the students’ experiences of gender patterns connect to heteronormativity in physical education?

    Method

    This study was performed with a qualitative method where openly directed interviews were used to find out how teachers and students experience gender patterns and heteronormativity in the subject physical and health education. Three teachers were interviewed individually and three interviews were performed with students in focus groups. All participants recieved a mail with information before the interviews, where they were informed how the study would be done and ethical considerations. The interviews were transcribed and analysis of the data was made by thematically categorizing the material.

    Results

    Every teacher in this study works to counteract gender patterns by using different didactic tools in their teaching, which is confirmed by the students. This could mean that they, for example, think about using an inclusive language. The students experience that there are expectations of them, based on gender and that heteronormativity can occur in the education, mainly in dance. The students also experience that there is a difference between teachers that are recently graduated and teachers that graduated a long time ago.

    Conclusions

    Even though teachers have an awareness of how they can work to counteract gender patterns and heteronormativity it seems that it is a challenge to apply it in practice. Students believe that both heteronormativity and gender patterns can occur in teaching, but still feel that teachers make concious choices to counteract this.

  • Tollefors, Sanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ankarstrand, Joar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad lär sig eleverna egentligen om psykisk hälsa?: En innehållsanalys av psykisk hälsa i gymnasiets läromedel2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine how mental health is portrayed in textbooks used in Swedish high schools. This was analysed from a salutogenic and pathogenic perspective.

    - How much is written about mental health in the different textbooks?

    - What is defined as mental health according to the textbooks, and is this described in a salutogenic or pathogenic way?

    - How is mental health portrayed in the textbooks, from a salutogenic and pathogenic perspective? 

    Method

    The method was a content analysis and analysed textbooks from the four high school subjects advanced sports, health pedagogy, psychology and physical education (and health). For the first question, a quantitative method where the percentage of pages concerning mental health were counted, was used.

    Results

    The analysis showed that the textbooks for physical education (and health) and advanced sports mentioned mental health on nine percent and eleven percent of pages respectively while the textbooks for health pedagogy and psychology mentioned it on 31 percent and 35 percent of pages respectively. All of the textbooks defined mental health as something that concerns the mind and thoughts. Self confidence, self image and self esteem were brought up as important aspects of mental health. Primarily stress, sleeping issues, anxiety, depression and eating disorders were mentioned. It was concluded that all four textbooks used both perspectives but in differing amounts. The psychology book was mainly pathogenic and the others were more salutogenic.

    Conclusions

    The space that mental health was given and the way it was portrayed in the different textbooks differed to a relatively high degree. Something that was common for the books was that both a salutogenic and a pathogenic perspective were used and that much focus was on mental illness rather than mental health. All of the books described mental health as a growing public health issue.

  • Ljung, Michaela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter i klassrummet: En kvalitativ studie av insatser för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter i skolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to examine how teachers in physical education and health, natural sciences and social sciences pay attention and reason about the work with students with reading and writing disabilities. The four questions the study is based on are: 1. How do teachers in physical education and health, compared to other core subjects, pay attention to and work with reading- and writing disabilities? 2. What help do the students get from the school/teachers based on their disabilities? 3. How do the teachers work with reading and writing disabilities based on the curriculum? 4. Do the teachers make conscious choices of methods to support learning among students with reading and writing disabilities and how does this or these methods look?

    Method: The data collection method consisted of qualitative interviews of a semi-structured nature. The choice of schools and interviewed teachers was made through a convenience selection where accessibility of the teachers was crucial. The theoretical framework for this study has been based on curriculum theory and frame factor theory.

    Result: The results of the study shows a certain difference in how the teachers in the various subjects work to identify, pay attention and meet the needs of students with reading and writing difficulties. Based on the teachers’ answers you can see a clear pattern from the curriculum and frame factor theory that influence the teachers’ way of teaching, and the interaction between the teachers and the students. The design of the teaching, the students’ reaction influence the teachers who absorbs and revises. The teachers also use different methods, for instance through digital aids to promote learning among students with reading and writing difficulties.

    Conclusion: 

    The results of the study show a difference in how teachers in the different subjects work to identify, pay attention to and meet the needs of students with reading and writing difficulties. Based on the teachers’ answers there is a difference between the teachers in physical education and health and the other teachers in how they work on the transformation- and realization arena. Physical education and health teachers work more flexible with the students and the design of the teaching looks different compared to the teachers in the other subjects. The common denominator is that the teachers feel inadequate.

