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  • El Bajdi, Sofian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Omklädningsrummet: En studie om elevers uppfattning om miljön i omklädningsrummet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta reda på vad elever i årskurs 7-9 har för åsikter om miljön i omklädningsrummet som används i samband med idrott och hälsa samt vilka faktorer som gör att vissa elever avstår från att byta om och duscha efter idrottslektionen.

    - Vad anser eleverna om att duscha och byta om öppet med andra elever?

    - Skiljer sig tjejernas och killarnas erfarenheter av omklädningsrummet åt?

    Metod

    Undersökningen är kvantitativ och jag använde mig av en enkätundersökning som omfattar 60 elever. Deltagarna i min undersökning är elever från en klass i årskurs 7, 8 och 9.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visade att hälften av alla elever inte duschade och många av dem på grund av risken för kränkande behandling, hur ens kropp ser ut och att det är ofräscht i omklädningsrummet. Undersökningen visade också att hälften av eleverna ansåg att det aldrig sker kränkande behandlingar i omklädningsrummet. Studien visade inga stora könsskillnader i omklädningsrummet men antalet flickor som blivit utsatta för kränkande behandling var några fler än pojkarna. Däremot visade undersökningen att antalet flickor som är missnöjda med sitt kroppsutseende är högre än pojkarna. Undersökningen visade även att de elever som var missnöjda med sin kropp också var de som undvek att duscha efter idrottslektionen.

    Slutsats

    Undersökningen visar att många elever är missnöjda med sitt kroppsutseende och detta kan vara en orsak till att hälften av eleverna i undersökningen inte duschar efter lektionen. I denna studie framkommer det även att cirka en tredjedel av eleverna säger sig ha blivit utsatta för kränkande behandlingar. Detta är viktigt att skolan tar denna problematik på allvar då en av deras uppgifter är att motverka kränkande behandling.

  • Eff, Christopher
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Leipzig.
    Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the bioactivation of dietary nitrate during submaximal exercise2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to show the influence of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI in form of esomeprazole) on the bioactivation of dietary nitrate (sodium-nitrate solution) in submaximal exercise, through affecting the gastric pH.

    Method: Randomized, doubled-blinded, placebo-controlled and crossover study with six subjects (mean ± SD, age 29 ± 5years, height 170 ± 5 centimeters, weight 70 ± 5 Kg, BMI 24,36 ± 1,75 Kg/m2 blood pressure 119/ 77 ± 6 mmHg, 3 male and 3 female). They were tested in two different trials. Every trial consisted of two parts. One part was cycling on 4 different submaximal stages (80W/60RPM, 80W/90RPM, 120W/60RPM, 120W/90RPM) for 5 minutes each, with 90 minutes rest in between. The same protocol was repeated. In the beginning of the resting time a sodium nitrate solution (NaNO3-, 10mg/kg body weight) was ingested. VO2, VCO2, RER, VE, Lactate, Glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. Venous blood samples were taken. Whether esomeprazole (10mg) or a placebo were taken 24h, 12h and directly before being tested in both trials. Subjects were pleased to have a nitrate poor diet starting when taking the pills. An information sheet was provided.

    Results: No significant differences were found between the post values and the treatment. Tendencies of a higher oxygen consumption when taking esomeprazole (2,62%) in comparison to placebo (0,11%) were observed. Systolic BP decreased by 3,91% with the placebo while it decreased just 2,04% with esomeprazole after intake. Sex-specific differences occurred in the metabolism of esomeprazole and dietary nitrate. RER showed a significant post nitrate difference between the female and male participants with t=.006 and a significance in predietary nitrate intake. VE in female (40,79 ± 7,20 L/min) and (50,03 ± 10,09 L/min) in male were as well significant (t=.017).

    Conclusion: Tendencies of effects of PPI are seen in the post-values of VO2 and BP after intake of dietary nitrate. Gender-differences are shown in RER and VE. More research is needed to see the impact of dietary nitrate on the human body under submaximal load.

  • Cardinale, Daniele A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The significance of mitochondrial respiratory function in regulating oxygen uptake and performance in humans2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mitochondrion is one of the most fascinating organelles of our cells which has kept and keeps researchers busy in studying its origin, the complex morphology, the numerous functions, the rapid adaptations to a variety of stimuli and its role in health and disease. Exercise challenges cellular homeostasis and skeletal muscle mitochondria greatly adapt to repeated bouts of exercise by increasing mitochondrial respiratory function and content to match energy requirements and to better sustain future perturbations induced by muscle contractions. The oxidative capacity of mitochondria has been shown to exceed the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to supply oxygen to active muscle at maximal exercise intensity. Despite this, exercise training further increases this overcapacity. Little is known about the role of this excess oxidative capacity of mitochondria in regulating oxygen consumption, the role of oxygen delivery in determining exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations, and whether any sex-related differences exist. The assessment of mitochondrial respiratory function in high resolution respirometer is largely used for clinical and scientific purposes. However, the reliability of this method has not been systematically investigated and warrant further investigation.

    With this background, specific measures of reliability associated with repeated determination of maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in saponin-permeabilized fibres, comparison of the right and left legs, variability with measurements at different time-points and over time, as well as influence of the local anesthetic and wet weight of the fiber bundle on determined maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were investigated in paper I. The importance of having the same technicians in preparing the samples, and that the major source of variation in measuring mitochondrial oxidative capacity is the sample preparation per se were shown. Furthermore, other factors such as the possible difference between left and right limbs, two time points of sample collection, fibres bundle weight, time that elapsed after collection of the biopsy, and the use of an anesthetic have only a minor impact on the standard error of the measurement.