  • Gumm, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ledarskap i praktik: En etnografisk studie av fotbollstränare2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning - Studien undersöker hur tränare inom barn- och ungdomsfotbollen i Stockholm leder sina adepter i träning. Forskningsfrågorna lyder:

    • Vilka ledarskapsbeteenden tillämpar tränare inom barn- och ungdomsfotbollen under pågående träning?
    • Vilka typer av frågor använder tränarna och på vilka sätt utövas feedback/återkoppling?
    • Vilka praktiska ledarskapsbeteenden kan identifieras i olika teorier om ledarskap? 

    Metod - I detta arbete genomfördes en etnografisk observation av tio fotbollstränare i åtta olika pojklag mellan tio och 19 år. Både träningen och tränarens röst spelades in. Tränarnas beteenden summerades i en tematisk analys för att ta reda på mönster i ledarskapet.  

    Resultat - Resultaten visar fyra tematiska områden av tränarnas tillämpade ledarskap, nämligen tillämpning av frågor, tillämpning av feedback, gruppsamlingar och atmosfär. Frågor används i ledande syfte eller som öppna frågor medan feedback ges specifikt eller icke-specifikt. De tillämpade ledarbeteendena kan kategoriseras in i dem olika ledarskapsstilar i Full Range of Leadership modellen.

    Slutsats - Beroende på ledarbeteendenas kontext skiftar tränarna framför allt mellan transaktionellt och transformationellt ledarskap. 

    Abstract

    Aim – The study researches how coaches in child- and youth soccer in Stockholm lead their followers in practice. The research questions are: 

    • Which coaching behaviors do coaches apply in child and youth soccer practices?
    • Which types of questions do coaches use and how is feedback applied? 
    • Which practical leadership behaviors can be identified in leadership theory? 

    Method - The applied method is an ethnographic observation of ten coaches in their practices in eight boys’ football teams between ten and 19 years of age. Both practice and voice were recorded and subjected to a thematic analysis of behavioral patterns. 

    Results - The results show four themes of coaches’ applied leadership. These are application of questions, application of feedback, group gatherings and atmosphere. Questions are used in a leading fashion or as open questions, while the type of feedback is specific or non-specific. The applied leadership behaviors can be categorized in the Model of the Full Range of Leadership.

    Conclusion - Depending on the context of the behavior coaches vary especially between transactional and transformational leadership.

  • Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Siethoff, Lasse Ten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Aerobic capacity predict skeletal but not cardiac muscle damage after triathlon - the Iron(WO)man study.2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between aerobic capacity and biomarkers of skeletal- and cardiac muscle damage among amateur triathletes after a full distance Ironman. Men and women (N = 55) were recruited from local sport clubs. One month before an Ironman triathlon, they conducted a 20 m shuttle run test to determine aerobic capacity. Blood samples were taken immediately after finishing the triathlon, and analyzed for cardiac Troponin T (cTnT), Myosin heavy chain-a (MHC-a), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), Creatin Kinas (CK), and Myoglobin. Regression models examining the association between the biomarkers and aerobic capacity expressed in both relative terms (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) and absolute terms (LO2*min-1) controlled for weight were fitted. A total of 39 subjects (26% females) had complete data and were included in the analysis. No association between aerobic capacity and cardiac muscle damage was observed. For myoglobin, adding aerobic capacity (mLO2*kg-1*min-1) increased the adjusted r2 from 0.026 to 0.210 (F: 8.927, p = 0.005) and for CK the adjusted r2 increased from -0.015 to 0.267 (F: 13.778, p = 0.001). In the models where aerobic capacity was entered in absolute terms the adjusted r2 increased from 0.07 to 0.227 (F: 10.386, p = 0.003) for myoglobin and for CK from -0.029 to 0.281 (F: 15.215, p < 0.001). A negative association between aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle damage was seen but despite the well-known cardio-protective health effect of high aerobic fitness, no such association could be observed in this study.

  • Petersson, Alice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlund Hansson, Isabella
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det är deras värld: En intervjustudie om digitala verktyg och lärande i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school becomes more and more digitized after a decision from the Government of Sweden. However, digital tools should have a function for the pupils learning process.

    Aim The purpose of this study is to investigate, problematise and analyse how teachers work with digital tools in physical education at the Swedish upper secondary school and how it contributes to the pupils learning. In this study we have asked following: What digital tools are used and how are they used by the surveyed teachers in physical eduaction? How does the surveyed teachers deem that the tools contribute to the pupils learning? and According to the surveyed teachers, what are the advantages and disadvantages with digital tools in physical education in relationship to learning?

    Method The study is based on a sociocultural perspective and have a qualitative approach, where seven teachers have been interviewed in a hand-picked selection. The analyse was done using a thematic color coding.

    Results The result shows strikingly positive attitudes and arguments for the use of digital tools in physical education. For example, to show a video clip can contribute to increase the pupils movement ability and heart rate trackers can help the pupils to understand physiology. A challenge can be to deal with technical malfunctions, and also that some tools distract the pupils from the lesson.  

    Conclusion The conclusion is that digital tools can contribute to the pupils learning process if the teacher who use it have good skills and does it correctly. Also that pupils need to understand that digital tools should be used for teaching purposes and not for spending time on other funnier things on their phones.

  • Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology, Berlin, Germany..
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden..
    Bielak, Allison A M
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gow, Alan J
    Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards an active and happy retirement? Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition.2020In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

  • Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education. Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning. Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

  • Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

  • Moberg, Mathias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Trötthet inom alpin skidåkning på elitnivå: "Monitorering över en intensifierad träningsperiod"2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att identifiera och observera trötthet inom alpin skidåkning samt hur den utvecklas under en träningsperiod. Vidare kommer det undersökas om det primärt är perifer, central eller mental trötthet som utvecklas och om de samverkar med varandra.

    Frågeställning 1: Påverkas alpina elitskidåkare av trötthet och hinner de återhämta sig mellan träningspassen under en period på fem dagar?

    Frågeställning 2: Finns det något samband mellan åkarnas mentala och muskulära trötthet?

     

    Metod

    Detta är en kvantitativ experimentell studie som undersökte hur alpina elitskidåkare påverkades av trötthet under en träningsperiod på fem dagar. I studien deltog sex manliga alpina elitskidåkare som genomförde två skidpass per dag. Före och efter respektive skidpass testades deltagarnas reaktionsförmåga, Squat Jump, Repeated Counter Movement Jump samt upplevda mentala och fysiska status för att identifiera eventuell mental och muskulär trötthet.

     

    Resultat

    Studien resulterade i en signifikant utvecklad mental trötthet (P<0.05) under träningsperioden medan inga muskulära trötthetseffekter kunde identifieras. Åkarna återhämtade sig muskulärt mellan passen medan mental trötthet inte återgick till normala nivåer. Det fanns inget samband mellan åkarnas mentala och muskulär trötthet medan sambandet mellan muskulär och mental trötthet korrelerade starkt (r=0.9).

     

    Slutsats

    Studien resulterade i en primärt utvecklad mental trötthet under perioden medan muskulär trötthet inte påvisades. Därav är det mental trötthet som främst påverkar alpina elitskidåkare medan perifer och central trötthet är något som åkarna verkar återhämtar sig från mellan pass. Eftersom det inte fanns något samband mellan muskulär och mental trötthet beror den utvecklade tröttheten inte på fysiologiska utan på psykologiska faktorer. Den utvecklade mentala tröttheten kan då istället ha berott på den totala träningstiden alpinisterna utsattes för under perioden eller på för höga respektive för låga stressnivåer vilket kan orsaka en ökad mental trötthet hos idrottare.

  • Dronsfield, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andrén Bahnson, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belastningsskador bland unga fotbollsspelare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om ungdomar riskerar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador på grund utav sitt idrottande. Studiens frågeställningar är:

    1. Tenderar ungdomar som multi-idrottar att ådra sig överbelastningsskador i större utsträckning än ungdomar som har valt att tidigt specialisera sig på en idrott?

    2. Finns det ett samband mellan mängd idrottstimmar i veckan som ungdomar utövar och deras självrapporterade skadefrekvens?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvantitativ ansats med enkät som metod. Vårt urval är begränsat till pojkar i åldrarna 12–14. Fotbollsklubbar inom Stockholmsområdet har valts ut för deltagande. Målsättningen var att samla in 200 enkätsvar genom att besöka fotbollslag på deras träningar, efter bortfall fick vi in totalt 126 svar. Vetenskapsrådets fyra krav för samhällsvetenskaplig forskning har legat till grund för de etiska övervägandena för utformningen av denna studie.