    In paper II the physiological significance of having a mitochondrial oxidative capacity in excess of the capacity of the central circulation to deliver oxygen to the tissue was shown by integrating measures of ex vivo mitochondrial respiratory function with direct in vivo measure of oxygen consumption when performing two-legged cycling and one-legged knee extension exercise while inspiring atmospheric air and oxygen enriched air in the same participants. Excess capacity of mitochondria allows submaximal mitochondrial activation at maximal oxygen delivery, thereby maintaining a high mitochondrial oxygen affinity and a high oxygen extraction peripherally. Considering the widespread and increasing sedentary behavior in a society plagued by diseases often linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, these results suggest the importance of preserving a high muscle oxidative capacity throughout life, which can be of significance in patients with heart, circulatory, and overall metabolic diseases.

    Despite known sex-specific metabolic differences in human skeletal muscle and that animal models have consistently shown females having a superior mitochondrial function compare to males, data in humans are lacking. In paper III the first evidence that women possess higher mitochondrial quality compared to men with equal cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance was provided. Mitochondrial oxygen affinity varied with the degree of mitochondrial respiration rate and was lower in women compared to men. These results indicate that the higher mitochondrial quality in women may be an important physiological adaptation that compensates for the lower mitochondrial oxygen affinity allowing a higher oxygen extraction peripherally. Moreover, these results could possibly be linked to the difference in life expectancy, disease occurrence and aging between women and men.

    Lastly, in paper IV it was shown that increasing oxygen delivery and exercise intensity by means of breathing hyperoxia during high-intensity exercise did not enhance cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations but still resulted in a small beneficial effect on performance in trained cyclists. This small positive effect on performance can be exploited in elite athletes; however, considering the cost/benefit, the unknown health-related problems, and ethical issues of performing hyperoxic-supplemented endurance training, it is arguable if the use of this strategy to maximize endurance performance is worthwhile.

    Overall, this thesis provides useful information for future research on various factors influencing the error of the measurement when assessing mitochondrial respiratory function. Moreover, this thesis sheds light on novel factors that regulate oxygen consumption during exercise, highlighting the importance of maintaining a good mitochondrial function. This thesis also provides possible directions for future studies on mitochondrial function, metabolism and exercise-induced adaptations.  

  • Sundell, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Jonsson, H
    Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Ådin, L
    Diagnostic Radiology, Skellefteå.
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Umeå universitet.
    Stress Fractures of Pars Interarticularis in Adolescent Athletes a Classification System with MRI and CT Enabling Evaluation of The Healing Process2018In: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, E-ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing frequency in different stages of stress reactions in the Pars Interarticularis (PI) using a classification system with MRI and CT. The intervention was 3-month rest from physical activity, without a brace, with the exception of activities of daily living.

    Materials & Method: Twelve adolescent athletes with different stages of Spondolysis were included in the study. They had pathology in the Pars Interarticularis and were clinically examined with MRI and CT 3-6 weeks after debut of Low Back Pain (LBP) and re-evaluated after 3 months intervention with rest from physical activity.

    Results: A combination of MRI and CT scanning to investigate suspected injuries to Pars Interarticularis in adolescent athletes revealed 6 different stages of Spondolysis that ranged from marrow oedema to pseudoarthrosis. After 3 months of rest from physical activity the early stages of Pars Interarticularis injuries healed significantly better than the later stages with rest from physical activity.

    Conclusion: The combination of MRI and CT revealed 6 stages of stress reactions instead of 4 as in Hollenberg's staging with MRI only. In the 3 earliest stages, of these 6, rest from physical activity for 3 months can heal the stress reaction.

  • Haglund, Lotta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Collaboration with sister organisations around the globe: a SWOT-analysis at the EAHIL Council meeting in Cardiff2018In: Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries, ISSN 1841-0715, no 3, p. 7-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Sandahl, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Dopningsfrågan i ett franskt perspektiv: recension av boken Doping in Elite Sports: Voices of French Sportspeople and Their Doctors, 1950–20102018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 26 septemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • Hägg, Peder
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tränares utbildningar: En undersökning av fyra specialidrottsförbunds validering av tränares utbildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om valda specialidrottsförbund har tagit tillvara den utbildningsbakgrund som huvudtränare på elitnivå besitter.

     

    1. Vad för utbildningar har huvudtränare på elitnivå inom valda specialidrottsförbund?

    2. Anser tränarna att deras övriga utbildningar är relevanta för deras tränarskap?

    3. Har dessa tränare fått sina tidigare utbildningar validerade av specialförbunden?

     

    Metod

    Urvalet bestod av 180 huvudtränare inom fyra specialidrottsförbund: fotboll, innebandy, ishockey och basket. Tillvägagångssättet var enkäter, och då i form av den webbaserade tjänsten Google Forms. Enkäten bestod av 16 frågor, där både öppna och slutna frågor förekom. Resultatet baseras på 61 besvarade enkäter.

     

    Resultat

    Sett till högsta utbildningsnivå så hade 25% av tränarna eftergymnasial utbildning, 36% av tränarna högskole-/universitetsutbildning och 39% av tränarna gymnasieutbildning. 54% av tränarna ansåg att deras övriga utbildning var relevant. Två tränare har kunnat validera tidigare kunskaper.

     

    Slutsats

    Utifrån studien och tidigare forskning så kan man konstatera att specialidrottsförbunden har en välutbildad tränarkår. Majoriteten av tränarna ansåg dessutom att deras övriga utbildning var relevant i förhållande till sitt uppdrag, trots detta var det endast ett fåtal tränare som lyckats ta en annan väg till toppen än genom förbundets utbildningar, vilket tolkas som att det bara finns en väg som leder till elittränarskap och att förbunden inte tar tillvara tränarnas tidigare kunskaper

  • Najafi, Rahim
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärarnas inställning till styrketräning för högstadieelever2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka svenska idrottslärares inställning till styrketräning. Jag undersöker ett antal lärares inställning till styrketräning i idrottsämnet på högstadienivån och konstaterar att alla har en positiv syn men att det finns en viss skepsis mot styrketräning på gym. Det verkar som om nya idrottslärare kan behöva få information om ny forskning som påvisar att även träning på gym har positiva effekter på ungdomar om den utförs rätt.