    Resultat

    Studien ger inga signifikanta svar men resultaten visar att fler multi-idrottare skadar sig i större utsträckning än de som specialiserar sig. De ådrar sig fler belastningsskador och har fler skadedagar. Å andra sidan råkar de som specialiserar sig ut för fler traumatiska skador.

    Slutsats

    Det finns tendenser att multi-idrottare ådrar sig belastningsskador i något högre grad än de som specialiserar sig. Det finns också en tendens att träningsvolym korrelerar med skadefrekvens.

  • Dreber, Helena
    et al.
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital and Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reynisdottir, Signy
    Obesity Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Health-Related Quality of Life 5 Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Young (18-25 Years) Versus Older (≥ 26 Years) Adults: a Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry Study.2019In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To compare changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young (18-25 years) versus older (≥ 26 years) adults up to 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

    METHODS: Data on Short Form-36 (SF-36) and obesity-related problems scale (OP) at baseline and 1, 2, and 5 years after RYGB were extracted from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. Within-group changes and the effect of age group on 5-year changes in SF-36 and OP were analyzed. Effects sizes (ESs) were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 2542 young and 12,425 older adults were included at baseline, and 138 young (20.7% of those eligible) and 1021 older (31.8%) adults were followed-up 5 years post-RYGB. At this time, average to large improvements (ES ≥ 0.5) were observed in physical functioning, physical component score and OP in young adults, and in physical functioning, role physical, general health, physical component score, and OP in older adults (all, p ≤ 0.001). Both age groups displayed negligible to weak (ES < 0.5) or no improvements in mental HRQoL (all, p < 0.55). Older adults displayed greater 5-year improvements than their young counterparts in role physical, general health, vitality, social functioning, physical component score, and obesity-related problems scale (all, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both young and older adults displayed improvements in OP and physical HRQoL 5 years post-RYGB compared to baseline, while mental HRQoL did not improve to the same extent. Greater HRQoL-improvements could be expected in older patients why future research on HRQoL post-RYGB should stratify data on age groups.

  • Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jern, Christina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wallin, Anders
    University of Gothenburg.
    Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 24, article id E5136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High aerobic fitness, more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less sedentary behavior (SED) have all been suggested to promote cognitive functions, but it is unclear whether they are independent predictors of specific cognitive domains. This study aimed to investigate to what extent aerobic fitness MVPA and SED are independently associated with cognitive performance among middle-aged Swedish adults. We acquired device-based measures of aerobic fitness, cognitive performance and percent daily time spent in MVPA and SED in Swedish adults (n = 216; 54-66 years old). Aerobic fitness was associated with better performance at one out of two tests of speed/attention and one out of four tests of executive attention, and with worse performance at one of seven tests of memory. Increasing %MVPA was associated with better performance at one out of seven tests of memory and two out of three tests of verbal ability, whereas increasing %SED was associated with better performance at all four tests of executive attention and four out of seven tests of memory. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness, %MVPA and %SED are partly independent correlates of cognitive performance. To fully understand the association between SED and performance at several tests of cognitive function, future investigations might attempt to investigate intellectually engaging SED (such as reading books) separately from mentally undemanding SED (such as watching TV).

  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    City behöver ett universitet1994In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 12 dec, p. 4-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Alfred Nobel och hans okände medarbetare: Alfred Nobel and his unknown coworker2019In: Norrbottens-Kuriren, no 18 december, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Alfred Nobel is the Swedish inventor of dynamite and the testamentator behind the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Prizes. The article “Alfred Nobel and his unknown co-worker” is  a translation of the originally in Swedish published article in the daily Swedish newspaper Norrbottens-Kuriren, in December 18, 2019. It elaborates on the issue of which potential persons that Alfred Nobel himself would have toasted in thankfulness for his life and achievements.  Based on Nobel´s testament, and unknown or very sparsely known sources, the great importance of his coworker, the engineer Alarik Liedbeck, protrudes in a new light. Further news in this article is the fact that Liedbeck was a grandchild of the gymnasiarch Per Henrik Ling, who founded the Swedish Ling Gymnastics, including Medical Gymnastics, or what today is known as physiotherapy. Both of them were related to Alfred Nobel through their relative in common; Olof Rudbeck, the older, who discovered the lymph system. Also the grave of Alarik Liedbeck, side by side with Per Henrik Ling, at the shore of Brunnsviken in the Royal National Urban Park in Stockholm, Sweden, sheds light over this unique outdoor burial place which was created by Ling.

  • Ek, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Physical activity among patients with cardiovascular disease: a predictor of hospital care utilisation and mortality in clinical work2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidelines highlight the importance of physical activity (PA) in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) within the healthcare sector. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of PA at moderate-vigorous intensity performed within exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). However, only a minority of patients with CVD participate in exercise-based CR, and it is not known to what extent the guidelines for PA are implemented in clinical work. This leads to a knowledge gap in PA levels among patients with CVD, and the potential association of PA with hospital care utilisation and all-cause mortality. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate PA and its importance for patients with CVD, and to what extent it is promoted during clinical work. The associations between self-rated PA level, changes in self-rated PA level, and sedentary time (SED) with hospital care utilisation and all-cause mortality were explored in three cohort studies (Studies I-III). Data were collected via questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Study I explored everyday PA, physical exercise and SED among patients with CVD (n=1148) prior to admittance to a cardiac ward at two of the hospitals in Stockholm. Studies II and III explored PA (of at least moderate intensity) post hospitalisation, and included 30 644 and 22 227 patients with myocardial infarction (MI), respectively, from the national SWEDHEART registry. Finally, in Study IV, healthcare professionals’ (n=251) stated importance and clinical work to promote healthy lifestyle habits (alcohol consumption, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking) were explored in a cross-sectional study. All healthcare professionals working on cardiac departments in two hospitals in Stockholm were included.

    The main findings were:

    • PA level (everyday PA, physical exercise, total PA level) and SED pre and post hospitalisation for cardiac events were found to be significant predictors of hospital care duration, readmission and mortality. The effects of high PA level and low SED did not differ between CVD diagnosis, sex, age, or comorbid states such as individuals with and without diabetes mellitus type II, kidney dysfunction, hypertension or dyslipidaemia.

    • There were no differences between individuals reporting a moderate or high level of PA or a medium or low level of SED, illustrating that “a little activity is better than nothing” and that the greatest health benefits would be achieved by increasing PA among the most inactive patients with CVD.

    • Changes in PA level during the first year post MI are important. Increased PA lowered the risk of mortality, and decreased PA increased the risk of mortality in patients post MI.

    • Healthcare professionals considered it important to promote lifestyle habits among patients within the healthcare sector in general, as well as in their own clinical work. However, there was a difference between stated importance and clinical practice as only a minority of healthcare professionals asked or provided counselling on healthy lifestyle habits. Our results indicated a relationship between promoting patients’ lifestyle habits in clinical work, and if they perceived clear organisational routines and objectives.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis have a clinical impact. Firstly, asking patients on a cardiac department about their PA level and SED may identify individuals in need of behavioural changes. By identifying and supporting individuals who need to increase their PA level, clinicians may potentially decrease the utilisation of inpatient care and also lower the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with a CVD diagnosis. Secondly, this information is of great predictive value, and PA can be seen as an additional marker of disease severity.

  • Nilsson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Has the second ‘running boom’ democratized running? A study on the sociodemographic characteristics of finishers at the world’s largest half marathon2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that runners differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. However, given the increase in participants at running races, the question arises whether these sociodemographic differences have been erased and if the second running boom has democratized running. An online questionnaire was sent to a randomized sample (n = 2378) of finishers at the 2017 Gothenburg half marathon (Göteborgsvarvet). The self-reported sociodemographic variables were then compared to Swedish national averages. The results show that Göteborgsvarvet finishers are considerably more likely to be men, well-educated and employed, compared to the general population of Sweden. This study indicates, therefore, that half marathon finishers are still distinctly different in terms of sociodemographic variables compared to the general population. These differences need to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn concerning running and its health effects on runners.

  • Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Forsberg, Artur
    Karlsson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Isokinetic muscle torque and endurance in limbs and trunk in children and adolescents: A longitudinal study2019In: Clinical and Medical Investigations, ISSN 2398-5763, Vol. 4, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To measure isokinetic peak torque during elbow, knee and trunk extension and flexion and muscle endurance during elbow and knee extension.

    Method: Muscle endurance and peak torque were measured using Cybex methodology in totally 115 boys and 48 girls from 8 to 15 years of age most of them for five years.