    Frågeställningar

    • Hur ser lärarna på styrketräning på lektionerna i Idrott och hälsa på högstadiet?

    • Vad anser lärarna angående fördelar och nackdelar med styrketräning?

    • Vad är lärarnas uppfattning om Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer när det

       gäller styrketräning för barn?

    • Går det att säga utifrån det som framkommer av intervjuerna att kunskap om

       styrketräningens effekter saknas hos många lärare?

    Metod

    Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer. Urvalet bestod av sex stycken idrottslärare på högstadienivå, fyra män och två kvinnor. Intervjuerna spelades in. Jag ville helst ha lärare med flera års erfarenhet av att undervisa för barn eftersom jag ville ha lärare som hunnit reflektera över hur de ska göra med styrketräningen i skolan och som hunnit stöta på eventuella problem. Sedan handlar det också om att utvärdera resultaten i förhållande till Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer och den moderna forskningens syn på styrketräning för barn och ungdomar.

    Resultat

    De flesta idrottslärare är ense om att styrketräning medför mest fördelar för barnen. Både lärarna och forskningen anser att styrketräning förebygger både skador och påskyndar rehabilitering. Lärarna känner delvis till Riksidrottsförbundets rekommendationer men verkar inte ta så stort intryck av dem.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen av denna studie är att inställningen i huvudsak är positiv men att det verkar finns en utbredd uppfattning om att gymträning bör undvikas som idrottslärarutbildningen kanske ska utmana.

  • Jestin, Michael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Idrott åt alla" men anläggningar åt vissa: En kvalitativ studie om kommunal idrottspolitik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the reasoning of Swedish municipality councils, in regards to the decision-making process of building new sports facilities, and their relationship to national sports policies. The Swedish sports policy has been specified through a proposition (Prop. 2008/09:126) given by the government and approved by the parliament in 2009 together with the policy program of the Swedish Sports Confederation called Idrotten vill.

    Method: Three Swedish municipalities with sports establishments subsidized by tax money constructed after 2009 were selected for the study. The municipality council’s decisions have been qualitatively studied through Fairclough and Fariclough’s model for political reasoning. The assumption was made that each municipality’s core goal is to maximize their control over political office, in accordance with Strom’s theory of political party behavior.

    Results: The analysis shows that the policies advocated on state level only plays a minor role in the decision-making of municipality councils. Values like the town’s appeal to outsiders, stimulation of the market and the prestige of local sports teams are more dominant in the decision-making process. The reasoning behind all three of the newly built establishments goes in the same direction, which indicates that this might be a trend embraced by several Swedish municipalities.

    Conclusions: Swedish municipality councils reasoning within the decision-making process does not seem to accord with the sports policies advocated on a national level. Previous research has shown indications that personal interests plays a role in municipal decision-making and that the popular belief among both voters and political actors is that the economical benefits of elite sports on the local community is a lot higher than research shows. Both these factors may be explanatory as to why municipal councils chose to disregard national values and policies of sports and the whole advocated concepts of “sports for all” that permeates all of the Swedish sports society.

  • Westblad, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The effect of flywheel training on functional neuromuscular performance in physically active youth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flywheel resistance training on functional neuromuscular performance in physically active youth.

     

    Method

    Forty-four healthy and physically active youth between 12-14 years of age (n=19 boys & n=25 girls) volunteered to participate and were randomized into three different groups of flywheel resistance training (FRT) (n=15, body mass = 42,9 ± 8,6 kg, time to Peak Height Velocity (PHV) = - 0,8 ± 1,6), traditional strength training (TST) (n=15, body mass = 44,7 ± 10,3 kg, time to PHV = - 0,8 ± 1,5) and a control group (CON) (n=14, body mass = 43,8 ± 9,0 kg, time to PHV- 0,8 ± 1,5. Squat jump (SQ), Countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m acceleration, 20-m speed and 30-sprint was assessed pre- and post-intervention. All training groups performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 6-week intervention. The FRT-group performed bilateral flywheel resistance squats with 4 sets of 6 repetitions with 0,025 to 0,05 kgm2 and the TST-group performed bilateral barbell squats with 4 sets of 6 repetitions at a predicted 80 %1RM, while the control group only performed their regular sports training.

     

    Results

    Repeated measures two way-ANOVA, 3 x 2 (training group x time), showed no significant mean effects between groups after the intervention. A significant increase occurred in the control group for SQ; 2,4 ± 2,5 (cm) p ≤ 0,008 and CMJ; 2,2 ± 3,1 (cm) p ≤ 0,037. Both training groups increased significantly in body mass from pre- to post-tests by 2,0 ± 2,7 kg for the flywheel training group and 1,3 ± 0,9 kg in the traditional strength training group (p ≤ 0,05).

     

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that flywheel training can be used as a resistance training method for youth athletes without inducing training related injuries. Flywheel resistance training resulted in a small but non-significant increase from pre to post test in squat jump and 10-m sprint. Future studies on flywheel resistance training for youth needs to investigate the implementation of longer training periods, additional training sessions, more experienced youth in resistance training and faster movement speed.

  • Bråtenius, Tilda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Strandenholm, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En pilotstudie av kognitiv beteendeterapi som metod för beteendeförändring gällande fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att genomföra ett pilottest av delar av forskningsprojektet "Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa" på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan. Pilottestet prövade en manualbaserad metod som grundar sig i kognitiv beteendeterapi, och utvärderade manualen som metod för beteendeförändring av fysisk aktivitet. Frågeställningarna var: Hur genomförbar ansåg samtalsledarna att den manualbaserade metoden med tillhörande verktyg var? Vilka styrkor och svagheter förekom? Hur upplevde deltagarna att deras beteende gällande fysisk aktivitet förändrades med hjälp av samtalsstödet?

    Metod

    Med en kvalitativ utgångspunkt genomfördes totalt 12 individuella samtal med fyra deltagare. Varje samtal utgick från en manualbaserad metod som grundar sig i kognitiv beteendeterapi, med fem tillhörande verktyg. Resultatet av frågeställning ett (1) besvarades genom samtalsledarnas reflektioner kring styrkor och svagheter avseende genomförbarheten av KBT-manualen. Samtalsledarna antecknade sina tankar kring manualens upplägg, såsom förbättringar av verktygen eller utformning av manualen. Frågeställning två besvarades genom innehållsanalys där meningsbärande enheter togs fram genom ett utvärderingsformulär och verktygen Vidmakthållande och Bakslagshantering samt VAS-skalorna.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av studien visade att manualen för kognitiv beteendeterapi med tillhörande verktyg var genomförbar med flertal styrkor men med utrymme för fåtal korrigeringar. Samtalsstödet hjälpte deltagarna att öka sin nivå av fysisk aktivitet.

    Slutsats

    Denna studie har visat att en beteendeförändring i fysisk aktivitet kan uppnås med hjälp av samtalsstöd i form av kognitiv beteendeterapi med tillhörande verktyg. Kognitiv beteendeterapi visade sig i föreliggande studie vara ett hjälpsamt verktyg i en beteendeförändring för fysisk aktivitet, och med hjälp av samtalsstödet skapades nya önskvärda beteendemönster.

  • Gottlind, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av delaktighet, information och tillgänglighet efter digital fysioterapi via en interaktiv app: en webbaserad enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim was to explore women’s perceptions of web-based physiotherapy for musculoskeletal pain treatment delivered through an interactive application for smartphones. Questions: To what extent do women have a positive experience of participation, information and availability after web-based physiotherapy through an interactive app? Is there a difference in a-c between women who had visited primary care 2016 (NPE) and the ones who had received physiotherapeutic treatment trough the app (FT-app)?

    Background: The popularity of eHealth is growing both among health care innovators and media. eHealth may increase the access of health services and the evaluation of new services is important. Internet based psychological treatment for musculoskeletal pain is an alternative to traditional treatment in Sweden. A pilot with web-based physiotherapeutic treatment delivered through an interactive app (FT-app) was tested 2014-2017 for treatment in women with musculoskeletal pain. The app included a chat where the physiotherapist answered questions within 24 hours (mon-fri), an activity diary, videos of the exercises and uploaded movies from the patient doing the exercise. The treatment was based on behavioral medicine and lasted for at least 12 weeks. The women were screened for red and yellow flags before start and had no acute pain.

    Method: A web-based survey with 37 questions was emailed to the women (n=139) 1-24 months after finishing the treatment in FT-app. A Likert scale was used for rating the answer 1-4 and 1-5. The results were compared to results from women’s perceptions of primary health care in Sweden 2016 (NPE). The response rate in both samples were analyzed with a z-test.

    Results: 52,5 % answered the survey. The majority answered positively to the claim that getting answer and feedback within 24 hours made compliance to treatment plan easier (92,3%) and helped them accomplish the prescribed exercises and activity (94,5%). The written dialogue was effective for remembering the advices (93,2%) and the FT-app made it possible for the women to adjust the treatment to their everyday living (95,9%). There were significant differences between NPE and FT-app regarding explanation of the treatment (p=0,0045) information of warning signals (p=0,0002) and ways of contact (p=0,0045).

    Conclusion: This study shows that the FT-app women experienced a significant greater participation and access to the service compared to the primary care women in some claims. The response rate was not big enough to generalize the results to the population and the survey was not tested for validity or reliability. This study suggests more research in this field to investigate perceptions of internet-based treatment and to identify when telerehabilitation is suitable as an alternative to traditional health care.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Talking Talent: Narratives of Youth Sports Selection2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, there seems to be an eternal interest in discovering young talents and refining them into elite adult athletes. The dilemma of selecting talent, while at the same time ensuring every child´s right to participate, needs to be addressed and have consequences in social practice. This dissertation elucidates the discourse of selection and the process of selecting young sporting talents during final selection camps for youth national teams in football, hockey and floorball in Sweden. More specifically, the aim is to analyze how talent selection is organizationally legitimized, how “selectability” is produced in interaction and how specific narratives are used in success-stories. The empirical material includes research interviews, performance appraisal interviews (between district or national team coaches and the player) and field studies during ongoing final selection camp. Drawing on a discursive-narrative approach, the aim is to investigate how selection is discursively legitimized and, by using narrative analysis, how positioning in talk-in-interaction functions. The first article investigates the construction of legitimate selection within the Swedish Sports Confederation by analyzing their organizational documents, sport journals and literature for coach education. The findings show how a specific set of narratives are used to legitimize selection and how legitimacy works both individually to those within the selection system and on a wider arena of welfare politics. The second article investigates the co-construction of selectability in small story-interaction during interviews between the coach and a player in the final selection camp. The analyses highlight how this narrative genre produces certain stories and preferred positions. The third article analyzes how the young participants, in research interviews during final selection camp, uses discursively shared narratives to produce personal stories of success. The findings illustrate how the personal stories of success are balancing the dilemmatic space, positioning yourself as outstanding and at the same time appear a humble team player. The principal contribution of this dissertation is to show how talent is organizationally legitimized and how selectability is produced in interaction, as well as illustrate how specific stories are used in stories of success. This work investigates the discursive framework for selection and how rationalities for talent selection are produced (and reproduced) and coconstructed in narrative interaction. In this apparatus of selection it takes more than physical talent to be chosen; it takes talking talent.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet.
    Searching for talent: The construction of legitimate selection in sports2015In: Scandinavian Sports Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088x, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 85-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes talent selection within Swedish Sports. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which this process of legitimacy is produced in the case of children and adolescents. The article involves a discourse analytical approach where organizational policy documents, annuals for operation, educational coach literature constitute the corpus of data. The aim is to document how problems of legitimizing talent selection are handled within the organization through the use of different discursive repertoires. The purpose is to deconstruct explicit statements and underlying suppositions through with the current process of selection is legitimized.  The research material allows us access into how the process for talent selection constitutes a significant part of a discursive apparatus of selection. In order to make the process of selection appear neutral, discursive work is played out in order to make the process appear fair and unbiased. Furthermore, this article shows how the production of the legitimate selection works in two directions, both individually and politically. The process of selection is being rhetorically displayed as legitimate to those within the system, as well as a Swedish egalitarian welfare politic at large.