    Results: Knee muscle endurance was mainly unchanged while elbow fatigue index was lightly reduced from 11 to 15 years in both sexes with no difference between sexes. From the youngest ages to adolescence peak absolute (N.m) and normalized (N.m/kg body mass) torque increases in all measures with highest increase in the trunk and lowest in elbow activities. During elbow activity boys are stronger than girls from age 11. For trunk and knee activity the sex differences start at age 14 years. Knee, elbow and trunk extension/flexion ratios as well as knee/elbow both extension and flexion ratios are mainly unchanged with increasing age with no differences between sexes.

    Conclusion: Data indicate that elbow isokinetic strength and endurance profile is partly different from corresponding data during knee and trunk activity.

  • Eklund, Annika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa och välmående i samband med utökad fysisk aktivitet i form av pulspass: Ungdomars uppfattning om hälsa, samt välmående i samband med utökad fysisk aktivitet i skolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how physical activity affects the students' perception of their own health in connection with increased activity at school in the form of pulse passes. - Which health definitions can be identified from the students' story of their health? - How do the pupils experience their well-being in connection with the increased physical activity in the school for their overall health?

    Method

    In order to get answers to the students' perception of the issues in connection with increased physical activity in the form of two 30-minute heart rate passes per week, interviews were conducted. Normal sports lessons are 60min twice a week. The selection group consisted of six 13-year-old girls who attend grade 7. They have a mother tongue other than Swedish and are specifically selected with the help of the students' sports teachers. A previous quantitative sub-study in the research study "Movement for Better Health and Learning" has carried out and which has given remarkably good results regarding well-being in this particular group.

    Results

    The study shows that the girls' perception of the concept of health and what this stands for is about feeling good both physically and mentally. This means that you move and have good eating habits. They also believe that it is important to have good relationships and a good social interaction in order to feel good. They also associate the concept of health with any kind of sports. In connection with increased physical activity in the school, the pupils' perception of their well-being and health is largely that they have more energy to cope with the school work in a better way compared to earlier. They experience increased concentration and strength to keep focus and get more things done in school. The pupils also feel stronger compared to earlier and have also changed their dietary habits, especially with regard to breakfast habits, as they eat more regularly and healthier.

    Conclusions

    The pupils' perception of health as a concept revolves around feeling good both physically and mentally, that you move around and have good eating habits. An important aspect is also to have a good social interaction in order to feel good. Sport and activities are associated with the health concept. The students in the study state that they have improved their school performance through increased concentration ability and perseverance in being able to perform at school. They have improved their eating habits and feel stronger than before.

  • Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Madigan, Daniel
    York St John Univeristy.
    Estimating the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a psychosocial construct that has been extensively studied in athletes. Burnout is a significant threat to an athlete’s mental health and increases the risk of dropout from sport (Gustafsson, Madigan, & Lundkvist, 2017). However, little is known about prevalence of clinical-levels of burnout in athletes. This study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of athlete burnout based on clinical cut-off scores taken from the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). To do so, cut-off scores were converted from the SMBQ to the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). This provided a cut-off score of 3.14. Data were derived from one cross-sectional sample (N = 1,931) and one 10-week longitudinal sample (N = 186; 10 waves). Analyses focused on the physical and emotional exhaustion subscale of the ABQ. In the longitudinal sample, the stability of the cut-offs was examined (i.e., those athletes scoring over 3.14 for over 50% of the time-points, versus those who never scored above 3.14). For the cross-sectional sample, 13% of athletes scored above the clinical cut-off score. For the longitudinal sample, 7.1% of athletes scored above the cut-off on over 50% of occasions, while 77.6% of athletes never scored above the cut-off score on any occasion. The present findings suggest that the estimated prevalence of athlete burnout differs when cross-sectional data are analysed than when longitudinal data are utilised. The findings reiterate that a significant proportion of athletes are at risk of burnout and that prevalence seem to be similar comparing with student- and working populations.

  • Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

  • Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Franzén, Erika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultling, Claes
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Intensity of physical activity as a percentage of peak oxygen uptake, heart rate and Borg RPE in motor-complete para- and tetraplegia.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 12, article id e0222542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe VO2peak, explore the potential influence of anthropometrics, demographics and level of physical activity within each cohort; b) to define common, standardized activities as percentages of VO2peak and categorize these as light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels according to present classification systems, and c) to explore how clinically accessible methods such as heart-rate monitoring and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) correlate or can describe light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional.

    SETTING: Rehabilitation facility and laboratory environment.