  • Håkansson, Anders C
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Canada, Swedish Sport Federation.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Problem gambling and gaming in elite athletes.2018In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 8, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-level sports have been described as a risk situation for mental health problems and substance misuse. This, however, has been sparsely studied for problem gambling, and it is unknown whether problem gaming, corresponding to the tentative diagnosis of internet gaming disorder, may be overrepresented in athletes. This study aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling and problem gaming in national team-level athletes.

    Methods: A web-survey addressing national team-level athletes in university studies (survey participation 60%) was answered by 352 individuals (60% women, mean age 23.7), assessing mental health problems, including lifetime history of problem gambling (NODS-CLiP) and problem gaming (GASA).

    Results: Lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 7% (14% in males, 1% in females, p < 0.001), with no difference between team sports and other sports. Lifetime prevalence of problem gaming was 2% (4% in males and 1% in females, p = 0.06). Problem gambling and problem gaming were significantly associated (p = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Moderately elevated rates of problem gambling were demonstrated, however with large gender differences, and interestingly, with comparable prevalence in team sports and in other sports. Problem gaming did not seem more common than in the general population, but an association between problem gambling and problem gaming was demonstrated.

  • Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska University Hospital.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Falun Hospital.
    Cider, Åsa
    Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Physical inactivity and smoking after myocardial infarction as predictors for readmission and survival: results from the SWEDEHEART-registry.2018In: Clinical Research in Cardiology, ISSN 1861-0684, E-ISSN 1861-0692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and smoking cessation are included in the secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI), but they are still underutilised. This study aims to explore how PA level and smoking status (6-10 weeks post-MI) were associated with 1-year readmission and mortality during full follow-up time, and with the cumulative 5-year mortality.

    METHODS: A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing MI-care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART-registry) in 2004-2014. PA was expressed as the number of exercise sessions of ≥ 30 min in the last 7 days: 0-1 (low), 2-4 (medium) and 5-7 (high) sessions/week. Individuals were categorised as smokers, former smokers or never-smokers. The associations were analysed by unadjusted and adjusted logistic and Cox regressions.

    RESULTS: During follow-up (M = 3.58 years), a total of 1702 deaths occurred among 30 644 individuals (14.1 cases per 1000 person-years). For medium and high PA, the hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 0.39 and 0.36, respectively, compared with low PA. For never-smokers, the HR was 0.45 and former smokers 0.56 compared with smokers. Compared with low PA, the odds ratios (ORs) for readmission in medium PA were 0.65 and 0.59 for CVD and non-CVD causes, respectively. For high PA, the corresponding ORs were 0.63 and 0.55. The association remained in adjusted models. There were no associations between smoking status and readmission.

    CONCLUSIONS: The PA level and smoking status are strong predictors of mortality post-MI and the PA level also predicts readmission, highlighting the importance of adherence to the secondary prevention guidelines.

  • Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake in walking and cycle commuting: Evaluations based on reproducibility and validity studies of the heart rate method and a portable metabolic system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking and cycling to work can contribute to population health, but more objective knowledge concerning exercise intensities, oxygen uptake and the metabolic demands of this physical activity is needed for this and other evaluations. To attain this, valid and reliable instruments are a requirement. The focus of this thesis was to evaluate whether the heart rate method can be used for this purpose. It involves establishing the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake during ergometer cycling in laboratory conditions, and thereafter checking if the same relation exists during cycle or walking commuting in a metropolitan area.

    To accomplish this, a portable metabolic system was tested for validity and reliability in laboratory and field conditions and the reproducibility of the heart rate and oxygen uptake relation in the laboratory was evaluated. Furthermore, the heart rate and oxygen uptake relations during cycle and walking commuting was compared with those attained in the laboratory.

    The first two studies showed that a portable metabolic system is valid during laboratory and sustained field conditions. Studies 3 and 4 showed that the heart rate method with respect to the heart rate-oxygen uptake relationship is reliable on the group level for both walking and cycling commuters during repeated measures in the laboratory. The last two studies showed that applying the heart rate method during cycle commuting leads to valid levels of oxygen uptake on the group level for both males and females. Contrary to that, the measured levels of oxygen uptake in the field during walking commuting were on average 17% higher for males, and 13% higher for females than the values obtained with the heart rate method. For both walking and cycling commuters, the individual spread around the mean values was rather high, creating somewhat wide confidence intervals for the mean values.

    In summary, the heart rate method can be used for cycle commuters during their normal commuting conditions, while for pedestrians it is necessary to take into account that oxygen uptake per heart rate is higher while walking than that estimated from ergometer cycling in the laboratory.

  • Bestic, Milos
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Betydelsen av plyometrisk- och change of direction träning: Ett försök att utveckla unga fotbollsspelares förmåga för sprint och riktningsförändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att genomföra två olika träningsinterventioner, en innehållande plyometrisk och en change of direction – träning (COD) för att se dess effekter på unga fotbollsspelares change of direction och 10-, 20-, 30 meters sprintförmåga. Studiens frågeställning var: Vilken inverkan kan två olika typer av träningsprogram ha på unga fotbollsspelares COD- samt sprintförmåga på 10-, 20-, 30 meter?

    Metod

    28 stycken fotbollsspelare både pojkar och flickor i åldrarna 13-15 år deltog i en träningsintervention under fem veckor där träningen bedrevs två gånger i veckan. Deltagarna delades in i tre olika grupper, kontrollgrupp (KON-G), plyometrisk grupp (PT-G) och change of direction grupp (COD-G). För- och eftertester genomfördes för att kunna se interventionens effekt. Testerna som utfördes var Illinois COD-test och sprint 10-, 20-, 30-meter.

    Resultat

    KON-G visade inga skillnader mellan före och efter- testerna. PT-G visade inte på några signifikanta förbättringar, det var endast en numerisk skillnad i 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint med 2 % samt 1 % i Illinois COD-test. COD-G visade inte heller på några signifikanta förbättringar. Endast en numerisk ökning med 2 % i Illinois COD-test samt 1 % förbättring i 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint. I en korrelation mellan Illinois COD-test och 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint framgick en stark korrelation mellan dessa. r-värde = 0,92- 0,93 och p-värde = <0.01.

    Slutsats

    Då studiens resultat inte visade några signifikanta förbättringar på varken Illinois COD-test eller sprint kan inga slutsatser dras för vilken träningsmetod som har störst inverkan på dessa förmågor. Däremot kan man se små tendenser att de två träningsprogrammens utveckling av egenskaper skiljer sig. Vilket eventuellt tyder på att tränarens uppgift blir att prioritera vilken förmåga som är viktigast att utveckla eftersom båda är viktiga egenskaper för en fotbollsspelare.

  • Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, University of Gävle.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska insititutet, Stockholm University.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence.2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1051-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • Rahman, Md Shafiqur
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    King's College London, UK..
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and response to exercise treatment in depression.2018In: BJPsych open, ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression.

    Aims: To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745).

    Method: The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together.

    Results: All exercise intensities improved O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = -3.52, 95% CI -6.08 to -0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = -3.89, 95% CI -6.53 to -1.26). Similarly, increased O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22-11.43) of exercise treatment response (≥50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that improvements in O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise.

    Declaration of interest: None.

  • Gustafsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nettelman, Charlie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkas vår psykiska hälsa av smartphone-användandet?: En kvantitativ studie om hur utbrett smartphoneberoende är och hur det påverkar den psykiska hälsan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose and objective

    The purpose of this study was to survey the use of mobile phones amongst people and how it coincides with mental health. We also wanted to investigate whether or not we could create a behavioral change amongst the mobile phone users and thereby see if it affected their mental health. To achieve this objective we emanated from two questions: (1) Is there a relationship between Smartphone addiction and subjective mental health? (2) Can a short intervention, where you decrease the time spent on smartphones amongst users improve their subjective well-being?

    Method

    To get an insight in how widespread the use of mobile phones is and if it affects subjective well-being we chose to collect data through surveys because it was time effective and gave a wide group of people. To be able to create a behavioral change we concluded we had to actively interact with the respondents, so we chose to perform an intervention. During the intervention the participants would reduce their mobile phone usage to the greatest extent possible to see if their mental health could be improved.

    Result

    According to the correlation analysis, there is a weak relationship r = - 0,218 between mental health and smartphone addiction which is statistically significant (p=0.013). Analysis of survey data showed a large group classified as smartphone addicted = 48.2% and 51.8% as non-smartphone addicted. This shows that more people are smartphone addicted in this study than other studies have found. The intervention failed due to many dropouts.

    Conclusions

    The result showed a weak negative correlation between mental health and smartphone addiction. Causal correlation was not clarified and further research is required on the subject in order to determine whether mental health issues leads to more smartphone usage or if a lot of smartphone usage leads to mental health issues by itself.

  • Bergendahl, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Landin, Joakim
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Berätta var du kommer ifrån: Vilka faktorer kan påverka hanteringen av en allvarlig skada?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur idrottare utifrån sin socioekonomiska bakgrund hanterar en allvarlig skada (skador som håller idrottaren borta i mer än trettio dagar). Frågeställningarna var: Vilka copingstrategier framträder? Vad motiverar deltagarna att ta sig tillbaka till tidigare kapacitet? Och slutligen, upplever personer ur olika socioekonomiska grupper olika motivationsfaktorer och copingstrategier?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts genom intervjuer utifrån en semistrukturerad intervjuguide. Deltagarna i studien byggde på ett bekvämlighetsurval och ett målinriktat urval där vi valt att rikta in oss på elitidrottare som ligger på gränsen till att bli professionella. Vi valde att ta kontakt med idrottsföreningar utifrån vårt kontaktnät och för att urskilja socioekonomisk status på de intervjupersoner som vi fick så samtalade vi med spelarnas tränare som har god insyn i spelarnas tillvaro. Fem idrottare deltog i studien som spelar på en hög nivå inom sin idrott där alla har varit skadade och borta från sin idrott i minst 30 dagar från skadetillfället.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att det förekommer två olika sorters copingstrategier hos deltagarna när det kom till hanteringen av skada. Tre av fem deltagare använder sig av problemfokuserad coping när de fått veta sin rehabiliteringstid, och sätter då upp nya mål för att kunna hantera påfrestningarna. De andra två idrottarna använder sig av en undvikande coping då de förnekar sin skada genom att spela trots smärta och risken att förvärra sin skada. Socialt stöd har ansetts viktigt för idrottarna vare sig det kommer ifrån familj, tränare, lagkamrater eller naprapat/sjukgymnaster. Majoriteten av idrottarna upplever en inre drivkraft som motivation för att komma tillbaka från skadan där endast en av idrottarna talar om en yttre drivkraft. De olikheter som uppkommer mellan de socioekonomiska grupperna är att två idrottare upplever att de har svårt att fokusera på annat, där bland annat skolan blivit lidande.

    Slutsats

    Utifrån studiens syfte kan slutsatsen dras att hanteringen av en skada är individuell och att socioekonomisk status spelar roll i hur hanteringen går till. Dock skulle studien behöva fler deltagare med olika socioekonomisk status för att kunna få en djupare förståelse för hur detta påverkar. Studien har visat att det sociala stödet från tränare, spelare, familj, naprapat/sjukgymnast spelar roll för hantering av skada hos idrottarna.