    SUBJECTS: Sixty-three individuals, thirty-seven (10 women) with motor-complete paraplegia (MCP), T7-T12, and twenty-six (7 women) with motor-complete tetraplegia (MCT), C5-C8.

    INTERVENTIONS: VO2peak was obtained during a graded peak test until exhaustion, and oxygen uptake during eleven different activities was assessed and categorized using indirect calorimetry.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VO2peak, Absolute and relative oxygen consumption, Borg RPE.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2peak was significantly higher in men than in women for both groups, with fairly small differences in relative VO2peak. For MCP sex, weight and time spent in vigorous-intensity activity explained 63% of VO2peak variance. For MCT sex and time in vigorous-intensity activity explained 55% of the variance. Moderate intensity corresponds to 61-72% HRpeak and RPE 10-13 for MCP vs. 71-79% HRpeak, RPE 13-14 for MCT.

    CONCLUSION: Using current classification systems, eleven commonly performed activities were categorized in relative intensity terms, (light, moderate and vigorous) based on percent of VO2peak, HRpeak and Borg RPE. This categorization enables clinicians to better guide persons with SCI to meet required physical activity levels.

  • Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Katedralskolan, Uppsala.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Learning health in Swedish physical education: A critical case study of students’ encounters with physical fitness and health as a learning object2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, p. 227-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfaces between health, physical education and schooling have a long history. Critical questions are being raised about the enforcement of learning a particular health practice in school physical education (PE). The present study departures from a practice-based research project evaluating a pedagogical model. The aim of the case study was to explore upper secondary students' learning and understandings of a specific learning object, aerobic fitness and how this influences health, after participating in a period of a longer lab work in the context of Swedish physical education. A phenomenographic approach was used when analyzing the students' written reports to identify and distinguish the variations of learning outcomes and understandings that emerged. Expectations of physical performance created tensions, and even conflicts, between the student-centred assignments and existing traditions within the field of physical education. The findings underscore the risk of neoliberal logics underpinning health education in the learning culture of PE. Further studies are needed where teaching methods/models and student learning are paid attention to in order to move away from teaching to be healthy towards students learning about health and make sense of themselves as healthy. This may offer new educational perspectives.

  • Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Transitioning from sickness absence to disability pension - the impact of poor health behaviours: a prospective Swedish twin cohort study.2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e031889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between three poor health behaviours (current smoker, high consumption of alcohol and low physical activity levels) and the transition to disability pension (DP) among individuals who have recently been sickness absent. Furthermore, we aimed to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviours increased the risk of transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to DP.

    DESIGN: Prospective twin cohort study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Twins aged 20-46 who had participated in a survey and been on SA (>14 days) in the year preceding baseline (date of answering the questionnaire).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident DP during the follow-up which ended on 31 December 2012 (mean 5.2 years). A national register with full coverage provided data on DP.

    RESULTS: The Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses showed that current smokers had a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP compared with never smokers (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.84). Alcohol use and lack of physical activity as well as poor health behaviour sum score showed no significant associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a current smoker influences the transition from SA to DP. Although non-significant, there were indications that more physical activity and fewer poor health behaviours could reduce the risk of exiting the labour market through DP. Improving health behaviours among people on SA could be a valuable tool for preventing the transition to DP.

  • Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons? views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes? situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

  • Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Routes and roots to knowing in Shaun White’s snowboarding road trip: A mycorrhizaic approach to multisensory emplaced learning in exergames2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 251-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores learning during game-play of a snowboarding video game intrigued by questions raised in the wake of the increasing mediatisation and digitisation of learning. Correspondingly, we answer to calls for more suitable metaphors for learning to cater for the entangled learning processes that changes related to the increase of digital media may infer. Using a short term sensory ethnography approach, we elaborate on the idea of multisensory emplaced learning and propose an organic metaphor – mycorrhiza – to both methodology and learning. Mycorrhiza refers to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and roots of plants in its environment where fungi are the visible effects of the mycorrhiza. The metaphor provides a way to start to unpack sensory, visual and embodied aspects of learning in the complexities of the digital age. By elaborating on the mycorrhizaic concepts fungus, soil, growth, mycelia and symbiosis we show three interrelated ways of moving through this game: (i) a social and cultural route, (ii) a competitive route, and (iii) an experiential route. With help of the metaphor we discern the symbiotic relations between what appeared in our empirical material as visual and other human and non-human aspects of emplacement.