  • Kiersz, Martin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samspelet mellan antropometri och prestation för guardpositionen i basket2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar:

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka basketspelares kroppssammansättning i förhållande till prestation. Frågeställningen som besvaras är: Finns det något samband mellan kroppssammansättning och prestation i form av guardspelarens statistik för: assist, block, effektivitet, poäng, returer, steal och turnover i Sveriges U20 landslag?

    Metod:

    I studien undersöktes antropometri på svenska U20 landslagsspelare från år 2005 till 2017. Den antropometriska datan erhölls av Svenska basketbollförbundet och den statistiska insamlingen är från FIBAs officiella hemsida. Studien har en kvantitativ ansats i form av att spelares prestationsmått korrelerades med de antropometriska mätningarna. Separat utöver detta grupperades datan upp i median för att påvisa skillnader inom antropometrins högsta och lägsta värde. Linjär regression utfördes för att finna eventuella korrelationer mellan antropometri och prestation. Studiens T-test användes för att analysera grupperingarna enligt median.

    Resultat:

    I herrarnas korrelationsresultat påvisades att större längd och räckhöjd hade en signifikant koppling till fler utförda blockar medan större räckvidd resulterade i fler returer. Herrarnas grupperingsresultat konstaterade att spelarna med kortare längd genomförde flest assist och de med större räckvidd hade bättre resultat i effektivitet, poäng och returer. I damernas korrelationsresultat fanns signifikanta resultat på att mindre vikt leder till fler assist. Större räckhöjd och räckvidd indikerade fler blockar och returer, även högre längd påvisade fler returer. Damernas grupperingsresultat konstaterade att de med högst längd och räckhöjd utförde flest blockar och returer.

    Slutsats:

    Studien har kunnat påvisa att basketspelares antropometri oavsett kön har en korrelation till antalet returer, assist och blockar vid spel. Större spelare tar fler returer och gör mer blockar medan mindre spelare oftast gör fler assist. Viktigt att beakta är att längd inte är den enda framgångsfaktorn vid spel, då andra faktorer som existerar kan spela stor roll i ett spels utveckling. Resultatet som fåtts fram kan vägleda en tränares taktik och beslut i matchspelet.

     

  • Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kreativitet inom Fotboll: En tvärsnittsstudie om ungdomsfotbollsspelares kreativitet och tränares träningsmetodik och aktioner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to study whether there is any correlation between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of the players, as well as whether soccer players' creative actions differ in number between play form and training form. What does the relationship look like between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of players? Are there any differences in the number of creative actions per minute between play form and training form? The study's hypothesis is that soccer players perform more creative soccer actions in trainings where the coach uses more play form and questions.

    Method

    The coach's actions, training methodsand players' creativity were measured using systematic observations. To measure training methods and training actions, a modified version of the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS) was used, while the creative actions of players were subjectively assessed by two expert coaches, similar to the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) creativity test.

    Results

    The results generally supported the study's hypothesis. The Wilcoxon sign-rank test showed differences in the number of creative actions/min between play form and training form (Z =  -3,059; p <0.05). Most creative actions/min were performed in play form. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the creative actions and the frequency of open questions (rs= 0.71, p <0.01) and instructions – positive (rs= 0.82, p <0.01), and a negative relationship between the creative actions and silence – focus on training (rs= -0.70, p <0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results of this study have highlighted the relationship between creativity, coaches’ actions and training methods. The intention is not that the results should be interpreted as recommendations for how soccer coaches should work to promote creativity. In fact, much more research is needed before such recommendations can be given. However, it is possible to see tendencies that point to the fact that it’s important for soccer coaches to be active in their coachingand support the players with questions and instructions, as well as use training methods that challenges the players’ flexibility.

  • da Silva, Julio Cézar Lima
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Rönquist, Gustaf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Grundström, Helene
    Danderyds Hospital.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Effect of increasing workload on knee extensor and flexor muscular activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0201014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of increasing workload on individual thigh muscle activation during a 20 minute incremental cycling test. Intramuscular electromyographic signals were recorded from the knee extensors rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and the knee flexors semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and the short and long heads of the biceps femoris during increasing workloads. Mean activation levels were compared over the whole pedaling cycle and the crank angles at which onset and offset of activation and peak activity occurred were identified for each muscle. These data were compared between three workloads. EMG activation level significantly increased (p<0.05) with increasing workload in the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus and semimembranosus but not in the biceps femoris short head. A significant change in activation timing was found for the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and semitendinosus. Of the knee flexors only the short head of the biceps femoris had its peak activity during the upstroke phase at the two highest workloads indicating a unique contribution to knee flexion.

  • Hjert Goli, Adjani
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Korhonen, Hanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är perfektionistiska danslärare stressade?: En kvantitativ studie om stress och perfektionism hos professionella danslärare.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between different types of perfectionism and perceived stress. The following issues were investigated: 1) Does dance teachers with higher levels of perfectionism also experience higher levels of stress? 2) Are there any differences between different types of perfectionism? 3) How much of the variation of perceived stress can be explained by variables such as age, experience and different types of perfectionism?

    Method

    In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a survey was conducted. The final selection consisted of 70 dance teachers with a mean age of 33.5 years. The survey content consisted of Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Hewitt & Flett, 1991, 2004), which had 15 questions about each kind of perfectionism (SIP, AIP and SFP), and Perceived Stress Scale ((PSS-10; Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983), which consisted of 10 questions about perceived stress. The data was exported to SPSS. Then a correlation analyses, as well as a regression analysis was made.

    Results

    Strong positive relationships were seen between socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and perceived stress, as well as self oriented perfectionism (SOP) and perceived stress. SOP correlated with other oriented perfectionism (OOP), as well as with SPP. Higher-aged dance teachers estimated lower levels of SOP, SPP and perceived stress. SPP proved to be the strongest predictor on perceived stress.

    Conclusions

    Dance teachers with high levels of SPP and SOP seem to be more stressed. The older and more experienced the danceteachers were, the less perfectionist and stressed they were. The strongest predictor of stress was SPP. If you are interested in finding out which dance teachers (or teachers / coaches) are at greatest risk of stress, it may be important to investigate their levels of SPP.

  • Haglund, Lotta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Roos, Annikki
    Karolinska Institutet University Library.
    Wallgren-Björk, Petra
    Danderyd University Hospital.
    Health science libraries in Sweden: new directions, expanding roles.2018In: Health Information and Libraries Journal, ISSN 1471-1834, E-ISSN 1471-1842, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 251-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Librarians in Sweden are facing huge challenges in meeting the demands of their organisations and users. This article looks at four key areas: coping with open science/open access initiatives; increasing demands from researchers for support doing systematic reviews; understanding user experiences in Swedish health science libraries; and the consequences of expanding roles for recruitment and continuing professional development. With regard to changing roles, there is an increasing shift from the generalist towards the expert role. The authors raise the issue as to how to prepare those new to the profession to the changing environment of health science libraries.

  • Ortenblad, Niels
    et al.
    Univ Southem Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense, Denmark.;Univ British Columbia, Sch Kinesiol, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Nielsen, Joachim
    Univ Southem Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense, Denmark..
    Boushel, Robert
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Kinesiol, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Saltin, Bengt
    Copenhagen Muscle Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden Univ, Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr, Ostersund, Sweden.;UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Sch Sport Sci, Tromso, Norway..
    The Muscle Fiber Profiles, Mitochondrial Content, and Enzyme Activities of the Exceptionally Well-Trained Arm and Leg Muscles of Elite Cross-Country Skiers2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the most physically demanding sports in the Olympic Games, cross-country skiing poses considerable challenges with respect to both force generation and endurance during the combined upper-and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration. The isoforms of myosin in skeletal muscle have long been considered not only to define the contractile properties, but also to determine metabolic capacities. The current investigation was designed to explore the relationship between these isoforms and metabolic profiles in the arms (triceps brachii) and legs (vastus lateralis) as well as the range of training responses in the muscle fibers of elite cross-country skiers with equally and exceptionally well-trained upper and lower bodies. The proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-1 was higher in the leg (58 +/- 2% [34-69%]) than arm (40 +/- 3% [24-57%]), although the mitochondrial volume percentages [8.6 +/- 1.6 (leg) and 9.0 +/- 2.0 (arm)], and average number of capillaries per fiber [5.8 +/- 0.8 (leg) and 6.3 +/- 0.3 (arm)] were the same. In these comparable highly trained leg and arm muscles, the maximal citrate synthase (CS) activity was the same. Still, 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD) capacity was 52% higher (P < 0.05) in the leg compared to arm muscles, suggesting a relatively higher capacity for lipid oxidation in leg muscle, which cannot be explained by the different fiber type distributions. For both limbs combined, HAD activity was correlated with the content of MHC-1 (r(2) = 0.32, P = 0.011), whereas CS activity was not. Thus, in these highly trained cross-country skiers capillarization of and mitochondrial volume in type 2 fiber can be at least as high as in type 1 fibers, indicating a divergence between fiber type pattern and aerobic metabolic capacity. The considerable variability in oxidative metabolism with similar MHC profiles provides a new perspective on exercise training. Furthermore, the clear differences between equally well-trained arm and leg muscles regarding HAD activity cannot be explained by training status or MHC distribution, thereby indicating an intrinsic metabolic difference between the upper and lower body. Moreover, trained type 1 and type 2A muscle fibers exhibited similar aerobic capacity regardless of whether they were located in an arm or leg muscle.

  • Kouwijzer, Ingrid
    et al.
    Reade Amsterdam, Amsterdam Rehabil Res Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Heliomare Rehabil Ctr, Res & Dev, Wijk Aan Zee, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Ctr Human Movement Sci, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Solna, Sweden.;Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Van Breukelen, Kees
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Behav & Human Movement Sci, Int Wheelchairsport Classifier Handcyding Wheelch, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Janssen, Thomas W. J.
    Reade Amsterdam, Amsterdam Rehabil Res Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Behav & Human Movement Sci, Dept Human Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Ctr Adapted Sports Amsterdam Reade, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    De Groot, Sonja
    Reade Amsterdam, Amsterdam Rehabil Res Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Ctr Human Movement Sci, Groningen, Netherlands..
    EFFECTS OF PUSH-OFF ABILITY AND HANDCYCLE TYPE ON HANDCYCLING PERFORMANCE IN ABLE-BODIED PARTICIPANTS2018In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 563-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the effects on handcycling performance and physiological responses, of: (i) making a closed chain by comparing handcycling in a recumbent bike with 2-feet footrest (closed chain) with handcycling with 1 footrest (partial closed chain) and without a footrest (no closed chain); (ii) equipment by comparing handcycling in a recumbent bike with a kneeling bike. Methods: Ten able-bodied participants performed submaximal exercise and sprint tests, once in a kneeling bike and 3 times on a recumbent: 2-feet support, 1-foot support and without foot support. Physical strain (submaximal oxygen uptake and heart rate), peak (POpeak) and mean power output (POmean) were measured. Results: Significantly higher POpeak, and POmean were found with 2-feet support (mean 415 W (standard deviation (SD) 163) and mean 281 W (SD 96)) and higher POmean with 1-foot support (mean 279 W (SD 104)) compared with no foot support (mean 332 W (SD 127) and mean 254 W (SD 101)), p<0.05. No differences were found for physical strain. In the kneeling bike, POpeak and POmean were significantly higher (mean 628 W (SD 231) and 391 W (SD 121)) than in the recumbent (mean 415 W (SD 163) and 281 W (SD 96)), p=0.001. Conclusion: The ability to make a closed chain has a significant positive effect on handcycling sprint performance; therefore, this ability may be a discriminating factor. Sprint performance was significantly higher in kneeling compared with recumbent handcycling.